United States Energy and Climate Policy, China Energy and Climate Change Policy, Russia Energy and Climate Change Policy
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Energy and Utilities Law
Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration
Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies
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AbstractCentral issues in global energy are discussed through interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from both North America and Europe with overview from historical, political, and socio-cultural perspectives, outlining the technology and policy issues facing the development of major conventional and renewable energy sources. We are facing a global energy crisis caused by world population growth, an escalating increase in demand, and continued dependence on fossil-based fuels for generation. It is widely accepted that increases in greenhouse gas concentration levels, if not reversed, will result in major changes to world climate with consequential effects on our society and economy
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Sustainable Energy in China : The Closing Window of OpportunityBerrah, Noureddine; Wang, Leiping; Feng, Fei; Priddle, Roland (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2012-05-29)This report proposes the development of a coordinated and comprehensive national policy within the Energy Law that is presently under preparation based on four foundational themes: reducing energy growth below economic growth, making better use of national energy resources, safeguarding the environment, and making the energy system robust to withstand potential disruptions. It stresses that the policy measures and program to achieve sustainability will have to be the subject of careful consultation within government and extend to mobilizing China's civil society. The scope of and potential for fruitful international cooperation is also explored, but the detail must be worked out in a cooperative framework. The main body of the report is arranged in six chapters. The first examines what the projections say about the future of China's energy consumption and concludes that urgent action is needed to avoid locking the country into an unsustainable energy development path. Chapter two evaluates end-use efficiency and finds that a less energy-intensive path can be founded on the most advanced technologies. The third chapter examines the damaging environmental impacts of the huge prospective energy growth, which dictate the need for a less-intensive path, a larger share of clean energy sources, and dramatically more clean coal. Chapter four assesses security of energy supply and proposes means to improve it and ensure the safety of national energy supply sources and networks. The fifth chapter emphasizes getting right the pricing fundamentals of the sector. The last chapter draws conclusions from the first five on matters requiring urgent policy attention and proposes development of a coordinated and comprehensive national policy for energy sustainability.
International trade and Climate Change : Economic, Legal, and Institutional PerspectivesWorld Bank (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012-06-01)The broad objective of this study is to analyze areas in which the climate change agenda intersects with multilateral trade obligations. The study identifies the key issues at stake, as well as possible actions -- at the national and multilateral levels -- that could help developing countries strengthen their capacities to respond to emerging conflicts between international trade and global climate regimes while taking advantage of new opportunities. The study also attempts to respond to the need for more sector-specific analysis. Chapter two contributes to the literature by exploring the economic, environmental, and political rationale underlying the potential tension between implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the existing World Trade Organization (WTO) principles. The chapter further identifies areas where priorities for proactive policy initiatives could minimize potential damage to both trade and global environmental regimes. Chapter three explores and identifies key barriers and opportunities to spur the transfer and diffusion of climate-friendly and clean-energy technologies in developing countries. It further identifies policies and institutional changes that could lead to the removal of barriers and increased market penetration of climate-friendly technology. Chapter four examines and builds on the different approaches that have emerged in the negotiations surrounding trade in environmental goods and services, and it proposes a framework for integrating climate objectives in the discussions. Chapter five presents the conclusions and provides a framework for integrating and streamlining the global environment within the global trading system.
Financing Energy Efficiency : Lessons from Brazil, China, India, and BeyondLevin, Jeremy; Ward, William A.; Meyer, Anke S.; Taylor, Robert P.; Govindarajalu, Chandrasekar (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2008)Energy for heating, cooling, lighting, mechanical power, and various chemical processes is a fundamental requirement for both daily life and economic development. The negative impact on the environment of current energy systems is increasingly alarming, especially the global warming consequences of burning fossil fuels. The future requires change through the development and adoption of new supply technologies, through a successful search for new, less resource-intensive paths of economic development, and through adoption of energy. Greater energy efficiency is key for shifting country development paths toward lower-carbon economic growth. Especially in developing countries and transition economies, vast potential for energy savings opportunities remain unrealized even though current financial returns are strong. Activities included specialized technical assistance, training, and applied research covering the four primary areas of country interest: (a) development of commercial banking windows for energy efficiency; (b) support for developing energy service companies (ESCOs); (c) guarantee funds for energy efficiency investment financing; and (d) equity funding for ESCOs or energy efficiency projects. One clear message from the experience of the three country Energy Efficiency Project is the importance of establishing and maintaining practical, operationally focused dialogue between the banking community and the energy efficiency practitioner community.