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  • The legal and ethical framework governing body donation in Europe – 2nd update on current practice

    Erich Brenner (4887040); Ronald L.A.W. Bleys (17810500); Raffaele de Caro (17810502); Ilia Catereniuc (17810504); Andy R M Chirculescu (16213361); Christophe Destrieux (4450471); Elisabeth Eppler (10913934); Luis Filgueira (58825); David Kachlik (17810506); Péter Kiss (14164844) (2024-02-13)
    Background: In 2008, members of the TEPARG provided first insights into the legal and ethical framework governing body donation in Europe. In 2012, a first update followed. This paper is now the second update on this topic and tries to extend the available information to many more European countries. Methods: For this second update, we have asked authors from all European countries to contribute their national perspectives. By this enquiry, we got many contributions compiled in this paper. When we did not get a personal contribution, one of us (EB) searched the internet for relevant information. Results: Perspectives on the legal and ethical framework governing body donation in Europe. Conclusions: We still see that a clear and rigorous legal framework is still unavailable in several countries. We found national regulations in 18 out of 39 countries; two others have at least federal laws. Several countries accept not only donated bodies but also utilise unclaimed bodies. These findings can guide policymakers in reviewing and updating existing laws and regulations related to body donation and anatomical studies.
  • Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients Translation recruitment and ethical issues

    TNO Kwaliteit van Leven; Hoopman, R.; Terwee, C.B.; Muller, M.J.; Öry, F.G.; Aaronson, N.K. (2009)
    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these ethnic minority groups, primarily due to the paucity of well translated and validated measures, but also because of a range of methodological and logistical barriers. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the methodological challenges in conducting HRQOL research among these patient populations, based on experience gained in a project in which four widely used HRQOL questionnaires were translated into Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic and Tarifit, and administered to a sample of 90 Turkish and 79 Moroccan cancer patients in the Netherlands. Problems encountered in translating and administering the questionnaires included achieving semantic equivalence (use of loanwords), use of numerical rating scales, lengthy questions and response scales, and culturally sensitive and/or inappropriate questions. Privacy laws that prohibit hospitals from registering the ethnicity of patients hampered efficient identification of eligible patients. Recruiting patients to studies is often difficult due to low literacy levels, lack of familiarity with and distrust of research, concerns about immigration status, and inaccurate or missing contact information. This can lead to lower response rates than is the case with the population of Dutch cancer patients. Additional ethical issues that arise in such studies concern patients' problems with communicating with their health care providers, their lack of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, and the potential role conflict experienced by bilingual research assistants who may wish or be asked to intervene on the patients' behalf. Practical approaches to resolving these issues are presented.
  • Eettiset kysymykset tulevaisuuden terveyden edistämisessä

    Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulu; Fiucci, Jenni (Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulu, 2018-05-31)
    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoitus on kuvata, minkälaiset eettiset arvot ja näkökulmat sekä eettisen toiminnan kompetenssit korostuvat terveyden edistämisen asiantuntijoiden terveyden edistämisen tulevaisuutta koskevissa teemahaastatteluissa. Työn tilaaja on HPP- Health Promotion Programme- projekti, jonka tavoitteena on kehittää uusia terveyden edistämisen opetuskokonaisuuksia ammattikorkeakoulun opetukseen ja ammatilliseen opetukseen. Tavoitteena on tutkimuskysymykseen vastaten tuottaa tietoa, jota voidaan käyttää tulevaisuuden terveyden edistämisen opetuskokonaisuuksia suunniteltaessa.
 Tutkimusaineistona oli HPP-projektin teemahaastattelut, joissa asiantuntijat keskustelivat terveyden edistämisen tulevaisuudesta, sen ihannetilasta 10 vuoden kuluttua. Menetelmäksi valittiin deduktiivinen sisällönanalyysi ja aineiston analyysirungoksi CompHP-käsikirjan terveyden edistämisen eettiset arvot. Jokainen kahdestatoista eettisestä arvosta on monisisältöinen eikä yhtäkään arvoa voi kuvata yhdellä käsitteellä, vaan kyseessä on monimerkityksellinen arvoteema. Alkuperäisilmaisut luokiteltiin arvoteemojen mukaan, jonka jälkeen analyysia jatkettiin induktiivisen sisällönanalyysin periaatteita noudattaen.
 Terveys on ihmisoikeus ja terveyden edistämisen toiminnassa se tulee ymmärtää jokaisen yksilön tai ryhmän oikeudeksi terveyteen ja hyvinvointiin. Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin puolestapuhuminen kaikilla julkishallinnon toimialoilla, toimijoiden saumaton, ylisektorillinen yhteistyö sekä yhteistyö kolmannen sektorin ja elinkeinoelämän kanssa on välttämätöntä hyvän ja eettisen terveyden edistämisen toteutumiseksi ja tavoitteiden saavuttamiseksi. Palvelujen kohdentaminen heikommassa väestönosassa oleviin, ennaltaehkäisevä ote, riittävä resursointi ja digitalisaation hyödyt ja haasteet korostuvat tämän päivän terveyden edistämisen toimintaa eettisestä näkökulmasta tarkasteltuna.
 Yksilön ja ryhmän arvon tunnustavaa asiakaslähtöistä ajattelu- ja toimintatapaa tulee vahvistaa terveyden edistämisen ammattilaisten toiminnassa. Asiakaslähtöinen ajattelu- ja toimintatapa toteutuvat vain, jos nähdään yksilö ja ryhmä toiminnan subjektina ja mahdollistetaan tietoisten päätösten tekeminen sekä itsensä toteuttaminen lähiympäristössään. Asiakaslähtöisen terveyden edistämisen tulisi perustua vahvaan tietopohjaan ja näyttöön perustuvaan toimintaan. Terveyteen ja hyvinvointiin vaikuttavan tiedon tehokas kerääminen, hyödyntäminen ja jako on tärkeää. Tiedon huomioiminen päätöksenteoissa kaikilla toimialoilla sekä terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin edistämisen tavoitteiden selkeä määrittely ja vaikutusten arviointi ovat osa hyvän ja eettisen terveyden edistämisen perustaa.
  • The Reasons for Informal Payments in Hospitals: A Qualitative Study in Iraq

    Ali Abdulhussain Fadhil; Atheer Khdyair Hamad; Sadeq Sahib Sadeq; Moayad Aziz Abdulqadir; Zahraa F. Hassan; Ali Abdul Razaq; Sada Ghalib Al- Musawi (Iran University of Medical Sciences, 2023-03-01)
    Introduction: The responsibility of health systems has evolved to encompass not only the improvement of individuals' health but also the protection of their financial well-being against the costs of illness. However, many healthcare systems worldwide have experienced the issue of informal payments, which is considered a significant challenge to the credibility of medical professionals. The reasons for these payments vary across different regions. To tackle this issue, the current research was carried out in 2021 to examine the factors contributing to unofficial payments within healthcare facilities situated in Erbil, Iraq. Methods: The present study utilized a qualitative, applied research approach, employing semi-structured interviews as the primary data collection method. The sample consisted of 60 patients, doctors, and policymakers from Erbil, Iraq, who were selected based on targeted criteria. Informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study was conducted with the approval of the Medical Ethics Council of Hawler Medical University. During the interviews, participants were asked about their reasons for engaging in informal payments, and the collected data were analyzed using content analysis techniques. Results: Patients' perspectives on informal payments suggest that legal, cultural, and quality-related factors are influential in their decision to make such payments. On the other hand, doctors and policymakers revealed several reasons for receiving informal payments from healthcare providers, including structural, ethical, and tariff-related issues, as well as those that demonstrate the provider's expertise and competence. Conclusion: Understanding the reasons behind informal payments is crucial in addressing and ultimately eradicating them. This research has discovered the reasons behind unofficial payments in Iraq's healthcare system. An extensive grasp of the requirements and driving forces behind healthcare providers and recipients can efficiently identify and eradicate this practice. Policymakers who possess a thorough comprehension of the consequences associated with these payments can make more informed decisions, ensuring a collectively agreed-upon policy approach. Enhancing the wages of healthcare professionals in Iraq, taking into account their performance and expertise, and introducing payment systems that are tied to performance can play a crucial role in mitigating this issue. Additionally, promoting professional ethics training fosters trust and mutual understanding among individuals while highlighting the negative impacts of bribery.
  • Synnyttämään valmistautuminen ja sen ohjaus : Moodle-oppimateriaali

    Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulu; Mänty, Eerika; Tuominen, Erika; Uuksulainen, Elli (Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulu, 2018-05-08)
    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tuottaa verkko-oppimateriaalia Metropolia ammattikorkeakoululle synnyttämään valmistautumisesta ja sen ohjauksesta. Työn näkökulmana on monikulttuurisuus. Tavoitteena oli luoda Moodle-oppimisympäristö, joka tulee olemaan osa kätilökoulutuksen virtuaalista-oppimisympäristöä. Oppimateriaali käsittelee synnyttämään valmistautumista ja sen ohjauksen tärkeitä aihealueita, kuten synnytykseen valmistautumista, tukihenkilön tärkeyttä, synnyttämään lähtemistä ja asiakkaan ohjaamista. Aihealueissa liikkuu vahvasti mukana monikulttuurisuus ja maahanmuuttajataustaisten ohjaus.
 Puukarin ja Korhosen kirjassa Monikulttuurinen ohjaus- ja neuvontatyö 2013 kerrotaan ulkomaalaisten määrän kasvaneen paljon Suomen väestössä viime vuosien aikana. Ulkomaalaistaustaiset naiset synnyttivät vuosina 2007-2011 noin 7,1 prosenttia kaikista Suomessa syntyneistä lapsista. Monikulttuurisuuden yleistyminen haastaa keksimään uudenlaisia tapoja toimia ja ymmärtää kulttuureiden moninaisuutta. Marja Wathenin pro gradu 2007 –tutkielmassa kerrotaan maahanmuuttajataustaisen ohjauksessa haasteina voi olla esimerkiksi tilanteet, joissa tulkkia ei tavoiteta eikä ole puhelintulkkausta tai perheenjäsentä käytetään tulkkina. Lisäksi ongelmina voivat olla puutteellinen suomenkielen taito, kirjallisen materiaalin puutuminen asiakkaan kielellä, asioiden ymmärtäminen eri tavoin tai liian vähäiset ohjausajat.
 Työ on toteutettu toiminnallisena opinnäytetyönä. Tuotoksena syntyi Moodle-pohjainen oppimisympäristö. Aineistosta kokosimme PowerPointeja, joissa mukana liikkuu monikulttuurisuus. Oppimateriaalin aiheina ovat synnytykseen valmistautuminen, perhevalmennus, synnytysvalmennus, synnytyksen käynnistyminen, synnytyksen käynnistäminen, synnyttämään lähteminen, asiakkaan ohjaaminen ja tukihenkilö synnytykseen valmistautumisessa. Lisäksi tuotettiin ohjeita ja kuvituksia.
  • Escuela pública y educación como práctica de cooperación. Otra globalización es posible

    Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales y Sociales; Figueiredo, José Wnilson; García Pérez, Francisco F.; Frantz, Walter (Diada, 2015-09-21)
    La lucha por la escuela pública es un proceso que se desarrolla no sólo desde el marco de la escuela
 sino desde la propia sociedad que pretende generar ese tipo de escuela. Este artículo reflexiona
 sobre un modelo de educación deseable, basado en una racionalidad cooperativa, con vistas a la
 emergencia de otro mundo posible, como alternativa al actual escenario mundial, producto de la
 globalización neoliberal hegemónica, basada en el individualismo, la competitividad y la
 mercantilización de la vida. En este sentido, basamos nuestras propuestas en los principios éticos y
 políticos de una educación cooperativa que promueva la inclusión de todos los seres humanos y la
 responsabilidad para con la naturaleza y las generaciones futuras.
  • A Mixed Methods Study of the Impact of an Undergraduate Course on the Intercultural Competency of Undergraduate Students

    Sandell, Elizabeth; Hashimoto, Ryuto (Cornerstone: A Collection of Scholarly and Creative Works for Minnesota State University, Mankato, 2023-01-05)
    This investigation examined the intercultural competency (ICC) of undergraduate students, during Fall 2021. ICC was defined as “ability to shift cultural perspective and adapt behavior appropriately to cultural differences and commonalities.” Data suggested that undergraduates who completed “Introduction to Critical Race Theory” (CRT) scored at a higher level of ICC at the beginning of “Human Relations” (HR) than students without CRT. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups by the conclusion of the HR course.
  • Caminos de encuentros: tejiendo raíces desde la educación intercultural

    Castro Uchima, Arley (2023)
    The article is derived from a PhD thesis in Diversity Training at the University of Manizales and focuses on the impact of intercultural discourse on education, especially in Riosucio of the Department of Caldas, Colombia (2022-2023), where cultural diversity is evident, focusing on the indigenous and peasant population Emberá Chamí and their reservations. The central question investigates how intercultural discourse influences teaching practices in educational institutions with pedagogical models oriented to cultural diversity. It uses the review of literature and relevant data to highlight effective practices in intercultural education, which goes beyond tolerance, promoting mutual understanding and respect for cultural differences. The study highlights challenges in the implementation of intercultural education, resistance in traditional education systems, and the need for adequate teacher training.
  • Les universités interculturelles au Mexique

    Sylvia Schmelkes (Les éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’Homme, 2008-09-01)
    This paper describes the creation project of Intercultural Universities in Mexico and suggests an analysis of the results obtained, the difficulties met and the challenges set up for the first nine intercultural universities put in place between 2004 and 2007. It shows that this experience is meant to be either a way of improving equity in higher education by encouraging a better representation of native people among the number of university students, or an effort to strengthen and reassert the value of indigenous cultures by promoting its diffusion through research and dialogues with other cultures.
  • International student Conference 'Communication Across Cultures'

    Unknown Author (12488544) (2016-11-18)
    The key aim to bring together undergraduate and postgraduate students, practitioners, academics and members of the community to celebrate diversity through conference activities. We invite guest speakers (presenters), workshop facilitators, posters or stand presenters.
  • Trans-Cultural, Trans-Language Practices: Potentialities for Rethinking Doctoral Education Pedagogies

    Choy, Sarojni; Singh, Parlo; Li, Minglin (M D P I AG, 2017)
    Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in doctoral enrolments of Asian international students in Australian universities. While policies have been developed to meet the needs of these students, there seems to be some confusion around the terms internationalisation, globalisation, bi-cultural, inter-cultural, multi-cultural, and trans-cultural within these policies. In this paper, we define these terms and advocate for a policy position which orients to a futurist definition of culture. We then review the work of Michael Singh and his research team at Western Sydney University who have responded to this rapid increase in Asian international student doctoral enrolments in Australian universities by developing pedagogic principles around notions of trans-language and trans-cultural practices. In the final section of the paper, we then draw on our own experiences of doctoral supervision in Australian universities to reflect on our positioning within the pedagogic principles around trans-language and trans-cultural practices.
  • Die Corona-Pandemie – eine Katastrophe mit Sprengkraft

    Dörre, Klaus (2020-06)
    Die Corona-Pandemie ist eine medizinische Katastrophe, die sich auf eigentümliche Weise mit einer epochalen ökonomisch-ökologischen Zangenkrise verbindet – so lautet die Kernthese des Beitrages. COVID-19 wird als „äußerer Stoß“ definiert, dem eine tiefe Rezession folgt. Sieht man von der natürlichen Virenmutation ab, lassen sich Pandemie, Rezession und Zangenkrise als unterscheidbare Repulsionen einer Hyperglobalisierung verstehen, die sukzessive ihre eigenen Voraussetzungen untergräbt. Ohne den Finanzcrash von 2007 bis 2009, das politische Interregnum der Nachkrisenjahre und die Tendenz zu bonapartistischen Demokratien lässt sich die neuerliche Zäsur nicht begreifen. Spontan führt die Corona-Krise keineswegs zu einem „build back better“. Der Staat des Ausnahmezustands ist zu solchen Weichenstellungen kaum in der Lage. Stattdessen wächst die Gefahr, dass harte Verteilungskämpfe, zunehmende Ungleichheit und Entsolidarisierung eine Nachhaltigkeitswende zusätzlich erschweren.
  • Hope for Climate Justice in Labour Law in Quebec

    Parent, Sébastien (Revue de droit comparé du travail et de la sécurité socialeCentre de droit comparé du travail et de la sécurité sociale, 2024-02-07)
    In the context of climate change litigation, the Quebec Court of Appeal in the Environnement Jeunesse case identifies major obstacles to the mobilization of human rights and international law against the State. However, these legal instruments in labour law jurisprudence show that this field paves the way for climate litigation against companies.
  • Rapport introductif « La lutte contre le réchauffement climatique après l’Accord de Paris : quelles perspectives ? »

    Yves Petit
    It was impossible for the Paris Climate Conference (COP 21) to fail as the climate warms up rapidly. Indeed, the Conference of Parties (COP) adopted the agreement with jubilation. This moment will live on in the memories of the participants. An innovative treaty, the Paris Agreement introduces a new technique to fight against climate change as well as a new combat logic. The innovations concerning the fight against global warming are bringing about evolutions in both treaty and environmental law. The Paris Agreement is of great architectural and normative complexity. In particular, it increases the scope of several principles of environmental law. For example, it is the first time that a universal multilateral agreement contains the concept of climate justice. Adopting a new logic of combating global warming, allows the Paris Agreement to highlight its specific dimensions. It can be considered as both a global agreement to renew our ambition of climate protection, while also being a dynamic agreement that reinforces this common climate ambition, to achieve our goal of limiting global warming to no more than 2 ° C.
  • Les Accords de Cancún face aux enjeux des négociations internationales sur le climat

    René Audet; Patrick Bonin (Éditions en environnement VertigO, 2010-12-01)
    The sixteenth Conference of the Parties (COP16) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ended on December 11, 2010, on a positive note, as the Cancún Accords were adopted. In order to evaluate the results of COP16, this paper will take on the double task of examining the main issues at stake in the climate negotiations, and of considering the Cancún Accords in light of those issues. The issues are : the future of the multilateral process, the problem of climate injustice, and the uncertainty regarding the legal architecture of the forthcoming climate treaty. This analysis of the Cancún Accords reveals a paradox that the next COP will have to confront at the end of 2011.
  • The Loss and Damage fund: An investigation of discourse and power under the UNFCCC

    Östlin, Olivia (Lunds universitet/Graduate School, 2024)
    At the international climate negotiations at COP27, parties reached the historic agreement to establish a fund to provide assistance to countries in responding to costs associated with climate change, the loss and damage fund. The decision is a result of many years of struggle for the recognition of loss and damage under the UNFCCC which have long been opposed by post-industrial countries. This thesis aims to explore the discourses shaping this decision and identify where current struggles lie, examine the G77's strategies in these negotiations, and to investigate whether the decision outcome on loss and damage funding at COP27 challenge power structures in international climate negotiations under the UNFCCC. To investigate these questions, the thesis employs Fairclough’s framework for critical discourse analysis. The results indicate a divide in discourses between pre-industrial and post-industrial countries regarding loss and damage financing, leading to struggles over the issue's nature, urgency, and how the issue should be addressed. The thesis further identifies three discursive strategies employed by the G77 to overcome these struggles. While the pre-industrial coalition obtained an agreement to establish the fund, they encountered challenges in integrating their perspectives on liability and compensation.
  • Protection internationale du climat et souveraineté étatique

    Agnès Michelot
    The role of State sovereignty in the development of international climate regime seems unavoidable because it is inherent to modern international law. International environmental law, on the other hand, relies on State sovereignty principle to develop its own objectives. No matter how fragile or weak international law appears in its current climate protection endeavours, it is still generally relevant. The real question is whether the present climate crisis does or could alter the principle of State sovereignty (ie., its definition, implementation, perspectives ). And could we consider that the concept of State sovereignty enhances or, on the contrary, mitigates the climate protection?
  • Sürdürülebilir Bir Turizm İçin İklim Değişimi Bilinci ve Çevre Duyarlılığı Araştırması; Atatürk Üniversitesi Örneği

    Beyza Hatırnaz; Ali İskender (Van Yuzuncu Yıl University, 2023-10-01)
    İçinde yaşadığımız Antroposen çağ dünya üzerinde insan etkilerinin en çok görüldüğü buna bağlı olarak da çevre sorunları başta olmak üzere insanlığı ilgilendiren tüm alanlardaki sorunların küresel bir karaktere büründüğü dönemi ifade etmektedir. İnsanlık olarak dünyayı algılama, ona davranma biçimimiz yaşadığımız hayatın niteliğini belirlemekte ve içinde bulunduğumuz ekonomik sistem içerisindeki tüm sektörleri etkilemekte ve ondan etkilenmektedir. Çevresel bozulmaya bağlı ortaya çıkan sorunlardan en çok etkilenen ve sunulan ürün ve hizmet bağlamında doğayı en çok etkileyen sektörlerden biri olarak turizme yön verecek kişilerin mevcut sorunları algılama ve bu sorunlara hassasiyet gösterebilme durumları turizmin sürdürülebilirliğini direkt etkileyecek önemli mevzulardandır. Bu bağlamda araştırma kapsamında Atatürk Üniversitesi’nde eğitim gören turizm fakültesi öğrencilerinin iklim değişimi algıları ve çevre duyarlılıkları ortaya koyulmaya ve mevcut durum yorumlanmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırma neticesinde genel olarak öğrencilerin, özel olarak ise kadın öğrencilerin iklim değişimine yönelik algılarının ve çevre duyarlılıklarının yüksek olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Araştırma konuyu sektörün sürdürülebilirliği ve ekolojik etik bağlamında yorumlaması açısından önem arz etmekte ve sürdürülebilir ve ekolojik düşünme biçimlerinin benimsetilmesi vurgusuyla farklılaşmaktadır.
  • Les théories de la gouvernance. Pluralité de discours et enjeux éthiques

    Alain Létourneau
    Reflexion on the governance topic and the different uses of that term are going forward in the field of environmental issues and practices. Since that topic is very popular, we suppose it can only grow in the upcoming years. Considering it might be too soon to produce at this time a typology of governance theories or a too strict conceptualisation of the notion, we aim here instead at identifying the different ways in which this term is used in a plurality of discourses and how it probably goes with a plurality of meanings. We are at the starting point of field studies on governance practices; it seems more interesting now to focus on how the concept actually works in practice, instead of trying to build a unifying model from the theoretical point of view. A purely theoretical endeavour would probably miss the various ways by which actors find and give meaning to the uses of the governance concept. We also would like to reflect on the effects produced by uses of governance and what are the ethical issues that are raised by these uses.

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