The usage of ammunition containing depleted uranium and its impact on human health from bioethics perspective
Author(s)Khaji, Ali; Ph.D. candidate in Medical Ethics at Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran (Corresponding author)
Mashkoori, Ahmad; Ph.D. candidate in Medical Ethics at Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
International Humanitarian Law
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AbstractUsage of ammunition containing depleted uranium has been common in recent decades. The aim of present study is to discuss ethical issues resulting from human health effect of depleted uranium. Depleted uranium has devastating effects on the environment, water, soil and living organisms, especially human health. Civilian consist the majority of victims especially individuals that living in affected area meanwhile children are vulnerable than others. Its durability in environment is very long and a source of several health problems for civilians. In this view, these types of weapons and ammunition are very similar to Weapons of Mass Destructive (WMD). So, its usage is not acceptable due to utilitarian and common good viewpoints meanwhile usage of DU in military operation is repugnance to International Humanitarian Law. Finally, we must fulfill all effort to ban usage of ammunition containing depleted uranium in military conflict and wars.Please cite this article as: Khaji A, Mashkoori A The usage of ammunition containing depleted uranium and its impact on human health from bioethics perspective. Iran J Bioethics 2016; 6(19): 181-198.
Copyright/LicenseCopyright (c) 2016 Bioethics Journal
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Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia.Galeano, Pablo; Blanco, Eduardo; Logica Tornatore, Tamara M A; Romero, Juan I; Holubiec, Mariana I; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Capani, Francisco (Frontiers Media, 2016-08-09)Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE) has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA). At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM). Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia.