CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
GROUPS AT RISK
LOCAL RADIO STATIONS
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
INTERNATIONAL HUMAN TRAFFICKING
VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
RULE OF LAW
VULNERABILITY OF WOMEN
TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN
CODES OF CONDUCT
FORMS OF COERCION
ACCESS TO JUSTICE
SOCIAL SAFETY NET
CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION
COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN
COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION
FORMS OF EXPLOITATION
UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
PLAN OF ACTION
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AbstractMillions of men, women and children are victims of human trafficking for sexual, forced labor and other forms of exploitation worldwide. The human and economic costs of this take an immense toll on individuals and communities. By conservative estimates, the cost of trafficking in terms of underpayment of wages and recruiting fees is over $20 billion. The costs to human capital are probably impossible to quantify. The problem of trafficking cuts across a range of development issues, from poverty to social inclusion, to justice and rule of law issues, and thus has relevance for practitioners throughout the development community. This note provides a brief overview on the issues of human trafficking, which can be used as a quick reference for the task team leaders, sector managers, directors, and their clients at the World Bank Group. This note will first provide a definition of human trafficking and the scope of the problem, and then summarize the regional trends of trafficking patterns. This is followed by a discussion of the key actors in the anti-trafficking movement and the role played by development partners in preventing human trafficking. The final section offers some potential orientations for the World Bank Group to further engage this issue in its operations.
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Forced Displacement and Mixed Migration in the Horn of AfricaUNHCR; World Bank Group (World Bank, Washington, DC and UNHCR, Geneva, 2015-07-23)The Horn of Africa (HOA) covers Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda. Despite its rich endowment in human, social, and natural capital, the region is plagued by a complex history of weak governance, insecurity, increasing environmental degradation, entrenched poverty, and a range of persistent development challenges. Conflict remains endemic in the region. The complex cultural, social, and political nature of these conflicts is compounded by demographic shifts due both to population growth and the movement of people, as well as imbalanced service provision, inaccessibility, the growing threat of pandemic diseases, increasing conflicts over scarce natural resources, and harsh climatic conditions including frequent droughts and floods. There are four major protracted displacement situations in the HOA, each with its own characteristics but also with similarities: (1) Eritrea, with significant mixed migration; (2) Somalia, with conflict and violence in areas of origin and food insecurity and destruction of shelter due to floods and droughts; (3) South Sudan, as a result of conflict with Sudan, and internal conflict; and (4) Sudan, where displacement is driven by tensions between center and peripheral regions, and a highly inequitable division of power and wealth. The study sought to analyze the forced displacement and development nexus, explore the mixed migration phenomenon, assess the impacts of refugees and migrants on hosting areas and communities, identify ongoing innovative interventions, and propose entry points and practical steps to address the development dimensions of forced displacement and mixed migration in the HOA, including regional operations, institutional reforms, and policy changes.
Gaining from Migration : Trends and Policy Lessons in the Greater Mekong Sub-regionWorld Bank (World Bank, Thailand, 2012)This report contributes to the migration
policy debates in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) by
providing evidence of the impacts of migration; at the same
time, it outlines possible policy approaches to increase
benefits from migration. The study focuses primarily on
Thailand and Myanmar: the main labor receiving and sending
countries, respectively, in the GMS. This report not only
presents the recent migration trends and drivers in the GMS
but also addresses policy issues related to the economic and
social impact of migration on countries both receiving and
sending labor; it also addresses the issue of migrants'
welfare including social services; and the role of migration
policy and institutions. The findings challenge several
existing paradigms of developing country migration research
and may have broader transferability. Specifically, the
proceeding analysis suggests: (a) demographic and income
differences among the GMS countries drive migration within
the region, suggesting the rising prominence of South-South
migration; (b) migration in the GMS tends to be long-term,
contrasting the more temporary nature of migration from most
of the world's developing countries; and (c) economic
factors contribute to migration within the region
significantly more so than political factors.
Evidence on Policies to Increase the Development Impacts of International MigrationYang, Dean; McKenzie, David (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2014-11-12)International migration offers individuals and their families the potential to experience immediate and large gains in their incomes, and offers a large number of other positive benefits to the sending communities and countries. However, there are also concerns about potential costs of migration, including concerns about trafficking and human rights, a desire for remittances to be used more effectively, and concerns about externalities from skilled workers being lost. As a result there is increasing interest in policies which can enhance the development benefits of international migration and mitigate these potential costs. This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the effectiveness of these policies at three stages of the migration process: pre-departure, during migration, and directed toward possible return. The existing evidence base suggests some areas of policy success: bilateral migration agreements for countries whose workers have few other migration options, developing new savings and remittance products that allow migrants more control over how their money is used, and some efforts to provide financial education to migrants and their families. Suggestive evidence together with theory offers support for a number of other policies, such as lowering the cost of remittances, reducing passport costs, offering dual citizenship, and removing exit barriers to migration. Research offers reasons to be cautious about some policies, such as enforcing strong rights for migrants like high minimum wages. Nevertheless, the paper finds the evidence base to be weak for many policies, with no reliable research on the impact of most return migration programs, nor for whether countries should be trying to induce communal remitting through matching funds.