phonetic teaching;textual output;speech naturalness;foreign accentedness;learner-oriented analysis
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Abstract[[abstract]]語音是語言的門面，表現得好與不好，只要一開口說話便表露無遺，因此語音教學的最終目的，應是訓練學生在連續的語篇說話時，能夠達到正確且自然流暢的表現。然而實際觀察後，卻發現外籍學生的語音表現往往落後於其他的語言向度，雖然大多數外籍學生及華語老師們明知此現象的存在，但為了配合其他加深加廣的語言項目教學的進度而無暇顧及，或因不知該從何著手改善而黯然放棄，致使外籍學生「洋腔洋調」的表現始終無法獲得妥善的解決。為此，本研究分兩方面來探討外籍學生語篇輸出時，影響語音層面的語流自然度表現因素：第一是外籍學生語流自然度的養成是否受到個人因素的影響？第二是外籍學生語流自然度的表現受到哪些語音向度的影響？ 本研究共收集了32位受試者的語音語料，及其中30位受試者的個人因素問卷資料，並邀請了6位資深華語老師擔任審聽者，為32位受試者的語音語料進行審聽評分，經過分析後，其結果顯示： 一、外籍學生初學華語的年齡、性別、學習動機、對語音的重視程度、居住於華語國家的時間、學習華語的時間、母語的使用量、華語的使用量等8個個人因素對其語流自然度的影響並不大。 二、外籍學生的語流自然度受到了聲母、韻母、句調、節奏等4個語音向度的影響，且句調的表現對語流自然度的影響是大於聲母的。 以上的研究結果，除了提供華語老師們在語音教學前進行學習者分析時的參考外，並進一步地建議華語語音教學不但應注重單音節的聲、韻、調教學，更應著重超音段句調及節奏的語流教學，才能有效地提高外籍學生的語流自然度。
[[abstract]]Speech sounds are the most apparent parts of language and plays a key role with respect to linguistic performance. Therefore, the final purpose of phonetic teaching is to enable learners to speak correctly and naturally in continuous speech. However, according to our on-the-spot investigation, the phonetic performance of the foreign students as our testees generally falls far behind the other linguistic aspects. Moreover, most of the foreign students and Mandarin teachers are aware of this problem; nevertheless, it is neglected or skipped due to the lack of efficient strategy or because of concentrating more attention and/or time on the intensification of the other teaching objects. As a result, the foreign accentedness of the learners in question does not receive due attention and resolution. Thus, by examining the factors affecting foreign students’ speech naturalness with respect to textual output, our investigation is two-fold: i) Is foreign students’ speech naturalness affected by individual factor? ii) In which phonetic aspects is their speech naturalness affected? Our study contains 32 testees’ phonetic data and the questionnaire on the individual factors of 30 of the testees in question. Moreover, 6 senior Mandarin teachers were invited to score the data. Our findings can be summarized as follows: 1. The foreign learners’ speech naturalness is barely affected by the 8 individual factors under our investigation, including their age of learning Mandarin, gender, motivation, the estimation of the importance of pronunciation, time period of staying in Mandarin-speaking areas, time period of learning Mandarin, frequency of speaking native tongues and frequency of speaking Mandarin. 2. The foreign learners’ speech naturalness is affected in 4 phonetic aspects, i.e. onsets, rimes, intonation and prosody. Furthermore, intonation has greater influence on speech naturalness than onsets do. Our study can serve as the reference for Mandarin teachers intends to analyze learners before their teaching. Our study further proposes that in addition to focusing on onsets, rimes and tones, phonetic teaching should pay more attention to suprasegmental units, such as intonation and prosody, in continuous speech in order to enhance foreign students’ speech naturalness efficiently.