A study of the problem is encountered by teachers and pupils in the teaching and learning of home science practical lessons in the 8:4:4 system of education in Starehe Division, Nairobi
AbstractA project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master of education (P.T.E.) of Kenyatta University. January, 1991. TX 290 .K4S4
Home Science education in primary school aims
at equipping pupils with basic knowledge, skills and
attitudes essential for every day life and to be utilized
for self-reliance, salaried employment or further education.
To meet this objective, it is therefore necessary that
pupils are exposed to the concepts and principles of the
subject both theoretically and practically. Each
individual child should put into practice whatever the
syllabus rec?mmends to be practised. Practicals in all
areas of Home Science namely, Clothing and Textiles
(Needlework)," Food and Nutrition (Cookery), Care of the
Home, Laundry and Child Care impart ~uch skills to
enable pupils develop as useful members of the society.
This study was therefore intended to find out the
problems encountered by teachers and pupils in the
teaching and learning of Home Science practical lessons
in primary schools. The study concerned itself mainly on
issues that dealt with shortages of qualified teachers,
availability of equipment and facilities, materials and
resources necessary for the teaching of the subject.
Crowded classrooms, scope of the subject and the time
factor were also examined.
The sample was drawn from ten primary schools randomly
selected in the Starehe Division of Nairobi. The sample
consisted of Home Science teachers and standard seven
pupils (both boys and girls).
To solicit information from the respondents a
questionnaire was administere~ to both teachers and
pupils. A check-list was also used by the researcher who
conducted a physical observation of equipment and facilities
available for Home Science practicals in the primary
schools under study. The data collected was then analysed
and the results were presented as frequency and percentage
distributions and tabulated appropriately.
The findings of the study were:
1. Teachers of Home Science were not prepared to teach
2. Large classes were a major hindrance to the
effective teaching of practical lessons.
3. Les-sonsallocated to Home Science education were
4. Equipment and facilities for practical lessons
5. There was lack of teachers' guides for effective
teaching of the subject.
6. Materials for use in the practical lessons are
provided for by the parents.
7. The involvement of pupils in practicals, in all
areas of the subject, was inadequate/lacking.
8. Practical continuous assessment grade was not
entered into the final examination (K.C.P.E.).
~he researcher made a few suggestions that were
expected to improve the teaching and learning of practicals
in Horne Science. The researcher felt that there was
1. A vigorous in-service exercise and refresher
courses for Home Science teachers to expose them to
the content and the teaching skills of the new
2. The inspectorate to rind out the problems teachers
have with regards to the area of content and
teaching skills and then try to brief the teachers
concerned on appropriate approaches to teaching.
3. An adequate supply of teachers' guides to facilitate
guidance to teachers.
4. The P.T.A. to provide well equipped laboratories
to enable teachers organize practical lessons
5. The P.T.A. to avail finances for cookery practicals.
6. An increase in the number of Home Science lessons
to facilitate adequate coverage of the syllabus and
to ensure acquisition of skills in all areas of the
7. The assessment of practicals in all the areas of the
subject should be streamlined 'and the g-rades
accumulated right from standard four. The final
grade should be entered into the final examination
(K.C.P.E.) . Alternatively pupils should be awarded
a separate certificate.
The suggestions listed above may not be entirely new
but it is hoped that the current educators' efforts will
be enhanced by a critical analysis of the new evidence
highlighted by this study.
Lastly, an effort was made to identify other areas
of study for future scholars to venture into. Some of
1. A replica of this study using a wider sample.
2. Actual observation of Home Science practicals in action.
3. A similar research study to be carried out in other
areas of the city and in the rural areas.
4. A research on the attitudes of Home Science teachers
on practical lessons.