Developing a pedagogical model for simulation-based healthcare education
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AbstractThe purpose of my research is to facilitate healthcare education in simulation-based learning environments (SBLEs). The specific aim of the present study is to give examples of how simulationbased education can be applied in pedagogically appropriate ways by developing a pedagogical model. Multiple research questions were set to meet this goal. The study uses design-based research (DBR) and case study approaches, which provided an opportunity to answer the research questions as well as develop theory and practice. Altogether the study involved 21 facilitators and 136 students. In the first sub-study, eight facilitators were interviewed in order to find out their approaches to teaching and learning and the educational tools they used. The second sub-study examined 97 healthcare students’ expectations of simulation-based learning through questionnaires. In addition, data were collected during two case studies. In both case studies, the students trained within SBLEs on scenarios on a given topic. Data were collected through pre- and post-questionnaires, observations and field notes, video recordings and interviews (group and individual interviews). During the first case study, the students also wrote learning diaries. The data collected from the questionnaires were analyzed using statistical methods, whereas the qualitative data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method.
The principle result of this study is a pedagogical model, which is informed by educational theories and previously developed pedagogical models, as well as previous studies related to simulationbased education. However, it also provides information concerning the current pedagogical use of simulations. The present study ascertains that teaching is seen as entailing the facilitation of students’ learning and is viewed mostly as a student-centered activity. However, there are differing viewpoints that can cause friction during the instructional process. The pedagogical use of SBLEs also sets various requirements for the healthcare educator. Students’ expectations of simulation-based learning were also high. Furthermore, simulation-based learning can be viewed as meaningful, although special attention should be paid to goal-oriented, self-directed and individual characteristics of meaningful learning. The research results have several implications for research, theory and practice.