Is There a Divergence Between Objective Measures and Subjective Perceptions of Poverty Trends? Evidence from West and Central Africa
ABSOLUTE MEASURE OF POVERTY
CHANGES IN POVERTY
ABSOLUTE POVERTY LINE
HIGH POPULATION GROWTH
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE
RATE OF GROWTH
RATES OF GROWTH
CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA
DROP IN POVERTY
POPULATION GROWTH RATE
RELATIVE POVERTY LINE
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AbstractSeveral sub-Saharan African countries have succeeded at increasing their economic growth rate in recent years, and this has translated into substantial poverty reduction according to objective measures based on household survey data. At the same time, many people do not feel that the poverty situation has been improving in their country or community, and this is a source of concern for elected policymakers. To what extent is there a divergence between objective measures and subjective perceptions of poverty trends, and what may explain this divergence: the objective of this note is to document and discuss this issue using data from West and Central Africa and results from a series of poverty assessments recently completed at the World Bank.
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The Debate on Globalization, Poverty, and Inequality : Why Measurement MattersRavallion, Martin (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-05-09)In the last year or so, markedly
different claims have been heard within the development
community about just how much progress is being made against
poverty and inequality in the current period of
"globalization." Ravallion provides a nontechnical
overview of the conceptual and methodological issues
underlying these conflicting claims. He argues that the
dramatically differing positions taken in this debate often
stem from differences in the concepts and definitions used
and differences in data sources and measurement assumptions.
These differences are often hidden from view in the debate,
but they need to be considered carefully if one is to
properly interpret the evidence. The author argues that the
best available evidence suggests that if the rate of
progress against absolute poverty in the developing world in
the 1990s is maintained, then the Millennium Development
Goal of halving the 1990 aggregate poverty rate by 2015 will
be achieved on time in the aggregate, though not in all
regions. He concludes with some observations on the
implications for the more policy-oriented debates on
globalization and pro-poor growth.
Mali : Poverty and Gender NotesWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-10-02)Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world, with a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of about $ 691 in 2010. Mali's steady per capita GDP growth was accompanied with a significant decline in the poverty rate, from 55.6 percent in 2001 to 43.6 percent in 2009-10. Mali's rapid population growth still has led to an increase of the overall number of people living in poverty, and is constraining progress in terms of per capita health and education outcomes. High fertility rates and gender imbalances are key drivers of Mali's poverty dynamics. The present report compiles three different notes, emphasizing the interrelation between poverty, demographics and gender imbalances. The first note discusses the evolution of poverty in Mali since 2001. The second note reviews recent demographic trends and related policies. The third note reports on the latest available data on females in business and employment within the formal sector. The compilation of these three notes aims to stimulate debates and the exploration of policy options to tackle poverty through its interactions with fertility and gender imbalances. It also highlights conclusion of each note.
A Counterfactual Analysis of the Poverty Impact of Economic Growth in CameroonBassole, Leandre; Essama-Nssah, B. (2010-03-01)The Government of Cameroon has declared
poverty reduction through strong and sustainable economic
growth the central objective of its socioeconomic policy.
This paper uses available household survey data to assess
the performance of the economy with respect to this
objective over the period 1996-2007. The authors use
counterfactual decompositions based on both the Shapley
method and the generalized Oaxaca-Blinder framework to
identify proximate factors that might explain differences in
observed outcomes over time, across regions and households.
The concept of pro-poorness provides a basis for a normative
evaluation of these outcomes. The analysis of changes in the
size distribution of economic welfare reveals that formal
sector employment, access to credit, education, and urban
residence are characteristics that bring significantly high
returns to households. Employment in smallholder agriculture
has a negative impact on welfare across quantiles. Economic
growth was accompanied by significant poverty reduction
between 1996 and 2001. But poverty barely decreased between
2001 and 2007 due to very weak growth. Over the same period,
household investment in human capital took a serious hit.
Given the additional finding that the pattern of growth is
characterized by urban bias and regional disparity, the
overall assessment is that economic growth has been weakly
pro-poor in Cameroon. There is therefore a need to
re-examine and possibly reform the mechanisms governing the
allocation of public resources designed to support
individuals' efforts to improve their standard of living.