Research Ethics Committees
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AbstractThe practice of biological science has changed dramatically since mid-century, reshaped not only by a rapid series of landmark discoveries, but also by governmental directives, institutional policies, and public attitudes. Until 1964, the major influences were the mentor, who provided direction and indoctrination into the culture of science, and in dentistry, the newly established NIDR, which fueled the research engine with an expanding research and training program. The 1965-74 period witnessed the advent of the Institutional Review Board, an increased social involvement of biological scientists, and a recognition of the need for biological and physical safeguards in the conduct of research. The most turbulent years were 1975-89, when there was a confluence of animal rights activism and regulation, growing concerns with scientific fraud and publication malpractice, and the stresses and strains (and opportunities) resulting from the rapid expansion of the academic-industrial complex. The current period is characterized by rapid pace, high volume, and an increased depth and breadth of knowledge-a major change in scale in the conduct of science. It is an exciting time but one in which ethical issues are multiplying. Attention must be paid.
Journal of Dental Research. 1996 Feb; 75(2): 841-844.
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Mitteilungen der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und BibliothekareFerus, A. (Andreas) (Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare, 2014-03)Heft 1 des 67. Jahrgangs (2014) der Mitteilungen der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare
Ethical Issues in the Big Data IndustryMartin, Kirsten E (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2015-05-28)Big Data combines information from diverse sources to create knowledge, make better predictions and tailor services. This article analyzes Big Data as an industry, not a technology, and identifies the ethical issues it faces. These issues arise from reselling consumers' data to the secondary market for Big Data. Remedies for the issues are proposed, with the goal of fostering a sustainable Big Data Industry.Click here for podcast summary (mp3)Click here for free 2-page executive summary (pdf)Click here for free presentation slides (pptx)
But What IS the 'Right Thing'?: Ethics and Information Systems in the Corporate DomainSmith, H. Jeff (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2008-02-08)Information systems executives, and other executives, are often prodded to "do the right thing" when they face ethical quandaries. But how do they determine what is "right" ethically, especially when the ethical quandaries occur in the corporate domain? Some individuals rely solely on their own emotions, but they often have a hard time convincing rational thinkers to embrace their position. Other individuals rely on traditional philosophical theories, but this approach is seldom optimal in the corporate domain because the traditional philosophical theories do not specifically address the corporate setting. However, two theories do address ethical quandaries in the private sector: stockholder theory and stakeholder theory. This article discusses these two theories. Stockholder theory holds that executives should resolve ethical quandaries by taking actions that maximize the long-term profits to stockholders without violating the law or engaging in fraud or deception. Stakeholder theory claims that executives should resolve ethical quandaries by balancing stakeholder interests without violating the rights of any stakeholder. These theories are explored by first applying them to a specific real-world quandary: Blockbuster Video's reported plans to market its customer lists. Then the theories are applied to several other current quandaries. Finally, the article explores action steps for applying each theory.