ACCESS TO INFORMATION
OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
STREET PARKING MANAGEMENT
FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESERVES
ISLAMIC FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
SOCIAL SAFETY NETS
PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS
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AbstractThe process of political change and transition across much of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) continued into 2013, with a great degree of heterogeneity across countries. Violence in Syria has escalated, with spillover effects to Lebanon and Jordan. Security in Yemen is fragile but a national dialogue has started which includes the drafting of a new constitution in advance of national elections. In MENA's transitioning countries drafting of new constitutions remains a critical pending issue. Citizens have not been silent. Their voices continue to be heard across the region calling for greater public participation and open government
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Romania - Functional Review : Regional Development and TourismWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-02-11)The Functional Review of the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism (MRDT FR) assesses the key functional strengths and weakness of MRDT with respect to its mandate and recommends actions that can help strengthen its efficiency and effectiveness. The review covers the main general directorates (DGs) and departments of MRDT, as well as related institutions such as URBAN-INCERC and the National Housing Agency. The report has six main chapters in addition to the executive summary: Introduction, Overview of MRDT, Policy Management, Operational Management, Budget and Financial Management, and Public Procurement.
Regional Imbalances, Horizontal Inequalities, and Violent ConflictsLanger, Arnim; Stewart, Frances (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-08-19)Horizontal inequalities (HIs) within a country, or inequalities among groups, have been shown to be an important source of violent conflict. Relevant group categorizations include religion, ethnicity, and region. HIs can also be measured in different ways. Ethnicity, language, religion, race, and region are examples of potentially relevant and salient group categorizations. In this paper the authors will review the prevailing HIs and their management in four West African countries - Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, and Nigeria. The report provides some basic facts about these four countries, which vary greatly in area, per capita income, poverty, child mortality rates, and other features. In terms of ethnoreligious demography, it is important to note that all four countries have a highly diverse ethnic population, and three of the four (Ghana, Nigeria, and Cote d’Ivoire) have substantial Christian and Muslim populations. Each of the case study countries has had a relatively turbulent and complex political history in recent decades. The four case study countries present instructive examples of the possible (mis)management of HIs. In this paper the authors analyze the evolution and management of the prevailing HIs in each of the four cases. Section one gives introduction. Section two presents evidence on the evolution and current state of HIs in each country. Section three analyzes the main causes of the prevailing HIs, while section four focuses on the governments’ attitudes, policies, and measures toward HIs. Section five discusses the links between the HIs observed and the political outcomes. Section six draws some conclusions and makes policy recommendations for improved management of HIs in multiethnic developing countries generally, and specifically in four case study countries.
Analisis de programa regional : el corredor biologico MesoamericanoIndependent Evaluation Group (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011-05-24)This is a Regional Program Review (RPR) of the World Bank's support for the MBC. The review is framed around an assessment of five Global Environment Facility (GEF)-financed World Bank implemented projects in Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama that had the common objective of consolidating the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC). It also reports on the achievements of trust fund activities, financed by the Bank Netherlands Partnership Program (BNPP), that were implemented parallel to the GEF/World Bank projects. The MBC is a land-use planning system that spans Central America and Mexico. It is designed to promote the conservation and sustainable use of the region's natural resources. The overall objective of the Bank's MBC projects of consolidating the MBC was highly relevant. Although the Central American land bridge is very small, it is estimated to be home to 12 percent of the world's known species. It harbors approximately 24,000 species of vascular plants and over 500 species of mammals, many of which are endemic. The MBC derives its legitimacy from the endorsement it received at the Central American heads of state summit in 1997.