Imaging of experience-dependent structural plasticity in the mouse neocortex in vivo
KeywordsInvestigative techniques and equipment
cell types and functions
organs types and functions
organs, tissues, organelles, cell types and functions
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AbstractThe functionality of adult neocortical circuits can be altered by novel experiences or learning. This functional plasticity appears to rely on changes in the strength of neuronal connections that were established during development. Here we will describe some of our studies in which we have addressed whether structural changes, including the remodeling of axons and dendrites with synapse formation and elimination, could underlie experience-dependent plasticity in the adult neocortex. Using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopes and transgenic mice expressing GFP in a subset of pyramidal cells, we have observed that a small subset of dendritic spines continuously appear and disappear on a daily basis, whereas the majority of spines persists for months. Axonal boutons from different neuronal classes displayed similar behavior, although the extent of remodeling varied. Under baseline conditions, new spines in the barrel cortex were mostly transient and rarely survived for more than a week. However, when every other whisker was trimmed, the generation and loss of persistent spines was enhanced. Ultrastructural reconstruction of previously imaged spines and boutons showed that new spines slowly form synapses. New spines persisting for a few days always had synapses, whereas very young spines often lacked synapses. New synapses were predominantly found on large, multi-synapse boutons, suggesting that spine growth is followed by synapse formation, preferentially on existing boutons. Altogether our data indicate that novel sensory experience drives the stabilization of new spines on subclasses of cortical neurons and promotes the formation of new synapses. These synaptic changes likely underlie experience-dependent functional remodeling of specific neocortical circuits.
Holtmaat, A., De Paola, V., Wilbrecht, L., Knott, G. W. (2008) Imaging of experience-dependent structural plasticity in the mouse neocortex in vivo. Behav Brain Res, 192 (1). pp. 20-25.