Allocation of Health Care Resources
Genetics, Molecular Biology and Microbiology
Genetic Counseling / Prenatal Diagnosis
Genetic Screening / Genetic Testing
Economics of Health Care
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AbstractGenomics provides information on genetic susceptibility to diseases and new possibilities for interventions which can fundamentally alter the design of fair health policies. The aim of this paper is to explore implications of genomics from the perspective of equal opportunity ethics. The ideal of equal opportunity requires that individuals are held responsible for some, but not all, factors that affect their health. Informational problems, however, often make it difficult to implement the ideal of equal opportunity in the context of healthcare. In this paper, examples are considered of how new genetic information may affect the way individual responsibility for choice is assigned. It is also argued that genomics may result in relocation of the responsibility cut by providing both new information and new technology. Finally, how genomics may affect healthcare policies and the market for health insurance is discussed.
Journal of Medical Ethics 2008 May; 34(5): 361-364
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Al-muwakabah al-Shar'iyah li mu'tayat al-handasah al-wirathíyahAbu Ghuddah, 'Abd al-Sattar (2016-01-08)This paper was submitted to the symposium held by the Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences (IOMS) in Kuwait during the period 13-15 October 1998 on genetics. The paper presents detailed juristic answers for different questions raised by the applications of genetic engineering such as prenatal diagnostic testing especially in case of endogamous marriage, gene therapy, genetic privacy and selective abortion.
Al-Wirathah Wa Al-Handasah Al-Wirathiyah Wa Al-Jinum Al-Bashari Wa Al-'Ilaj Al-Jini: Ru'yah Islamiyah (Al-Juz' Al-Awwal) Al-Wirathah Wa Al-Handasah Al-Wirathiyah Wa Al-Jinum Al-Bashari Genetics, Genetic Engineering, Human Genome and Genetic Therapy: An Islamic Perspective (Vol. 1) Genetics, Genetic Engineering and the Human GenomeJundi, Ahmad Raja'i (2016-01-08)
Privacy-preserving genomic testing in the clinic: A model using HIV treatmentMclaren P.J.; Raisaro J.L.; Aouri M.; Rotger M.; Ayday E.; Bartha I.; Delgado M.B.; Vallet Y.; Günthard H.F.; Cavassini M.; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-04-12)Purpose:The implementation of genomic-based medicine is hindered by unresolved questions regarding data privacy and delivery of interpreted results to health-care practitioners. We used DNA-based prediction of HIV-related outcomes as a model to explore critical issues in clinical genomics.Methods:We genotyped 4,149 markers in HIV-positive individuals. Variants allowed for prediction of 17 traits relevant to HIV medical care, inference of patient ancestry, and imputation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types. Genetic data were processed under a privacy-preserving framework using homomorphic encryption, and clinical reports describing potentially actionable results were delivered to health-care providers.Results:A total of 230 patients were included in the study. We demonstrated the feasibility of encrypting a large number of genetic markers, inferring patient ancestry, computing monogenic and polygenic trait risks, and reporting results under privacy-preserving conditions. The average execution time of a multimarker test on encrypted data was 865 ms on a standard computer. The proportion of tests returning potentially actionable genetic results ranged from 0 to 54%.Conclusions:The model of implementation presented herein informs on strategies to deliver genomic test results for clinical care. Data encryption to ensure privacy helps to build patient trust, a key requirement on the road to genomic-based medicine. © 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.