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AbstractThe field of ethics, also called moral philosophy, involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Ethics is an established system of moral principles that govern the rules of conduct. Medical ethics define what the physician ought to do and how he or she should behave. Some of us may think that ethics are unimportant in surgery, however, we should be aware that surgeons operate daily in the theater of moral choice. Ethical considerations, such as diagnosis and treatment, are essential features of the surgical care for each patient (1). Surgeons working in surgical units increasingly face ethical problems owing to growth in scientific knowledge and technology, and the availability of new diagnostic equipment and treatment opportunities. The applications become more complex and the decisions more difficult as advancing technology provides greater opportunities to save lives and relieve pain and suffering. More and more surgical procedures are now carried out in older patients who have multiple and more serious diseases than ever before (2). Doctors often face with ethical dilemmas related to providing care that maintains patients’ dignity while attending their advanced medical treatment. Organizational and financial constraints in hospitals, and professional relationships with colleagues and other healthcare providers also create ethical problems for surgeons as they try to act appropriately towards patients and relatives (3). Studies have shown, however, that physicians often are in doubt about the best and correct actions to take for the patients in specific situations (2-4). In fact, the majority of surgeons with little or no education in bioethics face many ethical challenges in daily practice. The overall aim of this article was to analyze surgeons’ experiences of living with ethical difficulties in their work, and highlight the importance of ethical requirements in surgical practice.