The Effects of Local Environmental Institutions on Perceptions of Smoke and Fire Problems in Brazil
CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION
PLACE OF RESIDENCE
POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER
CIVIL SOCIETY INVOLVEMENT
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AbstractEnvironmental concern in developing countries has risen rapidly over the past decade. At the same time, decentralization and civic participation in environmental policy-making have also burgeoned. This paper uses data from the Brazilian Municipal Environmental Survey 2001 to examine the causal effect of municipio (county) level environmental institutions on perceptions about environmental problems in Brazil. Consistent with models of public choice, the analysis assumes that the existence of an environmental secretary or an environmental council is related to characteristics of the municipio population. To control for endogeneity - the possibility that the presence of environmental institutions merely signals constituents' tastes rather than influences municipal actions - the authors construct a system of equations that identifies the causal impact of the institutions. Estimation via a trivariate probit model allows for correlation of unobserved determinants of problem perception, presence of an environmental secretary, and presence of an environmental council. The results suggest that the presence of environmental secretaries has a strong, highly significant, positive causal effect on environmental problem perception. Presence of local environmental councils with civic participation has a significant but weaker impact on environmental problem perception. The authors conclude that local environmental institutions indeed shape local environmental awareness and that participatory institutions can influence local government.
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Population, Poverty, and Sustainable Development : A Review of the EvidenceBongaarts, John; Cleland, John; Das Gupta, Monica (2011-06-01)There is a very large but scattered literature debating the economic implications of high fertility. This paper reviews the literature on three themes: (a) Does high fertility affect low-income countries' prospects for economic growth and poverty reduction? (b) Does population growth exacerbate pressure on natural resources? and (c) Are family planning programs effective at lowering fertility, and should they be publicly funded? The literature shows broad consensus that while policy and institutional settings are key in shaping the prospects of economic growth and poverty reduction, the rate of population growth also matters. Recent studies find that low dependency ratios (as fertility declines) create an opportunity for increasing productivity, savings and investment in future growth. They find that lower fertility is associated with better child health and schooling, and better health and greater labor-force participation for women. They also indicate that rapid population growth can constrain economic growth, especially in low-income countries with poor policy environments. Population growth also exacerbates pressure on environmental common property resources. Studies highlight the deep challenges to aligning divergent interests for managing these resources. However, part of the pressure on these resources can be mitigated by reducing the rate of population growth. Although family planning programs are only one policy lever to help reduce fertility, studies find them effective. Such programs might help especially in the Sub-Saharan African region, where high fertility and institutional constraints on economic growth combine to slow rises in living standards.
Population, Poverty, and Climate ChangeDas Gupta, Monica (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-02-04)The literature is reviewed on the relationships between population, poverty, and climate change. While developed countries are largely responsible for global warming, the brunt of the fallout will be borne by the developing world, in lower agricultural output, poorer health, and more frequent natural disasters. Carbon emissions in the developed world have leveled off, but are projected to rise rapidly in the developing world due to their economic growth and population growth -- the latter most notably in the poorest countries. Lowering fertility has many benefits for the poorest countries. Studies indicate that, in high fertility settings, fertility decline facilitates economic growth and poverty reduction. It also reduces the pressure on livelihoods, and frees up resources to cope with climate change. And it helps avert some of the projected global warming, which will benefit these countries far more than those that lie at higher latitudes and/or have more resources to cope with climate change. Natural experiments indicate that family planning programs are effective in helping reduce fertility, and that they are highly pro-poor in their impact. While the rest of the world wrestles with the complexities of reducing emissions, the poorest countries will gain much from simple programs to lower fertility.
Mali - The Demographic ChallengeWorld Bank (World Bank, 2012-03-19)Mali has demographic characteristics
similar to most sub-Saharan African countries, except for
those of Southern Africa. The population of Mali is very
young: in 1998, 46.3 percent of the population was under 15
years of age. Whereas mortality, especially infant and child
mortality, has decreased rapidly, fertility has remained
high over the past decades, equaling 6.6 children per woman
on average. As a result, the rate of demographic growth has
increased significantly over the last decades. Today, the
natural population growth rate is estimated at 3.3 percent
per year (it will take 21 years for the population to
double). International migration somewhat slows down this
growth, and the net population growth rate is estimated at 3
percent per year, which leads to a doubling of the
population in 23 years. This study is presented in three
chapters. The first chapter shows the present situation of
the population of Mali and its prospects for the future.
This chapter evaluates available demographic data, analyzes
the size, geographic distribution as well as the structure
and rate of growth of the population, including
international migrations. It also presents population
projections for the years 2005 to 2035, based on slow or
rapid fertility decline scenarios. Chapter two is dedicated
to the future implications of these demographic trends. It
first addresses the development of human capital
(demographic investment), especially in education and
health. It then examines the macro-economic consequences of
demographic growth for Mali. Finally, it briefly analyzes
other consequences of the high population growth, in terms
of increasing population density, agriculture, nutrition,
urbanization, environmental degradation, and maternal and
child health. The last chapter assesses the population
policies in Mali and what is needed to set into motion a
decline in fertility and presents practical recommendations.