This is an online collection of more than 8'000 documents on ethics in the Chinese context, for a large part in Chinese. Originaly the collection was developped on the basis of documents written in or translated into Chinese. As first effort, documents were uploaded by in Hong Kong and Beijing, and collected by experts, including through the China regional programme at the Center for International Business Ethics in Beijing. Since 2018, the collection includes harvested documents on chinese ethics, including latest research done on that subject. Topics covered in the collection include bioethics, community ethics, cultural ethics, economic ethics, and environmental ethics, among other subjects.

Recent Submissions

  • Factores asociados al fracaso escolar en estudiantes de medicina del Policlínico Facultad Vicente Ponce Carrasco Factors associated to school failure in medicine students at the University Policlinic Vicente Ponce Carrasco

    Yoel Santos Treto; Yaneisy Marzabal Caro; Luis Armando Wong Corrales; Paz Maritza Franco Pérez; Kenia Rodríguez Blanco (Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas, 2010-04-01)
    Se realizó una investigación con el objetivo de caracterizar los factores asociados al fracaso escolar en 54 estudiantes de Medicina, de nacionalidad china, en la segunda avanzada del Policlínico Facultad Vicente Ponce Carrasco, en el Nuevo Programa de Formación de Médicos, polo de Jagüey Grande, en la asignatura Morfofisiología Humana I. Para la realización del trabajo se utilizaron modelos de investigación cualitativos/cuantitativos. Se caracterizó el fracaso escolar en los estudiantes, identificándose factores externos tales como la falta de motivación e interés por la carrera que estudian, poca motivación en el desarrollo de las actividades docentes, el estudiar solo, el insuficiente tiempo dedicado al estudio independiente, y el uso de la lectura y memorización como única técnica de estudio. Entre los factores internos se detectaron la procedencia sociodemográfica, inadecuada orientación del profesor durante el desarrollo de las actividades docentes, insuficiente orientación y control de las tareas docentes por parte del profesor, y consecuentemente, la poca utilidad de las mismas por parte de los estudiantes. We developed an investigation with the objective of characterizing factors associated to school failure in 54 medicine Chinese students in the second group at the University Policlinic Vicente Ponce Carrasco in the New Program of Physician's Formation, Jagüey Grande Pole, in the matter Human Morphophysiology I. To carry out this study we used qualitative-quantitative investigative models. School failure in students was characterized, identifying external factors as lack of motivation and interest in the specialty they study, poor motivation in developing school activities, studying alone, insufficient time dedicated to independent study, and the usage of reading and memorization as unique study technique. Among the internal factors: sociodemographic precedence, inadequate orientation of the teachers during the development of school activities, insufficient orientation and control of the school tasks by the teacher, and consequently their little utility for students.
  • The Buddhist Interpretation of the Confucianist Concept of Family

    Imre Hamar (Eötvös Loránd University, 2021-12-01)
    Filial piety is one of the cardinal moral values in Confucianism, and has become a keystone in the Chinese social value system, describing and prescribing the proper functioning of human communities at micro (family) and macro (state) levels. The introduction of Buddhism, which advocates that only those who live in celibacy pursuing the career of a monk can easily have access to the highest truth, challenged the uniformly accepted moral obligations of Confucianism, and initiated a dialogue, sometimes a debate, with the Chinese literati on the differences and similarities of Buddhist and Confucianist ethics. This article offers an insight on how Chinese adepts of Buddhism made efforts to prove not only that filial piety is a requirement for all practitioners of Buddhism as a kind of concession in a social environment where filial piety is a representation of virtuous human existence, but also, by forging Indian scriptures on filial piety and visualisation and commenting on Indian scriptures, that this lies at the centre of Buddhist practice.
  • Ethics Unbound Chinese and Western Perspectives on Morality

    Froese, Katrin.
    Half Title Page -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Dedication -- Contents -- Acknowledgements -- Abbreviations -- Introduction -- PART I. THE ESTEEM OF ETHICS -- 1. Taking a Stand: The Moral Philosophy of Confucius and Kant -- 2. Organic Virtue: Reading Mencius with Rousseau -- PART I. VICES OF VIRTUE -- 3. Strangers to Ethics: Kierkegaard and Daoist Approaches -- 4. Beyond Good and Evil: Flexible Ethics in Nietzsche and Daoist Thought -- Conclusion -- Bibliography -- Index
  • Women of Later Han: Ideals and Reality

    de Crespigny, Rafe (Institut Monumenta Serica, 2022-05-05)
    Though Confucian teachings might require them to subjugate themselves to the interests of their husband and his family, women of the Han period had a degree of personal autonomy, with rights to property, divorce and remarriage, and some capacity for independent action. At the head of the state, moreover, an empress dowager held regency power during an imperial minority. Despite their formal freedoms, however, in practice most women found their fate and fortune subordinated to the interests of men; and while all people were under constant threat of disease and death, a woman faced particular danger in time of childbirth. Based on accounts from the Hou Hanshu of Fan Ye and other sources, the present study considers some aspects of this situation.
  • The Good Child Moral Development in a Chinese Preschool

    Xu, Jing.
    Cover -- Contents -- List of Illustrations and Tables -- Acknowledgments -- Introduction: Becoming a Moral Child in China -- 1 Cultivating Morality: Educational Aspirations and Anxieties -- 2 Feeling into Another's Heart: When Empathy Is Endangered -- 3 Negotiating Property Distribution: The Contested Space of Ownership and Fairness -- 4 Sharing Discourse and Practice: The Selfish Child, Generosity and Reciprocity -- 5 Disciplining the Little Emperors: Navigating on Shifting Grounds -- Conclusion: Becoming Human in a Time of Moral Crisis -- Glossary -- A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- J -- K -- L -- M -- N -- P -- Q -- R -- S -- T -- W -- X -- Y -- Z -- Notes -- Bibliography -- Index -- A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- I -- J -- K -- L -- M -- N -- O -- P -- Q -- R -- S -- T -- U -- V -- W -- X -- Y -- Z
  • Exemplary Figures / Fayan

    Xiong, Yang.; Nylan, Michael.
    Intro -- Contents -- Acknowledgments -- Chronology of Dynasties -- Introduction -- Chapter 1. Learning and Practicing -- Chapter 2. Our Masters -- Chapter 3. Cultivating One's Person -- Chapter 4. Asking about the Way -- Chapter 5. Asking about Divine Insight -- Chapter 6. Asking about Illumination -- Chapter 7. Things Rarely Seen -- Chapter 8. Every Five Hundred Years -- Chapter 9. Foresight -- Chapter 10. Chong and Li -- Chapter 11. Yan Hui and Min Ziqian -- Chapter 12. The Noble Man -- Chapter 13. Honoring the Ancestors, the Ultimate Duty -- Glossary of Names, Legendary and Historical -- Abbreviations -- Bibliography -- Index
  • El sentimiento ecológico y sus reflejos jurídicos en la Unión Europea y en China: retos actuales

    Juliana da Silva Ribeiro Gomes Chediek (Editum, Ediciones de la Universidad de Murcia, 2022-04-01)
    Es imposible pensar en soluciones eficaces a los retos ecológicos de las últimas décadas sin asumir su dimensión planetaria. Para resolverlos, la humanidad ha ido avanzando hacia el desarrollo de soluciones transnacionales integradas para los problemas medioambientales globales. Sin embargo, la vía de la cohesión no siempre es la elegida entre los pueblos. Si bien es cierto que tenemos un solo planeta, también lo es que tenemos diferentes formas de habitarlo. Los modos de aprehensión social de la naturaleza son tan numerosos como los grupos sociales. La presente investigación jurídica se basa en la premisa sociológica de que el entendimiento en materia medioambiental sólo se logrará mediante el diálogo intercultural, entendiendo que el mundo comprende múltiples formas de interpretación. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las repercusiones jurídicas de las diferentes representaciones de la naturaleza frente al paradigma europeo, concretamente en el caso de la sociedad china, partiendo de una visión multiculturalista de la relación entre el hombre y la naturaleza. La obra aborda el desarrollo global del sentimiento ecológico y sus reflejos jurídicos, pasando por el sistema de protección de los derechos ambientales en la UE y, en una segunda parte, analiza el desarrollo del derecho ecológico en China.
  • Ethical Issues in ABA-based Service Provision for Autism in Limited-Resource Contexts: A Case Example of the People’s Republic of China

    McCabe, Helen; Barnes, R. Eric; Jiang, Tian (Daemen Digital Commons, 2022-03-21)
    Recommendations for intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) focus on early, intensive, and often individual intervention based on methods of applied behavior analysis. In much of the world, there are few options for early intervention. This article examines this question: in a context where intensive and high staff-to-student ratio intervention is not possible, how can provision of high-quality evidence-based intervention be ensured? We consider the case of China, where intervention for young children with autism is provided at diverse educational organizations, and funding limitations impact teacher-to-student ratio. Due to challenges, rigorous use of evidence-based methods often lags behind best practices. This article presents an ethical analysis of the choices educators face and research-based recommendations consistent with the ethical analysis. Given the current context, we recommend a socially valid approach of systematically using group instruction based on ABA principles to increase the effectiveness and intensity of each aspect of intervention programs. While focused on the case of China, recommendations and analysis have implications for other settings with limited resources.
  • Federated data as a commons: a third way to subject-centric and collective-centric approaches to data epistemology and politics

    Calzati, S. (author) (2022)
    Purpose: This study advances a reconceptualization of data and information which overcomes normative understandings often contained in data policies at national and international levels. This study aims to propose a conceptual framework that moves beyond subject- and collective-centric normative understandings. Design/methodology/approach: To do so, this study discusses the European Union (EU) and China’s approaches to data-driven technologies highlighting their similarities and differences when it comes to the vision underpinning how tech innovation is shaped. Findings: Regardless of the different attention to the subject (the EU) and the collective (China), the normative understandings of technology by both actors remain trapped into a positivist approach that overlooks all that is not and cannot be turned into data, thus hindering the elaboration of a more holistic ecological thinking merging humans and technologies. Originality/value: Revising the philosophical and political debate on data and data-driven technologies, a third way is elaborated, i.e. federated data as commons. This third way puts the subject as part by default of a collective at the centre of discussion. This framing can serve as the basis for elaborating sociotechnical alternatives when it comes to define and regulate the mash-up of humans and technology.
  • The influence of Confucianism on middle school ethics education in the People's Republic of China

    Sanderson, Ian. (12365950) (2022-04-05)
    This thesis was scanned from the print manuscript for digital preservation and is copyright the author. Researchers can access this thesis by asking their local university, institution or public library to make a request on their behalf. Monash staff and postgraduate students can use the link in the References field.
  • The influence of Confucianism on middle school ethics education in the People's Republic of China

    Sanderson, Ian. (12365950) (2022-04-05)
    This thesis was scanned from the print manuscript for digital preservation and is copyright the author. Researchers can access this thesis by asking their local university, institution or public library to make a request on their behalf. Monash staff and postgraduate students can use the link in the References field.
  • 倫理學大綱.

    謝幼偉 , 1905-1976; Xie, Youwei , 1905-1976 (正中書局Zheng zhong shu ju,, 民國35 [1946)
  • Global leadership competencies of senior executives from non-state-owned companies of China: a qualitative study in a Confucian cultural context

    Kattey Wei Yuan Huan (12308516) (2016-09-17)
    Global leadership competencies are critically important for senior executives who wish to achieve business success in the global community. Such competencies include moral leadership competencies, which are significant for addressing unprecedented challenges in the contemporary era of globalisation. But few studies have been conducted in a culturally specific context that considers the cultural influence on cognition upon which these moral leadership competencies are established. This study contextualised the global leadership competencies within the Chinese Confucian culture. Participants were senior executives from Chinese non-state-owned companies that have undergone global expansion. This study investigated one dominant question: What are the global leadership competencies, in a culturally specific context of Confucianism, of senior executives in non-state-owned companies of China? Three subsidiary questions were also considered: (1) What is the significance of Confucianism on the global leadership competencies? (2) What is this study’s uniqueness in comparison with previous studies? (3) What is the implication for global business leaders? The data collected from 30 interviews were analysed using grounded theory methodology and Nvivo software, which identified 116 initial concepts, 42 advanced concepts, 11 categories, 4 axial codes and 1 core axis. The theoretically grounded model illustrates four clusters of global leadership competencies: moral cognition, self leadership,community leadership and sustainability leadership. This study makes five distinct contributions to leadership practice. It creates a culturally specific global leadership competency model, identifying the global leadership competencies of senior executives from Chinese non-state-owned companies in a Confucian cultural context. It articulates the Confucian influence on these competencies. It offers practical implications for management. It provides insights into the minds of Chinese senior executives. Finally, it recommends a culturally specific framework of global leadership competencies.
  • Shining red star : the political and moral evolution of Chinese children's literature

    Bi, Lijun. (12367885) (2022-04-05)
    This thesis was scanned from the print manuscript for digital preservation and is copyright the author. Researchers can access this thesis by asking their local university, institution or public library to make a request on their behalf. Monash staff and postgraduate students can use the link in the References field.
  • Does the Web deliver a sensible public sphere? : the Hong Kong erotic photo scandal and the social economic problematic in China

    Wang, Yang Wilfred. (12370525) (2022-04-05)
    This thesis was scanned from the print manuscript for digital preservation and is copyright the author. Researchers can access this thesis by asking their local university, institution or public library to make a request on their behalf. Monash staff and postgraduate students can use the link in the References field.
  • The influence of Personality, Ethical Climate, and Social Desirability Response Bias on Chinese Internal Auditors' Whistle-Blowing Judgments

    Bella Zhuoru Zheng (12309056) (2018-10-11)
    Global standards setters and national regulators have both recognised the importance of whistle-blowing in preventing and detecting business wrongdoing. In addition, researchers have advocated that whistle-blowing has contributed significantly to efforts in improving corporate governance and in reducing business misconduct across countries. The aim of the the sisis to examine the influence of three factors, namely personality, ethical climate, and social desirability response bias on Chinese internal auditors' acceptance and likelihood of engaging in whistle-blowing. These three factors have been selected for examination in the three papers comprising this thesis because of their importance and relevance both globally and in China. This thesis is based on the "thesis by publication", and comprises three separate studies. This thesis includes an introduction (Chapter 1), three separate empirical studies (Chapter 2-4), and a conclusion (Chapter 5). Specifically, the three papers comprising this thesis are as follows.The first paper is entitled, "The Influence of Construal of Selfon Internal Auditors' Judgments on Whistle-Blowing: Evidence from China". This paper contributes to the literature by examining how an important antecedent of whistle-blowing, namely construal of self, influences Chinese internal auditors' judgments in the context of whistle-blowing. China provides a particularly unique environment because traditional cultural values such as collectivism, obedience, submission, and the fear of jeopardizing harmonious interpersonal relationships arelikely to influence whistle-blowing. Internal auditors have been selected as subjects because of the importance placed on them by regulators and enterprises in designing whistle-blowing systems. Construal of self has been selected for examination because it captures complex moral,cognitive processes experienced by individuals at both cultural and personality levels. This study develops and finds support for the hypotheses that, compared to independents, interdependent internal auditors are less accepting and less likely to engage in whistle-blowing.The results also show the presence of strong social desirability response bias among internal auditors. Given the existence of social desirability response bias, this study viii questions the findings from prior research where subjects are required to provide their judgments on complex ethical issues related to their relationships with their colleagues, superiors, and junior staff members. The second paper is entitled, "The Influence of Ethical Climate on Whistle-Blowing as an Internal Control Mechanism: Evidence from China". This paper contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence on how an important antecedent, namely ethical climate, influences Chinese internal auditors' judgments on the acceptance and likelihood of engaging in whistle-blowing. The ethical context of whistle-blowing hasbeen selected because it is one of the most successful risk management frameworks for preventing and detecting business wrongdoing. China provides a particularly appropriate national context because of its unique social, political, and economic environment, which has faced rapid globalization, and where whistle-blowing is both important and controversial. Chinese internal auditors have been selected as subjects because regulators place significant importance on them in designing internal control systems centred around preventing wrongdoing and enhancing ethical practices. Ethical climate is considered to be the most important antecedent in examining whistle-blowing judgments because it influences both the psychological ethical decision-making process and subsequent behaviour in response to ethical dilemmas. Five ethical dimensions have been identified in the literature. However, the findings of this study show the existence of four ethical dimensions, namely instrumental, caring,rules,and law and code climates. Independence climate does not exist in the sample of this study. The objective of this study is to examine and compare how each of these four ethical climate dimensions is likely to influence whistle-blowing judgments. This study further contributes to the literature by examining cultural values embedded in Confucianism and Legalism that are compatible with various dimensions of ethical climate and which, in turn, are likely to encourage greater whistle-blowing intentions.This study also suggests that the intensity of influence of "harmony within hierarchy" and interdependence embedded in Confucianism on ethical climate is greater than that of Legalism. ix The findings of this study show that, compared to instrumental, rules, and law and code climates,caring climate results in the highest whistle-blowing intentions.Caring climate creates a supportive environment where employees believe that other organizational members are concerned with their well-being, and also provides a psychological safety feeling for employees. This study also suggests that together with caring climate, organizations may place a stronger focus on developing the rules and law and code climates to cultivate an ethical climate that can encourage employees to report wrongdoing.The third paper is entitled, "Construal of Self and Social Desirability Response Bias". Evidence based on social desirability response bias shows that individuals frequently hold inaccurate self-evaluations and form unjustifiable favourable self-views. One form of inaccurate self-evaluation is "holier-than-thou" perception bias. "Holier-than-thou" perception bias results in individuals believing that they are more ethical than other organizational members. This paper contributes to the literature by examining the influence of construal of self on "holier-than-thou" perception bias among Chinese internal auditors in the context of whistle-blowing. Construal of self has been selected for examination because it captures complex cognitive processes at both cultural and personality levels, and it distinguishes between inter dependents and independents. This study provides evidence that "holier-than-thou" perception bias exists among both interdependent and independent internal auditors. This study also finds support for the hypothesis that compared to independents, "holier-than-thou" perception bias is lower among interdependent internal auditors. Given the sensitive nature of ethics research, the presence of "holier-than-thou" perception bias may pose a serious threat to the validity of research findings.This study suggests that organizations may develop relevant training programs to work with inter dependents and independents to minimize "holier-than-thou" perception bias. The implications of each paper are as follows. The findings of the first paper may benefit local and multinational enterprises, regulators,and researchers who are interested in designing and xdeveloping more compatible whistle-blowing policies and procedures. The findings confirm that interdependent and independents coexist within contemporary China. This shift towards independence is likely to encourage greater acceptance and likelihood of engaging in whistle-blowing. The second paper provides empirical evidence of the importance of ethical climate in examining internal auditors' ethical judgments. The findings of the second paper have implications for global standard setters, professional bodies, and enterprises who are interested in designing and developing ethical climates that are more compatible with whistle-blowing policies and procedures.The findings of the third paper have particular implications for judgment and decision-making research in business. Given the sensitive nature of ethics research, the presence of "holier-than-thou" perception bias may pose a serious threat to the validity of research findings.The findings suggest that organizations may develop relevant training programs to work with inter dependents and independents to minimize "holier-than-thou" perception bias. This thesis makes significant and original contributions to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the influence of three important and relevant factors, namely personality, ethical climate, and social desirability response bias on Chinese internal auditors' acceptance and likelihood of engaging in whistle-blowing. The first paper will be submitted to Accounting, Organizations and Society, which is ranked A* by the Australian Business Deans Council (ABDC) Journal ranking. The second paper is currently under peer review and will be submitted to the Journal of International Accounting Research(American Accounting Association), which is ranked A by the ABDC. The third paper is under review by Journal of Management Studies, which is ranked A* by the ABDC
  • Effects of educational decentralization policy on teacher professionalism : a case study in Guangdong Province, China

    Wong, Lai Ngok (The University of SydneyFaculty of Education and Social Work, School of Policy and Practice, 2002)
    This research presents a study of teacher professionalism in the context of China's recent educational decentralization reforms. Decentralization reforms in education are a combination of the imposition of state control and market principles. These influences have the potential to impact on schools' developmental plans and teachers' professional development in a number of ways. This study investigated the impact of these reforms on the areas of school autonomy and teachers' professional development in Guangdong Province. Two key research questions were ( 1) whether decentralization policy enhanced teacher professionalism or not, and (2) whether there were any different reactions between government and private school teachers to the reform. 
 A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured and informal interviews with 81 participants in seven schools, mainly school principals, head teachers and teachers. School documents and official documents were included in the data collection and analysis. Decentralized educational systems in China and the West were compared in the literature review and China's unique cultural characteristics were taken into account in framing the research topic. 
 The analysis is presented in two parts. The first part is on a 'macro' unit of analysis to reveal changes that have occurred in schools, namely an expansion of school autonomy and a shift in legitimate authority to different educational participants. The second part of the analysis uses a 'micro' unit of analysis to explore how teachers perceive their current status and to assess any changes in their daily practice. Aspects examined include teachers' professional identity, professional concerns, professional practices and professional growth within the reform context. AJthough state control is still strong, current decentralization reforms in China's educational system have impacted on teacher professionalism in indirect and varied ways. This study revealed that teachers' professionalism in China is moving towards 'latent professionalism' which is particularly manifest in the private school system as market principles become increasingly important to the formation of teachers' daily practices. However, teachers perceive that ongoing learning can remedy the problem of teachers' deskilling within the reform context, from how they see themselves now ('silent workers' and 'factory workers') to 'transformative intellectuals', working towards professional growth.
  • “Ethnic Ethic and Aesthetic: Russell C. Leong and Marilyn Chin

    Cheung, K-K (eScholarship, University of California, 2021-06-27)
    This essay takes issue with the subordination of aesthetics to ethics in Ethical Literary Criticism. Ethics and aesthetics must coexist for either to realize its full value through literature. For any ethical lesson to take hold, it must be presented in a pleasing form so that the reader can learn without undue resistance. Part of the role of the critic is to discern beneath the seductive aesthetic form its ethical kernel, which more often than not remains elusive. The works by Russell C. Leong and Marilyn Chin, which provide literary entertainment and ethical illumination simultaneously, demonstrate the inextricability and interdependence of ethics and aesthetics. The “lessons” therein are exceptionally delectable on account of the two writers’ multiple consciousness as Chinese Americans and ethnic Americans concerned with other marginalized groups, their visceral empathy with racial and sexual minorities, and their scintillating poetics, especially their novel deployment of Chinese expressions and classical allusions. Their ethics and aesthetics are mutually constitutive and enabling.
  • ‘Action through non-action’: self-transformation and social transformation at the PRC grassroots

    Zhang, Liangliang (University of CambridgeKings, 2022-03-16)
    This dissertation is situated at the intersection of the anthropology of ethics and politics in the context of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). I ground my analysis in a long-standing ethical-political tradition, dating from the Warring States Period (475-221 BCE), which sees societal political progress as predicated on prior individual self-transformation. My overarching argument is that in contemporary China, discourses and practices of self-improvement have mediated, and continue to mediate, the relations between the political subject and the state. This dynamic is manifested in party-state-led projects of citizenry reform as well as in grassroots social initiatives centred on xiuxing – a polyvalent term denoting processes of self-amelioration, whose significance must be unpacked through a situated ethnographic exploration. To this end, I examine the social life that unfolds via the ‘Wu-Wei School’, a private organisation that provides educative xiuxing retreats. The school claims to use an areligious rendering of Daoist ascetic techniques to help citizens live healthier, more fulfilling lives, thereby contributing to the national rejuvenation project inaugurated by the Xi government (since 2012). My primary interlocutors are organisers and participants of the school, the majority of whom are urban professional householders belonging to relatively privileged social groups. They embark on xiuxing projects via grassroots organisations such as this school to address tangible problems in their lives, especially in areas of health, child rearing, and relationships. Notably, many hold that by undertaking xiuxing, they are reshaping not only themselves, but also their families and their situated socio-natural environment. I trace how my interlocutors engage with esoteric forms of self-transformation knowledge-practice, adopt forms of Daoist autogenetic healing, and intersect with other alternative education schemas such as Steiner Education. While ostensibly retreating into their bodies and interiorities, I argue that these Chinese citizens articulate a historically-sedimented mode of influence which connects human interiorities and sociohistorical transformations through the avenue of reflexive self-improvement. I further demonstrate how this mode of influence is integral to diverse components of the PRC political-cum-moral project, delineating the surprising ways in which my interlocutors operating ‘outside the system’ (ti zhi wai) coalesce with injunctions and techniques issued from ‘within the system’ (ti zhi nei). Through a historically-situated consideration of grassroots initiatives centred on xiuxing in the PRC, this dissertation contributes to anthropological studies of ethics, personhood, education, health, and governance. My theoretical contributions are fourfold: Firstly, I deploy indigenous Chinese concepts as analytical tools on a par with social theories constructed in Euro-American academia, enriching the conceptual repertoire of anthropological analysis. Secondly, I explore new ways of engaging with the ‘affective’ domain of social life by analysing how actors deploy indigenous theories of influence and potentiality in their situated articulations of socio-political belonging. Thirdly, I propose a theory of citizen-state interrelation in the PRC: ‘coopetition’, a framework borrowed from management studies that underscores practical interdependence and creative coalescence, eschewing notions of a reified structural divide. Finally, I develop an analytic of ‘recreational asceticism’ to elucidate the ethical life found at the Wu-Wei School, which differs significantly from what has been described as ‘self-cultivation’ in the anthropology of ethics.
  • On “Trust and Being True”: Toward a Genealogy of Morals

    Lai, Whalen (eScholarship, University of California, 2010-09-01)
    This Nietzschesque “genealogy of morals” presents the Confucian virtue of xin (trust and true) so basic to friendship as a civic virtue rooted among social equals. Among non-equals, a servant has to prove his trustworthiness but not yet vice versa. The script 信 (xin) tells of living up to one’s words. Yanxing 言行 (speech and action) describes actively keeping a verbal promise. The Agrarian school endorses xin as the primary virtue in its utopia of virtual equals. It knew oral trust and had no use for written covenants. In debating Mencius, Gaozi kept to that earlier primacy granted public speech as tied to one’s social reputation. Mencius turned inward and elevated mind as the inner good of moral intent instead. In the Doctrine of the Mean, inner xin would expand outward into becoming the ultimate truth, the sincerity of Heaven and Earth. The essay ends on an aside on the case of the Cretan Liar.

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