Critères de médiation
Estime de soi
Formation des enseignants
Tuteur de résilience
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AbstractLe principe de l’école inclusive n’implique pas seulement que les élèves en grande difficulté d’apprentissage aient leur place en classe ; il intègre aussi celui de la scolarisation de droit des élèves en situation de handicap. Ici et là, il s’agit, comme pour le commun de la population scolaire, de permettre à chacun de s’approprier ou de se réapproprier sa dynamique propre de développement. Tel est le sens de la loi. Mais l’inclusion a un prix et la loi n’a elle-même de sens que si les enseignants disposent de tous les moyens de faire face à l’obligation qui leur est ainsi faite.Ce principe de l’école inclusive enveloppe évidemment le postulat d’éducabilité, à savoir l’idée selon laquelle toute personne est « modifiable », quelle que soit par ailleurs l’exception dont elle est porteuse. Considérer donc, fût-ce contre l’évidence, que les élèves qui peinent à apprendre, voire n’apprennent pas, peuvent néanmoins apprendre, c’est admettre qu’en dépit des apparences ils restent capables de pensée formelle ou abstraite. C’est là une donnée de statut anthropologique qui, aujourd’hui encore, demeure fort éloignée d’affleurer à la conscience commune. On doit primordialement à Vygotski d’avoir montré que tout apprentissage passe par la médiation humaine. D’où l’idée, développée ultérieurement par les psychologues qui ont investi cette perspective, que le retard ou la stase du comportement peuvent se comprendre comme défaut ou interruption accidentelle de l’expérience médiatisée. Parmi les nombreuses réponses, toujours à adapter à chaque cas particulier, nous nous intéressons notamment à celle qu’a proposée Reuven Feuerstein : il a élaboré un outil, le PEI1, qui est d’ailleurs bien loin de n’être qu’un outil. Les critères de médiation qu’il définit se réfléchissent dans des pratiques dont la « bientraitance » constitue l’une des dimensions, laquelle nous retient ici pour ce qu’elle se donne comme une condition de possibilité des chances de résilience, concept particulièrement développé par Boris Cyrulnik. Enrichi par la médiation de l’expérience nouvelle et adaptée de l’apprentissage, l’enfant qui se modifie au niveau cognitif mais aussi métacognitif, conatif et social, parce qu’il se construit autrement, parce qu’il récupère sa dynamique de développement, s’ouvre par là même aux possibles de la résilience.
The principle of the inclusive school means that not only do pupils with severe learning difficulties have their place in the classroom, but also that physically disabled pupils have a right of equal access to education. Here and there, this involves allowing each pupil to personalize or repersonalize his or her own development process in accordance with e letter of the law. However, inclusion has a price, and the law has no meaning unless teachers use every means at their disposal to live up to the obligation that it confers on them.Of course, the principle of the inclusive school assumes that everyone can be educated and presupposes that every person is ‘modifiable’, no matter what exceptional circumstances they may have. Believing, despite all evidence to the contrary, that pupils who are learning little or nothing can still learn is to admit that, in spite of appearances, they remain capable of formal or abstract thought. This is a given of the anthropological status has yet to take a strong hold in the public’s mindset. It was Vygotski who originally demonstrated that all learning is the result of human mediation, whence the idea later developed by psychologists who studied this perspective that behavioural delays or stasis may be understood as a lack or accidental interruption of the mediated experience. From among numerous responses, all of which must be adapted to each specific case, we are most especially interested in the one proposed by Reuven Feuerstein, who developed a tool called the Instrumental Enrichment Programme, which has turned out to be more than a simple tool. The mediation criteria that he defines are reflected in practices whose ‘positive treatment’ constitutes one of the dimensions, and we are using it here as a condition for the possibility of resilience, a concept that Boris Cyrulnik has written about in great depth. Enriched by the mediation of new experiences and adapted by learning, a child is changed not only cognitively but also metacognitively, conatively, and socially, because he or she is rebuilding him- or herself and recovering his or her ability to develop. This development makes resilience a possibility for this child.
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Cultural resiliency and discussion with philosophic aim : ongoing study of seven students in vocational high schoolActivité, Connaissance, Transmission, éducation ( ACTé ) ; Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand 2 ( UBP ); Activité, Connaissance, Transmission, éducation - Clermont Auvergne ( ACTé ) ; Université Clermont Auvergne ( UCA ); Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II; Emmanuèle Auriac-Peyronnet; Michel Tozzi; Henrion-Latché , Johanna (HAL CCSD, 2016-11-10)In the spite of the complexity of the search for ground on the works concerning the resiliency and particularly resiliency in school context, we were interested in the modalities and in the demonstrations of this one in establishments of the secondary sector in France, in the sensitive said building’s high schools. Seat of educational and social tensions, the relations between the actors are printed mistrust and translate social and psychosocial difficulties complicating the answer to the missions of teaching and educational, and tarnishing the image of the teenagers and the diplomas. Although the origin and the factors of dysfunction of the teenagers take root initially in problems exceeding the school, their coverage and their mediation are a matter of the education, to prepare the school’s exit and the entrance alive active and social. The appeal to the diagnosis and the solutions are registered within today institutionalized hours the objectives of which concern the development of the pupil. But when the contact got rid for years of previous academic failure, when the not sense settled down in spite of the orientation, when the behavior challenges the authority and when the early school leaving displays as a constant in progress in these establishments, how to think of an educational practice which can revive the bases of the reliable interactions between teenagers and teacher, while guaranteeing a frame of good volume in the unsettled affects by creating interactions which allow the pupil to work and to mediatize the past, to register it in a meaningful present by throwing it in the future in a harmonious way? If this educational practice allows the teacher and the educator to define his share, it’s also an educational contingency registered in the theories of the resiliency which is the faculty to bounce further to a trauma. In this optics to thwart the academic failure, to allow the creation of positive fates, off-camera of the reproduction of the failure, by being supported on the theories of the resiliency at the school, it’s possible to envisage an educational practice of coverage of the group classy of teenagers which implements these interactions between pupils and teacher according to a praxis of resiliency. And if this resiliency joins a cultural collective practice, leaning on the works of a culture and passed on by this one, it’s named cultural resiliency. Except field of therapeutics or of the psychology of group, the cultural resiliency answers the cognitive imperative to join a dialogical practice reassuring and demanding for pupils prevented from thinking, to fill the gaps and the defects of inner and previous languages. The practices of discussion with philosophic aim demonstrate that’s possible to create these spaces of mediation around the rigorous thought to develop various capacities to think guaranteeing the performance of a speech exempt from ease and from excuses. If this discussion is supported by a cultural supports of the literature, as the tales or the myths, then, a double mediation at the pupil is possible, since the isolated and silent mediation in connection with the theories of the tae towards the orals mediations which will follow the reading according to logic of philosophic questionings. If the choice of the support is ad hoc according to the recommendations of Lipman and what the tales speaks about resiliency then, it’s possible to lead discussions with philosophic aim in a praxis of driving process of cultural resiliency, which will be realized through the evolutions of the speeches of the high school students. This search for comprehensive type leans on the analysis of the speeches and the interactions in a pragmatic prospect which allows the highlit of contents registered within the framework of the cultural resiliency through factors of implementation of the process which are the link, the sense and the law. The experiment of signing of eighteen sessions of discussions [...]
Effect of resiliency factors on the success of students with emotional and behavioral disordersWoitaszewski, Scott; Lightle, Erika; Pevidor, Izabela (2009-04-30)School Psychology Program Directed Research Project. 2009. Educational Specialist (Ed.S.) Degree. University of Wisconsin-River Falls. 21 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 15-16).
Vulnerability and resilient processes in nursing training : which tutors of resilience for the weakened nursing students?Centre de recherches en psychopathologie et psychologie clinique ( CRPPC ) ; Université Lumière - Lyon 2 ( UL2 ); Université de Lyon; Marie Anaut; Morenon , Olivier (HAL CCSD, 2017-10-23)The vast majority of French nursing students succeed in their studies despite having experienced stress factors, that can often be associated or, indeed, lead to burnout. We conducted a literature review followed by a semi-structured interview of 30 nursing students. The aim was to explore the concepts of vulnerability and resilience and how nursing students use these to succeed in their studies. Our main results confirm that nursing training places students in a situation of temporary vulnerability. Personal factors of vulnerability identified were: the stakes due to learning during the youth or later in adult life and the process of identity. The main factors of vulnerability relating to the environment were; the difficulty in measuring the gap between the ideal and reality, the emotional experience with the patient during their placement and establishment of difficult relationships with supervisors, who are often suffering in their work. The main consequences observed were stress, anxiety, insomnia, or loss of hope. These symptoms are sometimes the expression of post-traumatic stress disorder or of a professional burnout.On the other hand, the survey revealed that resilient processes can be observed during the studies. The main protective factors identified in the study that gave the students resilience were ; learning in oneself and supportive teachers, which allows the mentalization process. Defense mechanisms are also activated during training. Altruism in the supportive relationship both with mentors and the camaradery formed with fellow students were particularly evident amongst the interview responses. Potential sources of resilience identified were: student groups, trainers, directors, health managers / supervisors, nurses, nursing aides and psychologists. In summary, we have analyzed the new elements that this research has shown and compared to previous studies that have been conducted about the risk of among nursing students. We identified the main characteristic of their resilience tutors that emerged from our investigation: compassion. Finally, we considered the pedagogical follow-up and the analysis of professional practice as the two sequences of learning to promote resilience.