Ebola, Experimental Medicine, Economics, and Ethics: An Evaluation of International Disease Outbreak Law
Author(s)Dominey, Sara L
Keywords2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa
World Health Organization
National Institutes of Health
Department of Health and Human Services
Mapp Biopharmaceutical Inc.
Federal Drug Administration
Experimental drug use
Ebola Virus Disease
Dr. Kent Brantly
Emory University Hospital
Center for Disease Control
Declaration of Helsinki
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
United States v. Karl Brandt
World Medical Association
Council of the International Organization of Medical Sciences
International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects
World Health Assembly
International Health Regulations
Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network
IHR Emergency Committee
Public Health Emergency of International Concern
Guiding Principles of International Outbreak Alert and Response
WHO Medicines Regulatory Package
WHO’s Ethics Committee
Pfizer’s Trovan drug trial
US tort litigation
Alien Tort Statute
Food and Drug Law
Health Law and Policy
Human Rights Law
International Humanitarian Law
Legal Ethics and Professional Responsibility
Science and Technology Law
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Good Practices in Health Financing : Lessons from Reforms in Low and Middle-Income CountriesWaters, Hugh R.; Schieber, George J.; Gottret, Pablo (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2012-05-25)This volume focuses on nine countries that have completed, or are well along in the process of carrying out, major health financing reforms. These countries have significantly expanded their people's health care coverage or maintained such coverage after prolonged political or economic shocks. In doing so, this report seeks to expand the evidence base on good performance in health financing reforms in low- and middle-income countries. The countries chosen for the study were Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Estonia, the Kyrgyz Republic, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tunisia, and Vietnam. With health at the center of global development policy on humanitarian as well as economic and health security grounds, the international community and developing countries are closely focused on scaling up health systems to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), improving financial protection, and ensuring long-term financing to sustain these gains. With the scaling up of aid, both donors and countries have come to realize that money alone cannot buy health gains or prevent impoverishment due to catastrophic medical bills. This realization has sent policy makers looking for reliable evidence about what works and what does not, but they have found little to guide their search.
Toward Universal Coverage in Health : The Case of the State Guaranteed Benefit Package of the Kyrgyz RepublicGiuffrida, Antonio; Dale, Elina M.; Jakab, Melitta (World Bank, Washington DC, 2013-05-06)In this case study the paper describes the evolution of the Kyrgyz health care system and discusses challenges in ensuring universal access to basic health care services. Section one provides an overview of the Kyrgyz health system and of the national health care reform programs that started in 2001 with Manas (2001-2005) and which have been continued with Manas Taalimi (2006-2011), and the recently adopted Den Sooluk (2012-2016). Section two provides a detailed discussion of the SGBP that follows a universal approach as it applies to all citizens, and describes the management of public funds and the information environment of the State Guaranteed Benefit Package (SGBP). Section three draws lessons from Kyrgyz national health reforms for universal health coverage for other countries with very limited public resources, widespread poverty, and high levels of corruption. Section four discusses the remaining challenges for universal health coverage for the poor and how the provision of good-quality care forms an important part of the agenda for the recently adopted Den Sooluk program.
Who pays? Out-of-Pocket Health Spending and Equity Implications in the Middle East and North AfricaElgazzar, Heba; Arfa, Chokri; Salti, Nisreen; Majbouri, Mehdi; Salehi-Isfahani, Djavad; Raad, Firas; Chaaban, Jad; Fesharaki, Sanaz; Mataria, Awad (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05-29)Ensuring affordable, effective health care and financial protection against the adverse effects of household out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures represents an important policy objective in most countries, yet relatively little evidence exists regarding patterns and implications of household health expenditures in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This paper examines the scope of out-of-pocket expenditures and their implications on living standards and policy reforms in six MENA countries including Yemen, the West Bank and Gaza, Egypt, Iran, Tunisia, and Lebanon. Results show that OOP payments represent a relatively high share of total national health care financing at 49 percent on average in the MENA region as of 2006. Households pay an average of 6 percent of their total household expenditure on health. Most of this OOP is spent on medications, doctor visits and diagnostic services. Lower-income and rural households generally face greater financial risk; yet this is reversed where private health services are utilized and paid for more frequently by higher-income groups. 7 to 13 percent of households face particularly high OOP payments, or catastrophic expenditures equal to at least 10 percent of household spending. Poverty rates tend to increase by up to 20 percent after health care spending is accounted for. Results are discussed in light of ongoing policy efforts to strengthen social protection for health care.