Recent Submissions

  • Religious communities and eological sustainability in Southern Africa and beyond

    Öhlmann, Philipp; Stork, Juliane (Globethics Publications, 2024)
    Climate change and environmental degradation are threatening livelihoods in many parts of the world. To develop pathways into a sustainable future and to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, fundamental socioecological transformations are needed. This process requires not only appropriate policies as well as scientific knowledge, but necessitates radical paradigm shifts and changed mindsets and behaviour. Religious communities are crucial stakeholders for achieving these paradigm shifts: religion shapes social imaginaries and people’s values, and religious communities have the ability to act as agents of socio-ecological transformation. This volume seeks to elucidate the role of religious communities for ecological sustainability with a focus on Southern Africa. The book provides resources for scholars and students of religion and ecological sustainability, religious communities and faith-based organizations as well as policymakers, practitioners and NGOs in the field of sustainable development. It thereby seeks to facilitate knowledge exchange and to spark further engagement on religion and ecological sustainability in Southern Africa and beyond.
  • Enhancing religious education teaching and learning for sustainable development in Lesotho

    Rasebate I. Mokotso (AOSIS, 2024-03-01)
    This article utilises Gadamerian hermeneutics method and Freirean theory of the purpose of Religious Education to explore how Religious Education can contribute to achieving United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4, emphasising education for sustainable development. The study contends that Religious Education in Lesotho occupies a distinctive position in the education system, surpassing other countries in its extensive integration. Due to historical factors, Religious Education is taught in nearly all religiously affiliated schools, comprising about 90% of all educational institutions in Lesotho, and even in certain public schools. The curriculum of Religious Education in Lesotho aligns directly with the educational objectives of SDG 4. Additionally, Lesotho’s Religious Education corresponds to three levels of school education for sustainable development: whole school approach, classroom approach, and community approach. Nevertheless, the study asserts that for Religious Education in Lesotho to better align with education for sustainable development, various enhancements are required. Firstly, inclusivity across all religious traditions is essential, moving beyond a sole focus on Christianity. Secondly, there is a need for wider dissemination and implementation of Religious Education in all schools, irrespective of their affiliation. Lastly, a shift from traditional pedagogies to transformative approaches is recommended to boost the effectiveness of Religious Education in advancing sustainable development. Contribution: This article contributes by analysing Lesotho’s case and its implications for enhancing Religious Education teaching to effectively address SDGs. It broadens existing knowledge on Religious Education’s potential as a platform for sustainable development and provides recommendations for its improved implementation in a specific context.
  • Klimabewegt: Die Psychologie von Klimaprotest und Engagement

    Hamann, Karen; Blumenschein, Paula; Junge, Eva; Dasch, Sophia; Wernke, Alex; Bleh, Julian (oekom verlagDEUMünchen, 2024-04-05)
    Die Klimakrise kann nicht gelöst werden, indem nur Einzelne ihr Verhalten ändern. Wir brauchen einen systemischen Wandel - einen Wandel im Kollektiv. Dieser beginnt mit engagierten Menschen: Personen, die Petitionen veröffentlichen, die eine Freiwilligengruppe organisieren oder zivilen Ungehorsam ausüben. Doch wie erhalten diese Menschen den Mut aufrecht, sich für einen sozial-ökologischen Wandel einzusetzen? Wie begeistern sie andere? Und wie entsteht daraus eine resiliente kollektive Bewegung? Ausgehend von wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen aus der psychologischen Forschung wird praxisnah erklärt, wie Menschen zu Klimaprotest und Engagement motiviert werden und wie Klimagruppen widerstandsfähig, gesund und effektiv handeln können.
  • La objeción de conciencia como mecanismo de protección frente al servicio militar obligatorio en Colombia.

    Arrieta Cotera, Brayan Yesid; De La Cruz Sequea, Joel (Universidad Sergio Arboleda, 2020-09-09)
    En el presente avance de la propuesta de investigación, los autores realizan un análisis conceptual de los argumentos de la objeción de conciencia respecto al servicio militar obligatorio ( SMO) en Colombia en el caso de clérigos, religiosos en tiempos de guerra y de creyentes, laicos y personas no afines a las acciones militares en todo tiempo .Para ello se indagó en lo referente a legislación interna, como también a tratados, convenciones y pronunciamientos de entes internacionales, basado en su obligatoriedad al cumplimiento del bloque constitucionalidad.
  • Dictionnaire pratique des élections : A-L

    Kapanga Mutombo, Ferdinand (Globethics PublicationsÉcole de Formation Électorale en Afrique Centrale (EFEAC), 2024-04-03)
    Guide parfait du savoir électoral pour: Enrichir le vocabulaire politique, électoral et parlementaire ; Éduquer, sensibiliser et former les électeurs ainsi que les membres et agents des OGE ; Connaître les paradoxes, les avantages, les désavantages des systèmes électoraux, les calculs de voix et de répartition des sièges électoraux ; Connaître comment adresser les questions du genre dans le cadre des élections ; Raffermir les connaissances des praticiens et professionnels des élections ; Connaître les comportements électoraux dans le monde.
  • Developing pharmacist-facilitated medicines review services for community-dwelling Māori older adults in New Zealand - A qualitative study exploring stakeholder views

    Hikaka, Joanna; Jones, Rhys; Hughes, Carmel; Connolly, Martin J; Martini, Nataly (Hindawi, 2024-03-14)
    Māori (Indigenous people of New Zealand [NZ]) experience inequitable health outcomes compared to non-Māori, across the spectrum of clinical care, including those relating to medicines. Internationally, pharmacist-facilitated medicines review services have been shown to benefit older adults. Despite national policies calling for the increased implementation of these services, NZ data relating to them remain limited, and these services may increase disparities between Māori and non-Māori. There are currently no medicines review services developed specifically for Māori older adults. The current study aims to elicit stakeholder views of current and potential pharmacist services to help inform the development of a pharmacist-facilitated medicines review service for community-dwelling Māori older adults. Kaupapa Māori theory was applied within this qualitative research. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who were involved in providing, planning, funding developing or culturally supporting health services in Waitematā District Health Board, Auckland, NZ. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews and in a focus group and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. The study was reported in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative research. Eleven participants took part in the research in one focus group (n = 4) and seven semi-structured interviews, conducted between November 2018 and March 2019. Three main themes were generated: (a) moving out of the shadows - claiming pharmacists' unique role within a healthcare whānau (family); (b) 'give them the power to be able to ask' - upholding the mana (self-esteem, pride, standing) and autonomy of kaumātua (Māori older adults) and (c) rights versus realities - reimagining pro-equity Māori health services within the constraints of the colonial health system. The right of Māori to experience equitable health outcomes needs to be included in policy and also operationalised in relation to medicines review services through improved utilisation of pharmacist skills and improving Māori older adults' autonomy and control.
  • Artificial intelligence in melanoma diagnosis: Three scenarios, shifts in competencies, need for regulation, and reconciling dissent between humans and AI

    Zoellick, Jan C.; Drexler, Hans; Drexler, Konstantin (DEU, 2024-03-26)
    Tools based on machine learning (so-called artificial intelligence, AI) are increasingly being developed to diagnose malignant melanoma in dermatology. This contribution discusses (1) three scenarios for the use of AI in different medical settings, (2) shifts in competencies from dermatologists to non-specialists and empowered patients, (3) regulatory frameworks to ensure safety and effectiveness and their consequences for AI tools, and (4) cognitive dissonance and potential delegation of human decision-making to AI. We conclude that AI systems should not replace human medical expertise but play a supporting role. We identify needs for regulation and provide recommendations for action to help all (human) actors navigate safely through the choppy waters of this emerging market. Potential dilemmas arise when AI tools provide diagnoses that conflict with human medical expertise. Reconciling these conflicts will be a major challenge.
  • AI i diagnostiseringsprocessen : En kvalitativ studie kring möjliga utmaningar med användandet av AI inom diagnostiseringsprocessen i sjukvården.

    Ottosson, Amanda; Persson, Elin (Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, 2024)
    Medellivslängden i Sverige har, under de senaste decennierna, ökat. Det leder till att sjukvårdsköerna och belastningen för vårdpersonalen förändras. Det i sin tur innebär att fortsatt utveckling av hälso- och sjukvård måste prioriteras. En viktig faktor för att kunna utveckla arbetssätten inom sjukvården är digitalisering.  Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka utmaningar som kan uppstå i samband med användning av AI- hjälpmedel som beslutsstöd vid diagnostiserings-processen i sjukvården.  Studien startade med litteraturgenomgång av tidigare forskning. Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ ansats där datainsamlingsmetoden är semistrukturerade individuella intervjuer. Analysen genomfördes med strukturen tematisk analysmetod. Studiens fem teman är: Arbetssätt; kompetensutveckling; partiska algoritmer; ansvarstagande och överdiagnostisering.  Studiens resultat indikerar att det finns olika utmaningar vid användning av AI inom vården. I den här studien har följande utmaningar påvisats: arbetssätt- exempelvis nya rutiner, kompetensutveckling- exempelvis mindre tid för utvecklingsarbete, ansvarstagande - till exempel vem som ansvarar för resultatet och överdiagnostisering – vilket till exempel kan vara multipla diagnoser som kan vara ofarliga för patienten.
  • Online Interviews as New Methodological Normalcy and a Space of Ethics: An Autoethnographic Investigation into Covid-19 Educational Research

    H Fan (13311231); Bingqing Li (15184117); Truly Pasaribu (16820112); R Chowdhury (7709870) (2024-03-01)
    Worldwide travel restrictions during the Covid-19 pandemic abruptly changed the norms of conducting qualitative research. Online interviews, long regarded as a second choice to their offline counterparts, are no longer seen as supplementary since they emerged as the dominant mode of data collection during the pandemic. This study employs an autoethnographic approach to investigate the authors’ experiences of adjusting to alternative methodological approaches. The investigation critically reflects on how the author’s agencies in allocating and gathering instructional, social, and economic resources led to a researcher identity reconfigured by choices in making ethical commitment in data collection. This article also sheds light on how the authors, constrained by limited resources, gained better understanding of ethics in practice through negotiation with participants and obtained rich data by exercising their agencies. The article argues that researchers need to place both online and offline methods on equal footing to facilitate a more ethically sensitive approach to data collection.
  • Jenseits der Therapie

    Eichinger, Tobias (transcript Verlag, 2024-03-21)
    Perfektes Aussehen und ewige Jugend, Intelligenz und Kreativität, Kraft und Konzentration. All diese Wünsche soll und will die Medizin heute erfüllen. Ob Anti-Aging, Schönheitschirurgie, Neuroenhancement oder Gendoping - neben ihrem klassisch-therapeutischen Auftrag folgt ärztliche Hilfe zunehmend auch dem Ziel der Wunscherfüllung. Ganz ohne Krankheitsbezug und Indikationsstellung, als Medizin für Gesunde. Nach einer philosophischen Untersuchung der Bedeutung von Wünschen und Bedürfnissen analysiert Tobias Eichinger die theoretischen Grundlagen wunscherfüllender Medizin. Er zeigt auf: Ärztliche Hilfe jenseits der Therapie kann zu erheblichen ethischen Problemen führen.
  • Sich einen Begriff vom Leiden Anderer machen

    Schuchter, Patrick (transcript Verlag, 2024-03-14)
    Sorge-Beziehungen in Medizin und Pflege sind geprägt von existenzieller Auseinandersetzung mit entscheidenden Fragen des Menschseins. Was kann die antike Philosophie hierzu beitragen? Patrick Schuchter hat die antiken philosophischen Praktiken der Sorge um sich für die Praktiken der Sorge für Andere (»Care«) in der Gegenwart aufbereitet. Ausgehend von einem weiten und hermeneutisch fundierten Begriff der Sorge mündet die Schrift in eine radikale Neubegründung der Ethik und liefert so einen Impuls für eine aufgeklärte philosophische Praxis und Lebenskunst mitten im Alltag des Lebens und Arbeitens.
  • A formação da identidade profissional em estudantes de medicina

    Tempski, Patricia Zen; Silveira, Gabrielle Leite (Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da USPUniversidade de São PauloFaculdade de Medicina, 2023-05-25)
    A formação da identidade profissional envolve a aquisição e o desenvolvimento de diferentes habilidades, competências e atitudes. Estratégias de ensino e avaliação da formação da identidade profissional ainda são objeto de debate. Há uma demanda social pelo aperfeiçoamento dos profissionais da área de saúde, no que se refere aos valores e às virtudes da profissão. Estudantes de medicina têm apresentado uma desapropriação de suas identidades profissionais, gerando sofrimento emocional e vulnerabilidade frente aos modelos negativos. O objetivo deste estudo foi ampliar nosso conhecimento sobre a formação da identidade profissional em estudantes de medicina brasileiro e traduzir e adaptar transculturalmente o Professional Identity Essay (PIE). O instrumento foi traduzido e adaptado em consonância com boas práticas descritas na literatura. Na análise quantitativa, foi utilizada estatística descritiva para a caracterização sociodemográfica da população estudada e para determinação dos escores dos instrumentos utilizados. Os dados qualitativos foram analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo de Bardin. Foram coletadas evidências de validade do instrumento PIE-Br. Foram analisados 322 instrumentos e coletadas 118 respostas sobre o impacto do Feedback Narrativo PIE-Br. Os participantes apresentavam idade média de 27 anos e com predomínio do sexo feminino. Embora esses alunos apresentassem baixa consciência do processo de formação de suas identidades profissionais, o PIE-Br foi capaz de favorecer uma maior conscientização desse processo, levando os alunos a se sentirem mais reflexivos e acolhidos. Os estudantes foram surpreendidos com as características do método e a profundidade das reflexões geradas por ele. Surpreenderam-se também com a congruência entre os Feedbacks Narrativos PIE-Br e suas percepções e com a capacidade do método de ampliar suas reflexões. Os alunos se sentiram acolhidos instrumentalizados para refletir sobre aspectos relacionados a formação das identidades pessoal e profissional
  • Ethics Amidst Uncertainty: Essays on Global Health Priority Setting

    Verguet, Stéphane; Schouten, Regina; Norheim, Ole F; Pierson, Leah (2024-03-13)
    Global health actors must allocate limited resources. For instance, non-governmental organizations must decide which public health interventions to prioritize, research funders must decide what grants to make, and governments must decide what health care to provide to their citizens. These decisions have ethical implications. For example, a decision to prioritize cancer research over dengue research predictably affects which, how much, and how different populations will benefit from research. Making matters more complex, global health actors face uncertainty when setting priorities: they may be unsure about the relevant empirical facts (e.g., what health benefits an intervention will yield), as well as the relevant moral principles (e.g., whether to maximize health benefits or prioritize more disadvantaged groups). In my dissertation, I focus on three kinds of uncertainty global health actors face in setting priorities: uncertainty about the efficacy of different policies and interventions, uncertainty about the future, and uncertainty about what one, morally, ought to do. In the first chapter, I argue that ethicists have tended to sidestep issues related to uncertainty when offering guidance about priority setting, and that this has limited the applicability of their guidance. In the second chapter, I assess when and whether global health actors should prioritize interventions for which there are more reliable cost-effectiveness estimates. In the third chapter, I consider how far into the future research funders should look—and how they should account for changing disease burden—when setting priorities. In the fourth chapter, I consider whether moral uncertainty necessitates a turn towards procedural—rather than substantive—justice in setting priorities. In the final chapter, I identify common themes across the dissertation, consider limitations, assess how future projects might build on this work, and conclude.
  • Comparative studying the effect of Establishing Good Faith in the Degree of Doctor\'s Responsibility with Emphasis on French Jurisprudence and Law

    mostafa nourollahi; seyed kamal sajadi; Mohammad Sadegh Labani Motlagh (Tarbiat Modares University, 2023-12-01)
    The sanctity of the medical profession in our society is rooted in both religious teachings and rich Iranian culture. For this reason, in Islamic jurisprudence, the subject of medicine and Iatrology has been the subject of extensive technical and legal discussions as a separate chapter. On the other hand, the principle of good faith and mutual trust in the doctor-patient relationship requires both parties by respecting their agreement, do not refuse to fulfill their obligations without a valid excuse. The main question is to what extent the good faith is based on the responsibility of the doctor. It is affect? In this article, with a comparative study of the French legal system and jurisprudential sources, while examining the theories related to the relationship between the doctor's responsibility and the intention of beneficence and good faith, it was concluded that the existence of good faith is both effective and also is regarded as a factor to reduce the amount of damage which is compensable.
  • Digital suffering: why it’s a problem and how to prevent it

    LS Theoretische filosofie; OFR - Theoretical Philosophy; Saad, Bradford; Bradley, Adam (2022)
    As ever more advanced digital systems are created, it becomes increasingly likely that some of these systems will be digital minds, i.e. digital subjects of experience. With digital minds comes the risk of digital suffering. The problem of digital suffering is that of mitigating this risk. We argue that the problem of digital suffering is a high stakes moral problem and that formidable epistemic obstacles stand in the way of solving it. We then propose a strategy for solving it: Access Monitor Prevent (AMP). AMP uses a ‘dancing qualia’ argument to link the functional states of certain digital systems to their experiences—this yields epistemic access to digital minds. With that access, we can prevent digital suffering by only creating advanced digital systems that we have such access to, monitoring their functional profiles, and preventing them from entering states with functional markers of suffering. After introducing and motivating AMP, we confront limitations it faces and identify some options for overcoming them. We argue that AMP fits especially well with—and so provides a moral reason to prioritize—one approach to creating such systems: whole brain emulation. We also contend that taking other paths to digital minds would be morally risky.
  • Review of: Austin, W. et al. (2013) Lying Down in the Ever-Falling Snow: Canadian Health Professionals’ Experience of Compassion Fatigue

    Nipa Chauhan (Programmes de bioéthique, École de santé publique de l'Université de Montréal, 2018-10-01)
    N/A
  • Is Genetic Discrimination Back on the Radar? A Commentary on the Recent Court of Appeal Reference Decision on the Genetic Non- Discrimination Act (GNDA)

    Yann Joly; Gratien Dalpé; Miriam Pinkesz (Programmes de bioéthique, École de santé publique de l'Université de Montréal, 2019-09-01)
    In this commentary, we critically review the Quebec Court of Appeal’s reference decision to the effect that the Genetic Non-Discrimination Act (GNDA) is unconstitutional. In sum, the court held that the federal government exceeded its criminal law power through the GNDA, as the Act did not have a valid criminal law purpose. The decision was met with opposition, as advocacy groups for Canadians suffering from genetic diseases or genetic predispositions viewed the GNDA as a step in the right direction and were hopeful that it would offer protection from genetic discrimination. In closing, we argue that the consequences of the Court of Appeal’s opinion will be less dire than anticipated by some advocacy groups. In fact, we suggest that this decision brings about a unique opportunity for progress, where stakeholders can engage the public and policymakers in a forward- looking debate on the use of genetic information.
  • The mediating roles of workplace support and ethical work environment in associations between leadership and moral distress: a longitudinal study of Canadian health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Plouffe, Rachel A.; Nazarov, Anthony; Heesters, Ann M.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Foxcroft, Laura; Hosseiny, Fardous; Le, Tri; Lum, P. Andrea; Nouri, Maede S.; Smith, Patrick (Scholarship@Western, 2023-01-01)
    Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in heightened moral distress among health care workers (HCWs) worldwide. Past research has shown that effective leadership may mitigate potential for the development of moral distress. However, no research to date has considered the mechanisms by which leadership might have an influence on moral distress. We sought to evaluate longitudinally whether Canadian HCWs’ perceptions of workplace support and ethical work environment would mediate associations between leadership and moral distress. Methods: A total of 239 French- and English-speaking Canadian HCWs employed during the COVID-19 pandemic were recruited to participate in a longitudinal online survey. Participants completed measures of organizational and supervisory leadership at baseline and follow-up assessments of workplace support, perceptions of an ethical work environment, and moral distress. Results: Associations between both organizational and supervisory leadership and moral distress were fully mediated by workplace supports and perceptions of an ethical work environment. Discussion: To ensure HCW well-being and quality of care, it is important to ensure that HCWs are provided with adequate workplace supports, including manageable work hours, social support, and recognition for efforts, as well as an ethical workplace environment.
  • Healthcare Professional’s Attitudes Towards Interprofessional Collaboration

    Ekoumou, Martin; Fisher, Jerome (ScholarWorks @ UTRGV, 2024-03-22)
    Background: Traditional healthcare has been characterized as a field where professionals work independently, creating an environment with multiple providers in multiple locations duplicating services, adding to the ineffectiveness and waste of resources. The fragmentation of healthcare provision promotes isolation, competition and attempts to preserve power among professions. Accordingly, patient care is less than optimum. To begin to ameliorate this situation Interprofessional Education has been developed. However, a significant part of this education is effective interprofessional collaboration (IPC) which creates higher patient satisfaction, better coordination of patient care, efficient use of healthcare services and higher professional job satisfaction. The purpose of this research was to determine attitudes of Healthcare Professionals towards IPC. Methods: An online survey, the PINCOMQ, was distributed to healthcare professionals including doctors, nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and rehabilitation counselors. A total of 193 useable responses were received. Results: On a seven-point scale the overall rating for the 48 items was mean of 4.99 (SD: 64) which was as slightly positive attitude towards IPC. The lowest rated factor of 12 factors was Personality as a part of IPC with a mean of 3.78 (SD: .98) which was slightly negative. The highest rated factor was Professional Power with a mean of 6.34 (SD: .84) which was positive. Conclusions: Healthcare Professionals need more training in IPC. Although they have some positive attitudes about factors of IPC, many factors can be improved.
  • Review of Clinical Ethics Consultation - A Practical Guide

    Julia Gill (Programmes de bioéthique, École de santé publique de l'Université de Montréal, 2019-03-01)
    In this guide to conducting clinical ethics consultation, Bashir Jiwani notes that the success of ethics interventions often relies on the personal skills of the particular consultant involved. Therefore, he wrote this volume to articulate the elements of clinical ethics consultation to help foster integrity in those who may not have these inherent skills. By focusing on fostering integrity, this book provides a fresh perspective and process for how to approach clinical ethics consultation without necessarily having to rely on the teaching of others or the advice to simply do what we have seen mentors do.

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