Equivalência de estímulos e ensino por exclusão de verbos e substantivos para adultos e idosos com afasias fluentes e não fluentes
Author(s)Fontanesi, Sabrina Roberta Oliveira
Afasias não fluentes
Equivalência de estímulos
Procedimento de ensino por exclusão
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AbstractOs idosos representam um grupo crescente na população e algumas alterações importantes de saúde dessa população advêm de acidentes vasculares cerebrais, que podem deixar sequelas como as afasias. A despeito de resultados positivos obtidos por áreas tradicionais do tratamento das afasias, analistas do comportamento têm desenvolvido procedimentos de ensino bem-sucedidos com populações clínicas de não idosos, empregando procedimentos de exclusão e de ensino de repertórios de discriminação condicional para formação de classes de equivalência entre estímulos verbais. Os objetivos gerais deste trabalho foram: a) verificar a efetividade de um procedimento de ensino por exclusão de substantivos e de verbos para afásicos fluentes e não fluentes, a partir do ensino de discriminações condicionais com estímulos auditivos e visuais, e b) verificar a emergência de repertórios não diretamente ensinados (relações transitivas entre estímulos, nomeação e leitura). Participaram do estudo 14 idosos com afasia. Foram conduzidos dois estudos, nos quais os participantes foram expostos às avaliações iniciais de repertório verbal e foram submetidos ao procedimento de ensino de relações entre palavras ditadas, figuras ou vídeos, e palavras impressas, com sondas posteriores de formação de equivalência, nomeação e leitura, além de pós-testes. Foi utilizado um delineamento de múltiplas sondagens. Resultados gerais indicaram que o procedimento foi efetivo para ensinar novas relações aos participantes, porém não foi suficiente para sustentar a formação de classes de equivalência entre estímulos para a maioria das relações ensinadas, e nem para a emergência de nomeação desses estímulos. Não houve diferenças entre a aprendizagem de substantivos e verbos. O procedimento estudado, com adaptações, pode ser uma alternativa terapêutica para recuperação de repertórios verbais em afásicos.
The elderly represents a growing group in the population and some important changes in the health of this population come from strokes, which can leave sequels such as aphasias. Despite positive results from traditional areas of aphasia treatment, behavioral analysts have developed successful teaching procedures with non-elderly clinical populations, employing exclusion procedures and teaching conditional discrimination to form equivalence classes between verbal stimuli. The general objectives were: a) to verify the effectiveness of a teaching by exclusion nouns and verbs for fluent and non-fluent aphasics, from teaching conditional discriminations with auditory and visual stimuli, and b) verify the emergence of repertoires not directly taught (transitive relations between stimuli, naming and reading). A total of 14 elderly people with aphasia participated in the study. Two studies were conducted, in which the participants were exposed to the initial verbal repertoire evaluations and were submitted to the procedure of teaching relationships between dictated words, figures or videos, and printed words, with subsequent probes of formation of equivalence, naming and reading, besides post-tests. A multiple probe design was used. Overall results indicate that the procedure was effective to teach new relationships to the participants, but it was not enough to sustain the formation of equivalence classes between stimuli for most of the relationships taught, and the emergence of naming these stimuli. There were no differences between the learning of nouns and verbs. The procedure studied, with adaptations, may be a therapeutic alternative for the recovery of verbal repertoires in aphasics.
TypeTese de Doutorado
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The Role Of Vocabulary In The Metaphorical Processing Of Fluent And Less Fluent Users Of EnglishRadencich, Marguerite Cogorno (Scholarly Repository, 1983-01-01)Purpose. The current investigation focuses on the relative role of global vocabulary and specific attribute knowledge in the metaphorical comprehension of fluent and less fluent users of English. It was hypothesized that an 'attribute minus metaphor' difference would be similar for fluent and for less fluent users of English but that a 'vocabulary minus metaphor' difference would be larger for less fluent than for fluent users of English. Thus, it was expected that there would be an interaction between the groups for 'vocabulary minus metaphor' and 'attribute minus metaphor' scores.Procedure. University upperclassmen of a variety of cultural and linguistic backgrounds were administered a vocabulary screening test. They then wrote their interpretations of a list of metaphors and completed two multiple choice tests which used the metaphorical vehicles of the metaphors presented previously. The multiple choice measures were tests of general vocabulary knowledge and of specific attribute knowledge.Scores from the metaphor and multiple choice measures were converted to z-scores. The metaphor z-scores were subtracted from both the vocabulary and the attribute z-scores. T-tests compared the means of the fluent and the less fluent users of English for the 'vocabulary minus metaphor' scores and for the 'attribute minus metaphor' scores. Additionally, metaphor/attribute and metaphor/vocabulary correlations were computed for the total sample and for the fluent and less fluent groups.Findings. The t-tests comparing the means of the fluent and less fluent users of English on the 'metaphor minus vocabulary' difference and on the 'metaphor minus attribute' difference revealed nonsignificant differences. Two post hoc analyses were done comparing more homogeneous subsamples. In both cases, results were similar to those for the total sample.Conclusion. A synthesis of the findings indicated that global vocabulary knowledge and specific attribute knowledge are highly correlated for adult subjects. However, specific attribute knowledge was found to be more predictive of metaphorical comprehension of less fluent users of English than was general vocabulary knowledge.Recommendation. In order to improve comprehension of metaphorical language, instructors should provide intensive vocabulary instruction which is related to specific metaphors. This recommendation is especially applicable to less fluent users of English.
Using self-regulated learning to manage the discomfort of becoming fluent with information technologyNeville, Victoria M; Bennett, Sue (Research Online, 2004-01-01)The technologically complex and changing world of the twenty first century requires teachers who are both knowledgeable and skilled in using information technology in their pedagogical practices. The changing nature of information technology means that teachers need to be flexible in how they use information technology in their teaching, adaptable to the changes in technological developments, problem solvers in unfamiliar circumstances, and continuing learners throughout their professional life. These ideas are encapsulated in the concept of fluency with information technology, or FITness (Committee on Information Technology Literacy, 1999). This research study, in progress, uses an interpretive, qualitative methodological approach to investigate the influence of self regulated learning on the development of fluency with information technology in pre-service teacher education students. This will provide opportunities for a better understanding of the phenomenon of self regulated learning as an influence within the context of learning FITness, and will assist our understanding of the connections between instruction (using self regulated learning) and outcomes (FITness).
Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca’s aphasia to produce fluent speechFridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H. Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L.; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris (Oxford University Press, 2012-12)A distinguishing feature of Broca’s aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect ‘speech entrainment’ and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca’s aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca’s aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca’s area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected before and after the treatment phase. Patients were able to produce a greater variety of words with and without speech entrainment at 1 and 6 weeks after training. Treatment-related decrease in cortical activation associated with speech entrainment was found in areas of the left posterior-inferior parietal lobe. We conclude that speech entrainment allows patients with Broca’s aphasia to double their speech output compared with spontaneous speech. Neuroimaging results suggest that speech entrainment allows patients to produce fluent speech by providing an external gating mechanism that yokes a ventral language network that encodes conceptual aspects of speech. Preliminary results suggest that training with speech entrainment improves speech production in Broca’s aphasia providing a potential therapeutic method for a disorder that has been shown to be particularly resistant to treatment.