The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Integrating Urban Planning and Water Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background Report
URBAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS
POPULATION GROWTH RATES
NUMBER OF PEOPLE
OWNERSHIP OF LAND
LACK OF SANITATION
URBAN GROWTH RATES
URBAN WATER SUPPLY
PROVISION OF SERVICES
URBAN POPULATION GROWTH
ENACTMENT OF LEGISLATION
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
ACCESS TO INFRASTRUCTURE
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AbstractThis paper is one of a series of analytical studies commissioned by the World Bank's Africa Region and Water Anchor which are intended to identify and address the future challenges of urban water supply, sanitation and flood management in Sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) cities and towns. Following the terms of reference for the assignment, and as indicated by its title, the paper is directed at understanding and describing the linkages and interdependencies between water management and water security on the one hand, and urbanization, urban planning and development on the other. The paper is structured in six sections. Section one presents an overview of urbanization trends in SSA. This is followed by a discussion in Section two of what can be seen as the corollary of the unprecedented urban population growth now occurring and projected for SSA, large-scale urban expansion, involving potentially massive increases in urban land cover. This expansion has implications, also discussed in section two, for the internal structuring of African cities and towns, and for the planning and development of the overall urban form which is resulting, as well as for the environmental risks cities and towns face now and into the future. This 'poor urban planning' in the present-day has its roots in the inherited practices of colonial-era planning theories and practices, which are described in section three. These still resonate, as discussed in section four, which discusses key constituent aspects of contemporary planning systems in Africa, as illustrated by a number of case studies. In section five, the focus shifts to the current institutional experience with urban water management, again with a number of good practice cases provided. The author then turn in the concluding section seven to the key concern of this issues paper: that of integrating urban planning and water management as the Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) approach emerges- or, perhaps to put it better, of finding ways in which such integration can promote the emergence of IUWM. This is a necessary but difficult task, complicated by the reality that, as seen in the quote above, IUWM requires quite considerable coordination within the water sector alone. Moreover, our preceding analysis demonstrates, and this is the core argument of this paper, that seen from the side of the overall urban planning system, the deficiencies, decline and the delegitimizing of the 'traditional' planning system and practices in SSA, and the theory which underpins them, along with the failure to modernize them in a consistent fashion, has led, if anything, to greater fragmentation in the planning and managing of urban development. Land use planning and infrastructure (and other sector) planning, including water, typically occur in an uncoordinated fashion. This makes planning adequately for large-scale urban growth and expansion that much more difficult.
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The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Urban Access to Water Supply and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background ReportDominguez Torres, Carolina (Washington, DC, 2013-02-07)The main purpose of this paper is to explain the patterns of access to water supply and sanitation facilities in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa since the late 90's, and its relation with the performance of service providers in the case of improved water supply. It also seeks to explore the institutional context of the water supply and sanitation sectors. The paper concludes that services providers in Sub-Saharan Africa have been unable to keep up with urban population growth. Service providers are overwhelmed by the pace of urban population growth as they face high distributional losses, low billing collection, overstaffing, and under recovery of costs. The institutional frameworks are yet to be completed as there is vast political inference in service provision and regulation, as well as obstacles for effectively undertake public private partnerships. The paper is organized as follows. Section one presents definitions of water supply sources and sanitation, as well as the sources of data used for the analysis. Section two discusses the current and projected trends of urbanization, and introduces the country clustering used for analytical purposes. Section three and four present pathways of access to water supply sources and sanitation facilities -respectively- in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, and discusses trends in access by country cluster. Section five explains the operational and financial performance of services providers in the region. Section six explores the existing institutional arrangements for the urban water supply and sanitation service provision. Finally, section six presents the main challenges for the future expansion of sustainable improved water supply and sanitation services.
Sierra Leone : Public Expenditure Review for Water and Sanitation 2002 to 2009Ginneken, Meike van; Bennett, Anthony; Thompson, Darrell (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-03-07)This review focuses on how public expenditure translates into the delivery of water supply and sanitation services in rural and urban areas in Sierra Leone. It describes the legal and institutional framework for the allocation of resources assesses access to Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services and past sector performance, and analyzes public expenditure in the sector, including the factors affecting the efficiency of use of resources, and makes recommendations. Water supply includes the supply, distribution, and usage of water for drinking, food preparation, and hygiene. Sanitation is defined as the sanitary disposal of liquid waste and the promotion of hygienic practices. The review covers the period from 2002 to 2009, a period of reconstructing after a decade of upheavals. Since 2002, democracy and a stable environment for development have been re-established in the country, especially since the 2007 presidential elections. Sierra Leone remains one of the poorest countries in the world.
The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Integrated Urban Water Management, Background ReportMutikanga, Harrison; Sempewo, Jotham; Ghebremichael, Kebreab; Tsegaye, Seneshaw; Echart, Jochen; Vairavamoorthy, Kalanithy; Khatri, Krishna (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-12)The primary objective of this report is to provide a coherent and comprehensive review on integrated urban water management (IUWM) approach to assist public authorities to identify and address the future challenges of urban water supply, sanitation and flood management in African cities. This report presents the existing and future challenges in Africa, the possible options for innovative technologies and approaches for their breakthrough and a way forward to achieve the objectives of IUWM. It highlights technical and institutional constraints of the IUWM in Africa. It presents the global and African best practices and trends in IUWM which are linked to urban development and which have very good lessons learnt that can be shared within and among the cities in Africa. The report consists of four chapters. Chapter two reviews the existing condition, future challenges and opportunities in Urban Water Sector (UWS) in Africa. The review covers the current situation of urban water systems and their management approaches; the major future change pressures (climate change, population growth and urbanization, deterioration of infrastructure systems) and their impacts on UWS; and opportunities for implementing the IUWM approach in Africa. Chapter three introduces the key concepts and conceptual framework of IUWM. The framework has been supplemented by appropriate technologies and innovative approaches of IUWM that will be suitable for cities in Africa. This chapter also presents the global experiences and best practices of IUWM that can be shared within the Africa cities. Chapter four presents case studies to demonstrate how the IUWM framework can be operationalized and to select the appropriate technologies and approaches as discussed in chapter 3 based on the different typologies of the cities and development stages in Africa. The typologies include an emerging town in Uganda (Masindi), a city with partially developed infrastructure in Ghana (Accra) and fully developed city in South Africa (Cape Town). Based on the cases, a few recommendations (road map) for the implementation of IUWM approach for other cities in Africa have been presented in chapter four.