Parents’ reading attitude;Pragmatic skills;Home literacy environment;Parent-child reading activities;Home literacy resource
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Abstract[[abstract]]本研究的目的在於探討台中市沙鹿區四歲兒童家庭閱讀環境與語用能力之間的關聯性。研究方法採用問卷調查法，透過進入幼托園所及本院兒發中心發放問卷，請願意參與研究的家長填寫家庭閱讀環境問卷及兒童生活功能量表zh-TW版(PEDI-C)社會領域部分。總共發放521份問卷，回收後有效問卷總數為339份。問卷回收之後利用統計軟體SPSS20.0登錄資料並進行數據分析，探討家庭閱讀環境的各個領域對兒童的語用能力發展之影響程度。 幼兒家庭背景資料分析之結果為：幼兒在家中排序以老大居多、家中子女數以兩位居多、就讀園所以私立幼托園所居多、主要照顧者以母親居多、開始共讀年齡以一歲開始居多、共同居住人數以三人以上居多、學前教育經歷以從中班開始就讀居多、主要照顧者年齡以31-40歲之間的居多、家庭社經地位以中高社經地位者居多、母親國籍以本國籍居多。 不同背景變項對四歲兒童語用能力的影響為：不論是幼兒家中排序或是家中子女數、幼兒就讀園所、園所分布區域、母親國籍及家庭社經地位，經過ANOVA變異數分析之後均顯示對幼兒語用能力無顯著影響。唯獨主要照顧者為父母親或祖父母這個類項，在ANOVA變異數分析表中有顯著差異，但進行事後多重比較卻無顯著差異，意味著幼兒的主要照顧者對語用能力有某程度影響但影響不大。 家庭閱讀環境中之家長閱讀態度類項對四歲兒童語用能力的影響為：家長閱讀態度對幼兒語用能力有顯著影響，家長閱讀態度越佳幼兒語用能力越好。尤其以家長在家時會不會閱讀跟工作有關的相關資料、家長會不會帶孩子去圖書館/書局看書/買書或借書、家長會不會在陪孩子一起看幼兒電視節目/VCD/DVD或聽故事錄音帶/CD時一邊和孩子討論及家長會不會陪孩子玩語言遊戲?這些行為的影響程度最為顯著。以上行為頻率越高，幼兒的語用能力越好。 家庭閱讀環境中之親子閱讀活動類項對幼兒語用能力有相當程度的影響，且達顯著差異。尤以孩子是否對環境中的大人讀物有興趣？和孩子是否在家中會看電視？這兩個題項最具顯著差異。孩子對環境中大人讀物越感興趣者語用能力有越高的趨勢，而孩子在家中看越多電視者語用能力有越低的趨勢。 家庭閱讀環境中之家庭閱讀資源類項對四歲兒童語用能力則未達顯著差異。 綜合上述結果可知，家庭是提供閱讀活動及資源的重要來源，應該要有良好的家長閱讀態度及豐富的親子閱讀活動並搭配足夠的閱讀資源才能真正讓家庭閱讀環境產生其正面影響。且因語用能力是全語言的溝通能力，需要在有互動的對話情境中模仿及學習，所以與語用能力最相關的會是家長閱讀態度及親子閱讀活動，與家庭閱讀資源則無顯著相關性。
[[abstract]]The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between the home literacy environment (HLE) and pragmatic skills of four-year-old children in Shalu District, Taichung. A home literacy environment questionnaire and Chinese version of pediatric evaluation of disability inventory (PEDI-C) were hand delivered in kindergartens to 521 parents. As a result, a total of 339 valid surveys were obtained and analysed via SPSS20.0 (Statistical Package for Social Science) computer programme in order to explore how different dimensions of home literacy environment impact the development of children’s pragmatic skills. As for the background of respondents’ families, the majority of four-year-olds are the first child of two, living with more than three family members, and start private preschool education from pre-kindergarten programmes. Moreover, it can be seem that the child's primary caregiver are mom aged between 31 to 40 years old, who usually begin to read to their children from one year old. Furthermore, the most children’s mom are native and the socio-economic status of their family are mostly in the upper middle class. The results of ANOVA indicate that the majority of background variables do not have significant influence on children’s pragmatic skills except the variable related to child's primary caregiver. It shows that the as child's primary caregiver, parents have stronger positive impact on children’s pragmatic skills than grandparents. However, the result of post-hoc test illustrates that the difference between these two groups is not significant, which means child's primary caregiver just affect children’s pragmatic skills a little bit. . In terms of the impact of parents’ reading attitude on four-year-old children’s pragmatic skills, the data demonstrates that the influence is significant. The frequency of the following parents’ reading attitude is higher, the children’s pragmatic skills are greater, which includes: 1) parents reading job-related materials at home; 2) bringing children to read/ buy books at libraries or bookstores; 3) accompanying children to watch kids learning programmes; 4)discussing with children while listening to audiobooks; 5) playing language games with children. The home literacy environment factors associated with parent-child reading activities also influence children’s pragmatic skills significantly. To be more precise, if children are more interested in adult books, their pragmatic skills will be better. On the contrary, children who watch the most TV may have poor pragmatic skills. Lastly, the impact of home literacy resource on four-year-old children’s pragmatic skills is not significant. Taking into account the above findings, it can be realized that reading at home benefits children’s pragmatic skills a lot. To make sure that home literacy environment can create positive impact, not only should parents have positive reading attitude, but they have to provide sufficient reading resources for their children at home. Pragmatic skills are vital for communicating with others and children need to enhance this ability via interactive imitation learning. As a result, the dimensions of parents’ reading attitude and parent-child reading activities are more relatively significant than home literacy resource for children’s pragmatic skills.