KeywordsSchool discipline $x Psychological aspects $v Case studies
Racism in education $x Psychological aspects $v Case studies
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AbstractSchools continue to struggle with disproportionate disciplinary outcomes for Black/African American students (Children's Defense Fund, 1975) within a social context that no longer openly discusses or acknowledges the potential impact of race (Bonilla-Silva, 2006). This study is a mixed-methods phenomenology of disciplinary disproportionality at one middle school through the lens of color-blind racism based upon Patricia Hill-Collins's Four Domains of Power (Hill-Collins, 2009). This framework supported the examination of disproportionality as it relates to disciplinary practices and policies, as well as, staff member reports related to cultural beliefs, and interpersonal relationships between students and teachers. Findings revealed lack of awareness, inconsistencies, and denial were factors possibly contributing to disciplinary disproportionality. Cultural beliefs about Black/African American students, their behaviors, and their families were cited by teachers as significant factors associated with disciplinary disproportionality. Data revealed the potential influence of color-blind racism on disciplinary disproportionality through beliefs corresponding to the frames of color-blind racism (Bonilla-Silva, 2006). Beliefs and perceptions across the Four Domains of Power appear to be interconnected and offer valuable insights to further expand inquiries related to disciplinary disproportionality.