Globethics.net Climate ethics collection is focusing on the gathering of latest scientific and journalistic documentation available on the ethical and theoretical framework around climate change regulation and ethics, including the problematic tendency toward "climate deregulation", i. e. mesures taken to scale back climate mitigation standards. Globethics.net Library provides updated research papers showing the promises of progress, and good will as well as the concrete risks of regressus, inherent to this intergenerational problem and moral dilemma. The whole collection has been updated as of February 2018.

Recent Submissions

  • The Geopolitics of the Global Energy Transition

    Hafner, Manfred; Tagliapietra, Simone (Springer Nature, 2020)
    The world is currently undergoing an historic energy transition, driven by increasingly stringent decarbonisation policies and rapid advances in low-carbon technologies. The large-scale shift to low-carbon energy is disrupting the global energy system, impacting whole economies, and changing the political dynamics within and between countries. This open access book, written by leading energy scholars, examines the economic and geopolitical implications of the global energy transition, from both regional and thematic perspectives. The first part of the book addresses the geopolitical implications in the world’s main energy-producing and energy-consuming regions, while the second presents in-depth case studies on selected issues, ranging from the geopolitics of renewable energy, to the mineral foundations of the global energy transformation, to governance issues in connection with the changing global energy order. Given its scope, the book will appeal to researchers in energy, climate change and international relations, as well as to professionals working in the energy industry.
  • Sustainable Distribution of Responsibility for Climate Change Adaptation

    Åsa Knaggård; Erik Persson; Kerstin Eriksson (MDPI AG, 2020-06-01)
    To gain legitimacy for climate change adaptation decisions, the distribution of responsibility for these decisions and their implementation needs to be grounded in theories of just distribution and what those affected by decisions see as just. The purpose of this project is to contribute to sustainable spatial planning and the ability of local and regional public authorities to make well-informed and sustainable adaptation decisions, based on knowledge about both climate change impacts and the perceptions of residents and civil servants on what constitutes a sustainable distribution of responsibility. Our aims are: (1) a better understanding of the practical implications of theories about just distribution of responsibility for the choice of local and regional climate adaptation measures; (2) knowledge about what residents and civil servants consider a sustainable distribution of responsibility for climate adaptation measures; and (3) a better understanding of conflicts concerning the distribution of responsibilities and systematic knowledge about the possibilities to manage them. In this interdisciplinary project, we study six municipalities and their residents, and two county administrative boards, all in Sweden, using mixed methods: value theory, document studies, interviews, focus groups, and surveys.
  • Swedish companies' current use of carbon offsetting - underlying ethical view and preparedness for post-2020 carbon market conditions

    Hwargård, Louise (Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, 2020)
    In 2015, the Paris Agreement was signed by nations all over the world. The new climate agreementwill replace previous Kyoto Protocol post-2020 and will likely change the conditions for using carbonoffsetting. It is probable that even more stringent controls will be required to ensure a credible carbon marketwhich avoids double counting and secures environmental integrity. Voluntary use of offsetting has to becompatible with the new rules set under the Paris Agreement to manage these risks. More countries will countemission reductions to their new nationally determined contributions, and therefore increases the risk ofdouble counting. Hence, the purpose of this master thesis was to reveal how the Swedish companies’ currentuse of voluntary carbon offsetting is compatible with the likely carbon market post-2020. The companiesreasons as why they use voluntary carbon offsetting, together with their underlying ethical view, based ontheir practices around carbon offsetting, were investigated. Eight qualitative semi-structured interviews withSwedish companies using voluntary carbon offsetting were conducted during February - March in 2020. Theresult was analysed through the ethical theories consequentialist and duty-based theory to understand theirunderlying ethical view in relation to their carbon offsetting. The result showed that there are two primaryreasons as why companies use voluntary carbon offsetting. The first reason is that voluntary carbon offsettingis a part of their strategy to reduce their climate impact, and the second reason is to gain the trust of customersand marketing themselves through voluntary carbon offsetting. The thesis concludes that for the companies’to best guarantee the expected outcome of their offsetting, and be compatible with the post-2020 carbonoffsetting, they should have a combination of consequentialist and duty-based underlying ethical view withstrong follow up. Furthermore, regardless of reason for using voluntary carbon offsetting, or their ethicalview towards the action, the companies may choose to move to the alternative of financially supportingthe host countries in their work to reduce their GHG emissions instead of offsetting post-2020.
  • Climate Responsive Innovation within the Agricultural Curriculum and Learning System

    Wilma van Staden (Environmental Association of Southern Africa, 2020-06-01)
    The purpose of this paper is to outline the climate responsive innovation process within the agricultural innovation system of the North West Province, South Africa. The focus was on the embedded curriculum and learning activity system and its responses to social-ecological and earth system changes influenced by climate change. It outlines the barriers and processes hampering curriculum and learning innovations towards climate-smart responsiveness, and also examines the processes required to initiate micro and macro innovations. This paper focusses on how actors within the system can initiate curriculum innovation and climate responsiveness through micro innovations when supported and how this can lead to macro innovations. The system experienced various barriers during the innovation process and overcame many challenges during the journey towards climate-smart responsiveness through the identification of contradictions within the system, developing tools to assist in the transitioning process and expansion in the social-spatial dimension by establishing a learning network within the surrounding communities. The research indicated that the catalysing of the curriculum and learning system required specific tools, time and the understanding of the importance of micro-level innovation.
  • Conservation Hospice: A Better Metaphor for the Conservation and Care of Terminal Species

    M. Nils Peterson; Jeremy T. Bruskotter; Shari L. Rodriguez (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020-06-01)
    The extinction crisis creates a need to increase conservation funding and use it more efficiently. Most conservation resources are allocated through inefficient political processes that seem ill equipped for dealing with the crisis. In response, conservation triage emerged as a metaphor for thinking about the optimization of resource allocation. Because triage operates primarily as a metaphor, not means for allocating resources, its metaphorical implications are of particular importance. Of particular concern, the triage metaphor justifies abandoning some species while acquiescing to inadequate conservation funding. We argue conservation hospice provides an alternative medical metaphor for thinking about the extinction crisis. Hospice is based on the underlying principle of caring for all (species) and places particular emphasis on expected survival time, symptom burden and relief, treatments, ability to “stay at home” (i.e., in situ conservation), and maintaining support for related species and landscapes. Ultimately, application of hospice principles may be ethically obligated for a society that accepts the idea that least some organisms are intrinsically valuable and may help place emphasis on resource allocation issues without providing implicit justification for abandoning species to extinction.
  • Sustainable Distribution of Responsibility for Climate Change Adaptation

    Knaggård, Åsa; Persson, Erik; Eriksson, Kerstin (2020-06-18)
    To gain legitimacy for climate change adaptation decisions, the distribution of responsibility for these decisions and their implementation needs to be grounded in theories of just distribution and what those affected by decisions see as just. The purpose of this project is to contribute to sustainable spatial planning and the ability of local and regional public authorities to make well-informed and sustainable adaptation decisions, based on knowledge about both climate change impacts and the perceptions of residents and civil servants on what constitutes a sustainable distribution of responsibility. Our aims are: (1) a better understanding of the practical implications of theories about just distribution of responsibility for the choice of local and regional climate adaptation measures; (2) knowledge about what residents and civil servants consider a sustainable distribution of responsibility for climate adaptation measures; and (3) a better understanding of conflicts concerning the distribution of responsibilities and systematic knowledge about the possibilities to manage them. In this interdisciplinary project, we study six municipalities and their residents, and two county administrative boards, all in Sweden, using mixed methods: value theory, document studies, interviews, focus groups, and surveys.
  • Burden Sharing of Climate Change : Should Indonesia Be Held Responsible for Its Deforestation and Transboundary Haze?

    Putri, Siska Purnamasari (Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, 2020)
    The IPCC's report in 2018 projects global warming will increase by 1.5oC in 2030, which makes contribution of each country to control their emissions becomes significant. This study seeks to investigate what entitlement human beings have over the absorptive capacity of the atmosphere as well as the harm it caused by elaborating the Entitlement Theory of Justice, thereto, finding out how the burden of climate change should be distributed according to the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) and the Equal per Capita Shares Principle (ECSP). Furthermore, this study seeks to investigate Indonesia's part in increasing the burden of climate change and whether Indonesia should be held responsible for its part by comparing data of Indonesia's emissions to some developed countries' emissions. Humanity has a collective ownership over the absorptive capacity of the atmosphere, which implies that every individual has equal share of this absorptive capacity. A violation of this equal share should be compensated. The PPP suggests countries, who has the most cumulative amount of emissions from the past to present, to compensate and bear the climate change burden. While, the ECSP suggests countries, who emit more than their equal share per capita, to bear the climate change burden and reduce their emissions. Indonesia, despites massive amounts of CO2 released by its deforestation and annual haze, contributes insignificant to climate change due to both its cumulative and per capita emissions are considerably low compared to developed countries and even lower than acountry with large population size such as China.
  • Republic of Benin Country Environmental Analysis

    World Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-17)
    This report is the product of a
 comprehensive study on Benin. It highlights the country s
 geographical and economic situation and concentrates in
 particular on environmental conditions and the challenges
 facing Benin. This report covers the financing of priority
 environmental activities, as well as allocations to programs
 designed to improve the environment and living conditions of
 the population. The environmental analysis of Benin seeks to
 help the Government integrate the environment into policy
 formulation by analyzing cross-cutting aspects and the
 challenges of implementing sound environmental management,
 and creating a platform for strengthening the country s
 capacities in order to facilitate sustainable natural
 resource and environmental management. To this end, a number
 of measures have been recommended, among them the
 establishment of effective policies and institutions based
 on sound governance and improved effectiveness, and the
 mobilization of financing for environmental protection and
 natural resource management. The study includes the analysis
 of a case study on three cities: Porto-Novo, Cotonou, and
 Parakou, and examines the impact of environmental problems
 and environmental management challenges on these cities.
  • Analýza vlivu podnikové kultury na vedení lidí ve vybrané firmě

    Stříteská, Michaela; Řeháková, Šárka (Univerzita Pardubice, 2017-06-22)
    Téma bakalářské práce je orientováno na vliv podnikové kultury na vedení lidí ve vybrané firmě. Teoretické poznatky z oblasti podnikové kultury a vedení lidí jsou vymezeny pomocí definic odborníků na tuto problematiku. Analytická část práce charakterizuje konkrétní výrobní podnik, shrnuje stávající stav firemní kultury a analyzuje vliv na vedení lidí ve vybraném podniku. Analýza je provedena pomocí dotazníkového šetření. V závěru práce jsou pro tuto firmu uvedeny návrhy a doporučení ke zlepšení vztahu firemní kultury a vedení lidí.
  • "Green economy" – A new economic direction

    Natia Surmanidze (Asociatia de Cooperare Cultural-Educationala Suceava, 2019-09-01)
    <p><em>The current environmental condition where we live in is polluted  by the harmful toxic fumes of the industrial factories or the means of transportation.</em><em> </em><em>The land, water and air polluted from the technical wastes creates great threat to our health and to the one of our future generation. Therefore, it becomes necessary to introduce and to project the business activities and technologies which will reduce the harmful impacts on the environment as much as possible and at the same time will give the capability to use the limited resources effectively.</em><em></em></p> <p><em>In practice, all the research shows that the samples of the production and consumption are not sustainable in the long run. In case, the entire population of the planet consumes the same resource per capita as the average citizen in the developed country nowadays, the total demand for resources will exceed 4 times the Earth's capabilities.</em></p> <p><em>Consequently, it is clear that radical changes</em><em> to the </em><em>index and structure</em><em> of the resources</em><em> in the long-term should be implemented, which the world's developed and developing economy will use. Otherwise, the repeated and heavier crisis will endanger the sustainability of the global economy, the well-being of the nations and increase the possibility of combating for the resources (including, the possibility of the armed conflict).</em></p> <p><em>Another consequence of the unsustainable use of the world resources is the growth of a number of environmental risks, ranging from the global risks such as the climate change, the ozone layer formation, the loss of biodiversity etc. </em></p> <p><em>The "green economy" is based on the principle of </em><em>the </em><em>equality - including the equality</em><em> between the generations</em><em>, which implies that the existing generation should not ignore the needs of </em><em>the </em><em>future generations. In other words, the use of the planet resource at such level that will lose the future generation the chance to satisfy the requirements, it is not only unethical but destructive for all humanity. </em></p> <p><em>In order to solve the above-mentioned problem, the researches are ongoing to make the long-term sustainable solutions, th</em><em>e </em><em>success is achieved in the green economy - this is the way that some international organizations have been set as the main goal and the governments supported it.</em><em> </em><em></em></p>
  • Current Status and Future Projections of the Snow Depth in the Third
 Pole from CMIP5 Global Climate Models

    Terzago, Silvia; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello (SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, 2015)
    The Tibetan plateau and the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya mountains,
 with mean elevation above 4,000 m a.s.l., are the world's largest snow
 and ice reservoir outside the polar regions and they are often referred
 to as the ``Third Pole''. These mountains provide water to about 1.5
 billion people in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India,
 Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan, and changes in snow dynamics would impact
 on water availability for downstream populations. Despite its
 importance, the knowledge on the snow dynamics in the Third Pole region
 is still incomplete, due to difficult and sporadic surface observations.
 In this work we investigate how CMIP5 Global Climate Model (GCM)
 simulations represent the snowpack in the Third Pole environment and we
 compare the results to the ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis. Then we discuss
 the historical snow depth trends and the projections for the XXI century
 under RCP8.5 scenario.
  • Conceptual framework for the best practices of behavior-based safety performance evaluation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

    Awang Zainudin; Rahlin Azma; Afthanorhan Asyraf (Institut za istrazivanja i projektovanja u privredi, 2019-01-01)
    Employee in small manufacturing enterprise (SMEs) industry suffer high rates of industrial accident than large company as reflected eight times more fatal accidents and 50 % of injuries more likely to occur. With the rising importance of the SMEs, ensuring high levels of safety in SMEs remains a significant issue. This study was undertaken to explore the factors influencing the behaviour-based safety performance in the small medium enterprise. A comprehensive review of the safety literature enabled the invention of the constructs, and items that supported a conceptual behavior-based safety performance evaluation framework. A conceptual framework was adopted based on integration Theory Planned Behavior and Social Exchange Theory. Thus, this study proposed four constructs of behavior-based safety performance evaluation, namely, work ownership and Islamic work ethics, safety climate, and behavior-based safety performance. The best practice of behavior-based safety performance evaluation conceptual framework is proposed for implementation by the SMEs Entrepreneur and practitioner to proactively monitor and manage SMEs safety in the future. The framework will be tested empirically using data collected from SMEs companies in Malaysia. This conceptual framework is one of the alternatives to effectively evaluate safety performance in SMEs, particularly in the Malaysian context.
  • ECO-ANXIETY, TRAGEDY, AND HOPE : PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SPIRITUAL DIMENSIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    University of Helsinki, Faculty of Theology; Pihkala, Panu (2018-06)
    This article addresses the problem of eco-anxiety by integrating results from numerous fields of inquiry. Although climate change may cause direct psychological and existential impacts, vast numbers of people already experience indirect impacts in the form of depression, socio-ethical paralysis, and loss of well-being. This is not always evident, because people have developed psychological and social defenses in response, including socially constructed silence. I argue that this situation causes the need to frame climate change narratives as emphasizing hope in the midst of tragedy. Framing the situation simply as a threat or a possibility does not work. Religious communities and the use of methods which include spirituality have an important role in enabling people to process their deep emotions and existential questions. I draw also from my experiences from Finland in enabling cooperation between natural scientists and theologians in order to address climate issues.
  • The Mission of Early Childhood Education in the Anthropocene

    University of Helsinki, Department of Education; Wolff, Lili-Ann; Skarstein, Tuula; Skarstein, Frode (2020-02)
    During the last century, the human way of life has begun to transgress many of the Earth’s biophysical boundaries in an alarming way. The consequences of this are more dramatic and long lasting than ever before. Many researchers even argue that humanity has created a new geological epoch, which they call Anthropocene. Education, even in early childhood (EC), is often presented as a remedy for these complex problems. Yet, how can anyone prepare young children to deal with such tremendous changes? The primary aim of our study is to define and outline what the mission of early childhood education (ECE) might be in the epoch of the Anthropocene. Through a comprehensive review of the literature, we have tried to find answers about how the Anthropocene could be addressed in ECE. We have searched for answers in the natural science literature, policy documents, educational research articles and philosophy, and discuss the various standpoints we have identified. We argue that the Anthropocene demands a new, more authentic education; a change towards a more holistic, transformative, sustainability-oriented approach. At the same time, children, as always, have a right to a safe, positive and encouraging childhood.
  • 3rd European Conference on Flood Risk Management (FLOODrisk 2016)

    Hydrologie-Hydraulique (UR HHLY) ; Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture (IRSTEA); DELFT UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY DELFT NLD ; Partenaires IRSTEA; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology [Bangor] (CEH) ; Natural Environment Research Council (NERC); Lang, M.; Klijn, F.; Samuels, P. (HAL CCSDEDP Sciences, 2016)
  • Nouvelles convergences entre éthique environnementale et éthique animale : vers une éthique climatique non anthropocentriste

    Michel Bourban ; Lisa Broussois  (Éditions en environnement VertigO, 2019-11-01)
    This article investigates new convergences between animal ethics and environmental ethics by focusing on the effects as well as the causes of climate change. Its main objective is to show how a non-anthropocentric approach to climate ethics can increase the potential of collaboration between animal ethics theorists and environmental ethics theorists. It develops an approach that explains how animal ethics, environmental ethics and climate ethics can converge at the theoretical level on the common problem of livestock farming. Then it explains how, from a practical point of view, the vegetarian and vegan diet as well as the vegan lifestyle can be a solution to this common problem. Finally, it replies to major objections in order to develop arguments in favour of a duty not to consume animal products.
  • Klimamigration: Definitionen, Ausmaß und politische Instrumente in der Diskussion

    Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (BAMF) Forschungszentrum Migration, Integration und Asyl (FZ); Müller, Bettina; Haase, Marianne; Kreienbrink, Axel; Schmid, Susanne (DEUNürnberg, 2020-05-15)
    In zahlreichen Publikationen von Wissenschaftlern oder staatlichen und nicht-staatlichen Akteuren wurde bereits versucht, Klimamigration abzuschätzen und Handlungsinstrumente zu entwickeln. Bisher konnte jedoch weder eine verbindliche Definition gefunden werden, noch existieren Daten zum aktuellen oder möglicherweise zu erwartenden Ausmaß der Klimamigration. Das Interesse seitens der Politik und Öffentlichkeit an der Thematik ist groß. Klimatische Ereignisse beeinflussen Migrationsbewegungen, auf die Regierungen sowie die internationale Gemeinschaft reagieren müssen.
  • Institutional Investors, Shareholder Activism, and ESG in the Energy Sector

    Xie, Carolyn L., Ms. (ScholarlyCommons, 2020-05-20)
    The search for relationships between shareholder activism and environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance has been a research area that has garnered increased interest in recent years. Specifically, climate change and environmental concerns have been evaluated by private and public sectors around the world, and progress has been made with actions such as the Paris Agreement. Scholars conducted various studies to analyze the relationship between shareholder activism and corporate financial performance (CFP). In addition, scholars have also conducted various studies to analyze the relationship between ESG performance and CFP as well as ESG performance and risk. Given the emergence of ESG in recent years, the adoption of standardized ESG criteria and performance measures across industries and markets is still relatively undeveloped compared to criteria such as SEC reporting criteria for US publicly-traded companies. Therefore, the insights on shareholder activism and ESG adoption and performance remain inconclusive. This study aims to raise awareness and increase studies focusing on how investors can utilize resources such as activism to affect ESG adoption and performance. This paper also continues to raise awareness regarding current discrepancies in ESG ratings by company, industry, as well the discrepancies that are observed between different ESG rating agencies. This study specifically tracks the changes resulting from the formation of the Climate Action 100+ at the One Planet Summit in 2017 by evaluating the Sustainalytics Environmental Score of select energy and power utility companies from the initiative. Given the data, a paired t-test was implemented to gain more knowledge on how Sustainalytics Environmental Scores moved after major ESG-related announcements. In addition, this paper reviews current news and market developments in ESG and shareholder activism as well as academic and scholarly literature researching shareholder activism, ESG, and CFP. The results from this study show minuscule to no benefit to a company’s Sustainalytics Environmental Score given the current Sustainalytics dataset and publicly-available ESG information for students. This paper further reviews how discrepancies between ESG rating data and actual firm ESG performance presents potential challenges for institutional investors, retail investors, and firms. This paper also discusses future research areas and topics that could increase clarity regarding the relationship between shareholder activism and ESG adoption and performance.
  • The influence of religion on public awareness of environmental issues in Europe and the Pacific: a comparative study of the catholic christian churches in Poland and Fiji

    William Young (Wydawnictwa AGH, 2019-06-01)
    Many argue that climate change and environmental issues of this present day has been the direct or indirect result of man’s greed and unsustainable use of natural resources. These extremities were made more intense after the industrial revolution and the introduction of a more mechanised developing economy. In all these changes happening today, getting the right stakeholders on board is crucial. The study honed in on Catholic parishioners’ perceptions and aspirations on their church’s stance towards environmental issues in the developing and developed countries, with interest of the Catholic churches in Poland and Fiji. Results show that various disparities occur in both countries mainly due to historical events, economical might, tradition, leadership and political affiliations. What is important for such studies in both situations is identifying the opportunities which can be can be learned from these complexities.

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