Globethics.net Climate ethics collection is focusing on the gathering of latest scientific and journalistic documentation available on the ethical and theoretical framework around climate change regulation and ethics, including the problematic tendency toward "climate deregulation", i. e. mesures taken to scale back climate mitigation standards. Globethics.net Library provides updated research papers showing the promises of progress, and good will as well as the concrete risks of regressus, inherent to this intergenerational problem and moral dilemma. The whole collection has been updated as of February 2018.

Recent Submissions

  • Climate change vulnerability mapping across ecological zones in Delta State, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Verere S. Balogun; Andrew G. Onokerhoraye (Elsevier, 2022-08-01)
    The nature of various ecologies partly determines how vulnerable regions and localities are to climate change. In developing countries, the low level of technological innovations required to adapt effectively and high reliance on nature for livelihood make certain areas more vulnerable than others. The study investigates the vulnerabilities of the three major ecological zones (Lowland rainforest, Freshwater Swamp, and Mangrove Swamp) in Delta State of the Niger Delta Region to climate change. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to analyze exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indicators. Temperature and rainfall data used as the indicators for exposure were downloaded from NASA’s website and UCI CHRS’s data portal respectively and spanned from the year 1981 to 2019 for temperature and 2000 to 2019 for rainfall. PCA for sensitivity and adaptive capacity was carried out using thirty (30) sensitivity indicators and thirteen (13) adaptive capacity indicators, which were derived from the administration of 4,000 copies of questionnaire to rural residents of 10 selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Delta State. These were used to generate vulnerability scores (Z-scores), which served as measures of vulnerability, for the components – exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. The results showed that Warri North Local Government Area and Warri Southwest Local Government Area (both located in the Mangrove Swamp ecology) were the most vulnerable in terms of temperature, with Z-Scores of 3.096 and 2.681 respectively. In terms of rainfall, the results indicated that most LGAs located in the Freshwater Swamp were the most exposed to increased rainfall. In terms of sensitivity, Burutu and Patani LGAs located in the Mangrove Swamp and Ndokwa East LGA located in the Freshwater Swamp were the most sensitive to climate change. Burutu and Patani LGAs (which are both in the Mangrove Swamp) had the highest vulnerability based on low adaptive capacity. Overall, Patani and Burutu LGAs (both in the Mangrove Swamp ecological zone) were the most vulnerable to climate change. The study recommends that climate change interventions be delivered across communities in the Niger-Delta Region based on variations of the indicators of vulnerability.
  • Estimating Future Migration Flows Under Social and Environmental Scenarios Taking Into Account Interactions: Insights From a Survey Among Migration Scholars

    Michaël Boissonneault; Petra Wieke de Jong (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-06-01)
    Scenario planning has been gaining popularity during the last decade as a tool for exploring how international migration flows might be affected by changing future circumstances. Using this technique, scholars have developed narratives that describe how flows might change depending on different developments in two of their most impactful and uncertain drivers. Current applications of scenario planning to migration however suffer from limitations that reduce the insights that can be derived from them. In this article, we first highlight these limitations by reviewing existing applications of scenario planning to migration. Then, we propose a new approach that consists in specifying different pathways of change in a set of six predefined drivers, to then ask migration scholars how each of these pathways might impact both migration flows and the other five drivers. We apply our approach to the case of migration pressure and demand from less developed countries to Europe until the year 2050. Results from our survey underscore the importance of a wide array of drivers for the future of migration that have so far not been considered in previous applications of scenario planning. They further suggest that drivers do not change independently from each other, but that specific changes in some drivers are likely to go hand in hand with changes in other drivers. Lastly, we find that changes in similar drivers could have different effects in sending and receiving countries. We finish by discussing how enhanced, quantified scenarios of migration between less developed countries and Europe can be formulated based on our results.
  • Solar Radiation Management and Comparative Climate Justice

    Svoboda, Toby (2016)
    In line with Christopher Preston’s argument in the introduction to this volume, I argue here that, although it is helpful to identify potential injustices associated with SRM, it is also crucial both to evaluate how SRM compares to other available options and to consider empirical conditions under which deployment might occur. In arguing for this view, I rely on a distinction between two types of question: (1) whether SRM would produce just or unjust outcomes in some case and (2) whether it would be just to deploy SRM in that same case. The former question pertains to whether some distribution of benefits and burdens is morally good or bad, whereas the latter pertains to whether some action or policy is morally permissible, impermissible, or obligatory. Although related, these two uses of justice do not come to the same thing. It may be that some climate policy involving SRM carries risks of substantial distributive injustice and yet is permissible or even obligatory. This is because, as I argue, considering what would be just to do should be comparative, taking into consideration both empirical conditions and the morally valuable and disvaluable features of alternative climate policies.
  • Expanding the Duty to Rescue to Climate Migration

    David N. Hoffman; Anne Zimmerman; Camille Castelyn; Srajana Kaikini (Columbia University Libraries, 2022-06-01)
  • Ethics and Politics of the Built Environment: Gardens of the Anthropocene

    DI PAOLA M (Springer International Publishing AG, 2017)
    This book is a reflection on the role of gardens in our thinking about our environments, and on the role of urban gardening in our acting and for our environments. More generally, it is an exploration of the ethical and political station of individuals in the Anthropocene - this new epoch in which the Earth is being remade by human activity. The book argues that, in the new epoch, urban gardens and gardening are to become 1) conceptual models for reflecting on the human station within the wider workings of things; 2) contexts and practices of stewardship that enable the fulfillment of individual moral obligations against important global challenges - including food security, climate change, resource depletion, and biodiversity loss; 3) urban gardens and gardening are contexts and practices of virtue development and exercise, promoting behavioral and attitudinal dispositions that are particularly fit to the new circumstances of the Anthropocene; and 4) because urban gardens can be networked into city-level garden-systems, and individual urban gardening can be coordinated interpersonally to deliver collective arrangements, urban gardens and gardening are also to become contexts and practices of political participation. In this sense a networked, city-level garden system can be described as a public good, providing at least four important services: connecting citizens, promoting sustainability and justice objectives, catalyzing identification, and enabling self-determination.
  • Zarządzanie bardziej ludzkie, ludzkie, więcej-niż-ludzkie

    Pałasz, Michał (Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, Biblioteka Jagiellońska, 2022)
    W rozdziale zderzam nurty zarządzania ekonomicznego i humanistycznego, aby wyartykułować, z pomocą teorii aktora-sieci i krytycznego posthumanizmu, koncepcję odmienną. Wychodzę od zwięzłego opisu wybranych prób humanizowania zarządzania na gruncie etyki biznesu, społecznej odpowiedzialności biznesu, teorii interesariuszy, zrównoważonego rozwoju, nurtu krytycznego w zarządzaniu, zarządzania humanistycznego. Następnie rozwijam wątek genezy, rozwoju i problemów tego ostatniego w Polsce. W obliczu eksploatacyjności istniejących zarządzań – ekonomicznego i humanistycznego – w ostatniej części tekstu proponuję humanistycznie zdeantropocentryzowane zarządzanie posthumanistyczne, wywodzące się z nurtu humanistycznego, lecz adekwatniejsze do wyzwań współczesności, w szczególności kryzysu klimatyczno-ekologicznego, i, co istotne w obliczu nasilającego się marginalizowania tegoż prądu, stabilniejsze, mające większe szanse na przetrwanie niż zarządzanie humanistyczne. Wychodzę więc od zarządzania bardziej ludzkiego, podążam przez ludzkie, kończę zaś na więcej-niż-ludzkim.
  • The “Animal-Based Food Taboo”: climate change denial and deontological codes in journalism

    Almiron, Núria, 1967- (Frontiers, 2020)
    In spite of the well-documented links between global warming and the animal-based
 diet, human dietary choices have been only timidly problematized by legacy media
 in the recent decades. Research on news reporting of the connection between the
 animal-based diet and climate change shows a clear coverage deficit in traditional
 journalism. In order to reflect on the reasons for this failure, this paper discusses moral
 anthropocentrism as the human-supremacist moral stance at the roots of mainstream
 ethics and the climate crisis. Accordingly, the animal-based food taboo is defined here
 as our reluctance not only to change but to even discuss changing our food habits,
 a strong evidence that moral anthropocentrism is not addressed as a problem, which
 amounts to a type of denial. Through a literature review conducted on the most relevant
 comparative studies of deontological codes, this paper shows that codes of journalism
 do not escape moral anthropocentrism, and thus contribute to prevent journalists from
 stressing the relevant role diet plays in our ethics and sustainability efforts. The paper
 ends by suggesting ways to expand and update media ethics and deontological codes
 in journalism to dismantle both the taboo and the moral anthropocentric stance it is
 based on.
  • The economic vulnerability of fishing households to climate change in the south Pacific region of Colombia

    John Josephraj Selvaraj; Daniel Guerrero; Maria Alejandra Cifuentes-Ossa; Ángela Inés Guzmán Alvis (Elsevier, 2022-05-01)
    Climate change's direct and indirect effects on marine ecosystems and coastal areas mainly impact small-scale fishers, especially in developing countries, which present extreme poverty and high dependency on marine ecosystems as a source of food and sustenance for households. Understanding the vulnerability of fishing households and considering the associated socio-economic-political complexities is essential for preserving their livelihoods and maintaining their well-being. This study proposes a measure of economic vulnerability based on the capacity of fishing households in Tumaco, located on the southern Pacific coast of Colombia, to diversify their livelihoods. Different statistical procedures have been conducted to identify the most relevant strategies in reducing the economic vulnerability of households. The results indicate that reducing the vulnerability of fishing households depends on adaptation strategies such as occupational mobility, some elements of social capital, and reduced dependence on the fisheries resource. This study could constitute an input for creating public policy that guides efforts to achieve strategies for the generation of other livelihoods and the sustainability of fishing households that continue to choose fishing as their main economic activity.
  • Breathing Air with Heft: An Experiential Report on Environmental Law and Public Health in China

    Ryan, Erin (Scholarship Repository, 2018-01-01)
    This article explores the gritty intersections of daily life and environmental law in modern China, an industrial powerhouse still struggling to reconcile economic opportunity with breathable air, clean water, healthy food, and safe products. With comparative perspective on analogous challenges in the United States, the article reports on these critical domestic challenges for China at a pivotal moment in its reemergence as a dominant world power. China’s continued geopolitical rise may well hinge on its ability to respond successfully to the environmental causes of growing social unrest. In 2011, in the midst of this maelstrom, I brought my husband, young son, and elderly mother to spend a year living in China while I taught American law and studied Chinese environmental governance as a Fulbright Scholar. In our small two-bedroom apartment, we lived like a typical Chinese family — with three generations and an only child — and we struggled with the environmental challenges that nearly all Chinese families manage, from boiling tap water to breathing some of the most polluted air in human history. The experience of teaching environmental law at the same time that we were learning the Chinese environmental experience was alternatively wrenching and inspiring. Five years later, I returned to China to study the government’s new efforts to combat the environmental degradation that has accompanied China’s rapid industrial development, and to take stock of what had changed. This piece synthesizes these insights with unfolding regulatory efforts into a full exposition of the regulatory challenges that preoccupy modern China. Drawing from the rich reservoir of ordinary life infuses the research here with writing that is as experiential as it is academic — not just the legal particulars of monitoring fine particulate air pollution, but also how life changes when you are physically immersed in those particulates day after day. It chronicles the experiences of living within China’s increasingly polluted environment — without clean air, potable water, or faith that the products we encountered in the marketplace wouldn’t make us sick. It reflects on the ways that established environmental problems can foster newer ones, such as the paradoxical implications of poor water quality for the mounting waste management crisis. Yet it also describes environmental realms in which China regularly puts the U.S. to shame — such as its widespread investment in urban public transportation systems, its fuller-scale embrace of renewable energy, and the Chinese people’s less resource-intensive lifestyles. After this descriptive account, the article explores fundamental differences in American and Chinese environmental philosophy and evaluates the unique challenges each nation faces in moving toward sustainable governance. Finally, it balances my observations with parallel reflections from a Chinese lawyer about the environmental issues she encountered while living in the United States. Her observations remind us that while Americans can take pride in the innovations of environmental governance we pioneered, we must also contend with ongoing legal and cultural hurdles to environmental protection and public health. I conclude with thoughts about what each nation can learn from the other, and the hope that sharing experiences like these will help bridge the cultural gaps we inevitably encounter in working together to resolve global environmental challenges.
  • The Deceptive Delusions of Green Capitalism

    Álvaro de Regil (11451820) (2022-05-21)
    Why Endless Consumption of Our Finite Planet Will Take Us to Our Cliff of Doom and How We Can Prevent It Pundits and apologists of "green capitalism", an oxymoron, are working strenuously to deceive people. They want people to think that technology will solve all the problems associated with climate change and the planetary rift created by the Anthropocene geological epoch. With the full and enthusiastic cooperation of governments around the world, all underlying social structures such as educational systems, mass media, government public messaging, advertising, corporate public relations and many NGOs are conveying the narrative that the technological prowess of twentieth-first century capitalism will solve all the problems of the increasingly catastrophic planetary events. In this way, the messaging continues to be business as usual. People are led to presume that capitalism and its inherent and unsustainable consumer society will continue by making capitalism more efficient, more ecologically and socially responsible and sustainable as if it were already ecologically and socially sustainable to some extent. We just need to transition to new energy sources and become more efficient in resource consumption. Nonetheless, science has demonstrated that a safe and just transition to make the planet sustainable for the future generations of humans and non-humans, without transgressing the nine planetary boundaries, will require a radical structural and tectonic change to downscale our consumption of resources drastically. This inevitably requires the replacement of capitalism with a new eco-humanistic paradigm for the well-being of people and the planet and not the market. However, given that governments are utterly committed to preserving capitalism, only a global eco-social movement of conscientious and concerned individuals can organise to peacefully and democratically save our home, Planet Earth.
  • Intimations of a Spiritual New Age. V. Socio-Cultural Bases of a Globalizing Neo-Shamanism and its Relation to Climate Crisis: Possibilities, Inevitabilities, Barriers

    Hunt, Harry T. (Digital Commons @ CIIS, 2022-01-01)
    Extending this series of papers on a futural spirituality, and considering the numinous as an inherent human capacity for an awe that confers a sense of all-inclusive meaning, communality, and humility, the question arises whether, in the face of a secularization of traditional world religions, globalization of a techno/capitalist economy of perpetual commodification of planet and person, and a widening sense of loss of meaning and higher purpose, some collective re-newal of the sense of the sacred might be possible – or not. While Jung, Toynbee, and Sorokin regarded such a movement as inevitable, bringing forward to the degree possible the full spectrum of the numinous in an originary ur-shamanism, Bourguignon, Weber, and the later Heidegger foresaw its necessary blockage by the unique complexity and hyper-rationalism of a globalizing materialist economy. The further question becomes whether any such renewal would be constrained to the more “adjustive” movements of Stoicism/Neoplatonism and much of current New Age spirituality – as mainly mirroring the hyper-individualism of Rome and modernity. Or, might it open toward the more revolutionary impact of an early Christianity, and in the present as the futural neo-shamanism variously anticipated by Jung, Reich, Toynbee, and Heidegger? Could such a neo-shamanism, especially as energized by the collective use of now widely available entheogens, re-sacralize planet and nature in time to address this looming crisis of a human generated climate change and help to inspire its containment?
  • POWER AND ETHICS IN THE MOTIVATION AND APPLICATION OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    Lapke, Michael; Lapke, Shalyn; Stone, Samuel; Kinnunen, Anna; Kauko, Juha (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2022-04-01)
    The information and communication sector is responsible for roughly 4% of global electricity consumption as well as the emission of 730 million metric tons of CO2-eq or 1.4% of global greenhouse gas emissions (Cunliff, 2020). This research will investigate the intersection of power, ethics, and green technology. A primary point is to analyze the obligation of consumers and organizations to utilize information technology to help mitigate climate change contributions. Secondly, to what extent are governments obligated to create regulations for organizations in order to reduce their contributions to climate change? Finally, given that green technology can dampen economic expansion, is this an acceptable reason to slow or stop the implementation of such technology? Given the large scope of this study (individual to planet), the most appropriate framework for ethical analysis is discourse ethics. Discourse ethics employs three strategies: conceptual investigations, where different stakeholders debate the relative importance of particular values, empirical investigations of the actual context of use, and technical investigations of the extent to which available technology could in fact support or hinder particular values (Mingers and Walsham, 2010; Habermas 1992).
  • “‘We’ May Be in This Together, but We Are Not All Human and We Are Not One and the Same”

    LS FAC Vgl vrouwenst. Taal en Beeld; ICON - Gender Studies; Braidotti, R. (2020-06-01)
    There has never been a more urgent time to engage with the Environmental Humanities and the other Posthumanities. This engagement is creative as well as critical and it touches upon some fundamental issues within what I have called the posthuman convergence. That is the intersection of two concurrent but contradictory phenomena: the unprecedented technological developments that have also become known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the acceleration of the climate change emergency, also known as the Sixth Extinction. This complex intersection of events triggers multiple fractures, ethical dilemmas, affective perturbations, political concerns, and critical lines of inquiry. I have summarized them as the convergent critiques of Humanism on the one hand and the rejection of anthropocentrism on the other. This is neither a simple nor a harmonious intersection of critical lines, but rather an encounter fraught with painful contradictions and challenging problems.
  • Chapter 2 SHAPING ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATES TO DEVELOP AND LEVERAGE WORKFORCE NEURODIVERSITY

    Volpone, Sabrina; Avery, Derek R.; Wayne, Julie (Taylor & FrancisNeurodiversity in the WorkplaceRoutledge, 2022-05-18)
    Chapter 2 explores how organizations can bolster their workplace inclusion in ways that consider the natural variation in human neurocognitive functioning to provide altered workplace environments that leverage the strengths of all employees. Entitled Shaping Organizational Climates to Develop and Leverage Workforce Neurodiversity, by Sabrina Volpone, Derek Avery, and Julie Wayne, the authors ask why “instead of placing the unnecessary burden on neurodivergent individuals, what if workplaces altered their environments so that all employees - including those who are neurodivergent- could easily apply their strengths at work?” Throughout the chapter, the authors discuss how neurotypical norms have dominated human resource management practices for so long that there is a crucial need to critically analyze these norms and establish new norms if we are going to be able to support neurodivergent applicants and employees. The response offered by these authors is to closely examine all facets of the employment process in light of the role of climate in considering neurodiversity in the workplace. This is accomplished by an initial discussion of the role of psychological climates and their role in supporting neurodiversity in organizations.
  • The Rescue Project

    Miller, Gretchen; https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1892-0975 (UNSW, Sydney, 2021)
    What is the experience of being a rescuer of damaged landscapes and broken creatures, at a time of environmental crisis in Australia? How do individuals and grassroots communities go about small acts of rescue, and how do they maintain the courage to do this work? The Rescue Project is practice-based research. It includes a public digital storytelling site of 51 text-based rescuer story contributions, alongside a podcast of four episodes, plus an exegesis providing critical reflection and analysis of the creative practice and the resultant thematic threads. The digital site was constructed in partnership with the non-government, volunteer-based, land regeneration organisation Landcare Australia. This practice and exegesis contribute new thinking to the scholarship of environmental communication by considering the meaning of rescue, providing insights into the affectual themes of acts of rescue, articulating rescue relations, and introducing and developing several key terms: ecosonics, homeground, and citizen storytelling. The themes which emerge from this project reveal the emotional affects and effects of undertaking rescues, and suggest rescues take place within three related and iterative overarching themes. Firstly, the theme of humility that is required to begin an act of rescue. Secondly, the theme of attunement that builds resonances with both sentient figures and non-sentient features of homegrounds. Finally, the theme of courage to undertake rescue activities, and courage’s iterative outcome, encouragement. Further, this practice and exegesis contribute to environmental communication through foregrounding listening and hearing, the spoken word, community storytelling, and the ecosonics of the more-than-human world. In giving space to the methodological processes of my creative practice, this exegesis offers environmental communication practitioners new ways to go about their work. It also responds to current calls within this scholarship for a listening modality: for too long we have been deaf to the sounds of the more-than-human world. The Rescue Project is a demonstration of how we might humbly hear these worlds speak. To explore the digital space, please visit: https://web.archive.org/web/20210530042604/https://landcareaustralia.org.au/rescue/
  • Norsk skepsis og usikkerhet om klimaendringer

    Marthe Hårvik Austgulen; Eivind Stø (Scandinavian University Press/Universitetsforlaget, 2013-05-01)
    Marthe Hårvik Austgulen og Eivind Stø I denne artikkelen studerer vi utbredelsen av klimaskepsis i den norske befolkningen og undersøker hvilke faktorer som best kan forklare denne skepsisen. Vi finner at fornektelse av klimaendringene er lite utbredt, men at en betydelig andel av de spurte uttrykker skepsis når det gjelder klimaendringenes betydning og alvorlighetsgrad. For å undersøke hva som kan forklare denne klimaskepsisen tok vi utgangspunkt i tre dominerende forklaringer, nemlig mangel på kunnskap og informasjon, forskjeller i verdi- og verdenssyn og forskjeller i praksis. For å svare på spørsmålet benytter vi meningsmålingsdata som ble samlet inn av TNS Gallup på oppdrag fra SIFO i november 2011. Vi finner at kunnskapsnivå, verdenssyn og miljøvennlig praksis alle er statistisk signifikante variabler i analysen, men at respondentenes verdenssyn synes å forklare mest. Respondenter som preges av individualistiske verdier og som stemte på Fremskrittspartiet ved valget i 2009, er signifikant mer klimaskeptiske enn andre respondenter. Vi konkluderer med at eksisterende verdier og politisk ideologi har stor betydning for nordmenns holdninger til klimaendringer, og at dette må reflekteres i kommunikasjonen av klimaendringer til befolkningen. Nøkkelord: klimaskepsis, klimafornektelse, klimaendringer, holdninger
  • Climate Change: The Role of Technology, "Dominon," and Our Pastoral Responsibility

    Wakefield, Leah (DigitalCommons@CSB/SJU, 2022-04-28)
    This paper briefly examines the correlation between burning fossil fuels, the increase of carbon in the atmosphere and resulting volatile weather, including hurricanes and floods. The paper then discusses possible technological solutions, including carbon dioxide scrubbers. Finally, the paper critically examines Genesis 2:15 and 1:26 and uses Laudato Si’ to reframe our understanding of “dominion” over the earth as a responsibility that calls for us to work to end climate change.
  • Apocalypse

    Herbrechter, Stefan; Callus, Ivan; Rossini, Manuela; de Bruin-Molé, Megen; Müller, Christopher John; Grech, Marija; Mussgnug, Florian (Palgrave Macmillan, 2022-04-08)
    This chapter demonstrates the pervasive cultural influence of apocalyptic thinking in the twenty-first century. It explains how the rhetoric of apocalypse, with its characteristic sense of existential urgency, has been variously endorsed by environmental activists, campaigners for intergenerational, planetary climate justice, and protesters against sexism and racism. On a more critical note, the chapter suggests that cultural attention to linear time and world-shattering rupture, in apocalyptic discourse, stands in the way of more complex and probing critical engagements with nonhuman temporalities. It gives voice to leading posthumanists, who have argued that apocalyptic thinking is structurally anthropocentric and therefore particularly problematic in the context of the unfolding climate and environmental catastrophe. The chapter endorses this critique and, in response, seeks to shed light on the possibility of new forms of apocalyptic thinking, which are explicitly attentive to their own material entanglement and therefore resistant to the combined power mechanisms of anthropocentrism and advanced capitalism. Such new forms of progressive, disruptive, and self-reflective apocalyptic thinking, it is suggested, may draw their force from non-anthropocentric knowledge practices and imaginative frameworks. In this way, the chapter resists the idea of apocalypse literature as a single, transhistorical, and transnational canon and instead emphasizes the irreducible diversity of its numerous expressions, across periods and cultures.
  • Everyone Wants a Revolution, No One Wants to Do the Dishes

    Widdicombe, Henry O. (DigitalCommons@CSB/SJU, 2022-04-28)
    This piece is a reflection on climate despair, filtered through the novel A Canticle for Leibowitz, the Catholic Worker Movement, and Benedictine spirituality to imagine what the response of a faithful Catholic might be. It posits that the only adequate response to, seemingly, insurmountable challenges is to hope against hope.
  • Integrating agroecology to catalyze smallholder farming systems as nature-based solutions to mitigate and adapt to climate change in the Caribbean

    Weaver, Miles; Roop, Ramgopaul; Fonseca, Ana Paula (Springer, 2021-12-16)
    Agriculture and food production systems are responsible for up to 29% of greenhouse gas emissions. A significant contributor to this phenomenon is the dominance of industrial large-scale monoculture cropping on approximately 80% of the 1.5 billion hectares devoted to agriculture. Additionally, over 570 million smallholder farmers comprise 84% of polyculture farms that produce approximately 30% of food worldwide. These farms consist of over two billion people cultivating less than 2 hectares without adequate land tenure, mostly in marginal or risk-prone environments. Despite possessing a wealth of traditional knowledge, which works with nature and natural elements, smallholder farmers suffer from the marginalization of input resources, capital, assets, and technical information. These limiting conditions impede their adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change in coping with the challenges of sustainable production. Smallholder farmers and their dependents comprise approximately 75% of the world's underprivileged, hungry, and undernourished people capable of influencing human-induced climate change. This paper examines smallholder farming as a catalyst for nature-based solutions utilizing agroecology which relies on the ecosystem's natural features as mitigation and adaptation measures. It integrates adaptive measures of the Trinidad farm that received the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA's) 2021 Hemispheric "Soul of Rurality" Award of the Americas. The research aims to advocate building resilient agriculture in the Caribbean to cope with the impacts of climate change in achieving food and nutrition security.

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