Indicators of climate change vulnerability for winter recreation activities: a case of cross-country skiing in Finland
AbstractClimate change will have adverse effects on snow-based winter tourism and recreation in Finland. Social impacts are expected, including reduced well-being and an erosion of the cross-country skiing tradition, as well as economic impacts in tourism regions brought about by a decrease in skiing participation. Little research has been carried out to develop and refine the quantitative measures of vulnerability in this sector. We developed an index to measure the vulnerability of crosscountry skiing based on climatic observations together with extensive survey data on skiers living in climatically different regions. The composite indicators exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity described each dimension of vulnerability separately, and as an overall vulnerability index. The developed index illustrated that the vulnerability of cross-country skiers exhibits regional variations, as expected, with skiers in Southern Finland appearing to be the most vulnerable to climate change.
Landauer M <http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/view/iiasa/171.html>, Sievänen T, & Neuvonen M (2015). Indicators of climate change vulnerability for winter recreation activities: a case of cross-country skiing in Finland. Leisure/Loisir 39 (3): 403-440. DOI:10.1080/14927713.2015.1122283 <https://doi.org/10.1080/14927713.2015.1122283>.