Al-Wirathah Wa Al-Handasah Al-Wirathiyah Wa Al-Jinum Al-Bashari Wa Al-'Ilaj Al-Jini: Ru'yah Islamiyah (Al-Juz' Al-Awwal) Al-Wirathah Wa Al-Handasah Al-Wirathiyah Wa Al-Jinum Al-Bashari Genetics, Genetic Engineering, Human Genome and Genetic Therapy: An Islamic Perspective (Vol. 1) Genetics, Genetic Engineering and the Human Genome
Author(s)Jundi, Ahmad Raja'i
Islamic Legal Maxims
Modern Muslim Religious Scholars
Muslim Religious Scholars
Pre-Modern Muslim Religious Scholars
Risks and Benefits
Schools of Islamic Law
Genetics, Molecular Biology and Microbiology
Genetic Screening / Genetic Testing
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Kuwait: Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences, 2000. 543 p.
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Privacy-preserving genomic testing in the clinic: A model using HIV treatmentMclaren P.J.; Raisaro J.L.; Aouri M.; Rotger M.; Ayday E.; Bartha I.; Delgado M.B.; Vallet Y.; Günthard H.F.; Cavassini M.; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-04-12)Purpose:The implementation of genomic-based medicine is hindered by unresolved questions regarding data privacy and delivery of interpreted results to health-care practitioners. We used DNA-based prediction of HIV-related outcomes as a model to explore critical issues in clinical genomics.Methods:We genotyped 4,149 markers in HIV-positive individuals. Variants allowed for prediction of 17 traits relevant to HIV medical care, inference of patient ancestry, and imputation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types. Genetic data were processed under a privacy-preserving framework using homomorphic encryption, and clinical reports describing potentially actionable results were delivered to health-care providers.Results:A total of 230 patients were included in the study. We demonstrated the feasibility of encrypting a large number of genetic markers, inferring patient ancestry, computing monogenic and polygenic trait risks, and reporting results under privacy-preserving conditions. The average execution time of a multimarker test on encrypted data was 865 ms on a standard computer. The proportion of tests returning potentially actionable genetic results ranged from 0 to 54%.Conclusions:The model of implementation presented herein informs on strategies to deliver genomic test results for clinical care. Data encryption to ensure privacy helps to build patient trust, a key requirement on the road to genomic-based medicine. © 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.
The Erasmus Computing Grid – Building a Super-Computer for FreeKnoch, T.A. (Tobias); Abuseiris, A. (Anis); Graaf, R.M. (Rob) de; Lesnussa, M. (Michael); Grosveld, F.G. (Frank) (2011-06-01)Today advances in scientific research as well as clinical diagnostics and treatment are inevitably connected with information solutions concerning computation power and information storage. The needs for information technology are enormous and are in many cases the limiting factor for new scientific results or clinical diagnostics and treatment. At the Hogeschool Rotterdam and the Erasmus MC there is a massive need for computation power on a scale of 10,000 to 15,000 computers equivalent to ~20 to ~30 Tflops (1012 floating point operations per second) for a variety of work areas ranging from e.g. MRI and CT scan and microscopic image anlysis to DNA sequence analysis, protein and other structural simulations and analysis. Both institutions have already 13,000 computers, i.e. ~18 Tflops of computer power, available! To make the needed computer power accessible, we started to build the Erasmus Computing Grid (ECG), which is connecting local computers in each institution via central management systems. The system guaranties security and any privacy rules through the used software as well as through our set-up and a NAN and ISO certification process being under way. Similar systems run already world-wide on entire institutions including secured environments like government institutions or banks. Currently, the ECG has a computational power of ~5 Tflops and is one of or already the largest desktop grid in the world. At the Hogeschool Rotterdam meanwhile all computers were included in the ECG. Currently, 10 departments with ~15 projects at the Erasmus MC depend on using the ECG and are preparing or prepared their analysis programs or are already in production state. The Erasmus Computing Grid office and an advisory and control board were set-up. To sustain the ECG now further infrastructure measures have to be taken. Central hardware and specialist personal needs to be put in place for capacity, security and usability reasons for the application at Erasmus MC. This is also necessary in respect to NAN and ISO certification towards diagnostic and commercial ECG use, for which there is great need and potential. Beyond the link to the Dutch BigGrid Initiative and the German MediGRID should be prepared for and realized due to the great interest for cooperation. There is also big political interest from the government to relieve the pressure on computational needs in The Netherlands and to strengthen the Dutch position in the field of high performance computing. In both fields the ECG should be brought into a leading position by establishing the Erasmus MC a centre of excellence for high-performance computing in the medical field in respect to Europe and world-wide. Consequently, we successfully started to build a super-computer at the Hogeschool Rotterdam and Erasmus MC with great opportunities for scientific research, clinical diagnostics and research as well as student training. This will put both institutions in the position to play a major world-wide role in high-performance computing. This will open entire new possibilities for both institutions in terms of recognition and new funding possibilities and is of major importance for The Netherlands and the EU.
DNA Sequence Patterns – A Successful Example of Grid Computing in Genome Research and Building Virtual Super-Computers for the Research Commons of e-SocietiesKnoch, T.A. (Tobias); Abuseiris, A. (Anis); Lesnussa, M. (Michael); Kepper, F.N. (Nick); Graaf, R.M. (Rob) de; Grosveld, F.G. (Frank) (2011-08-17)The amount of information is growing exponentially with ever-new technologies emerging and is believed to be always at the limit. In contrast, huge resources are obviously available, which are underused in the IT sector, similar as e.g. in the renewable energy sector. Genome research is one of the boosting areas, which needs an extreme amount of IT resources to analyse the sequential organization of genomes, i.e. the relations between distant base pairs and regions within sequences, and its connection to the three-dimensional organization of genomes, which is still a largely unresolved problem. The underusage of resources as those accessible by grid with its fast turnover rates is very astonishing considering the barriers for further development put forward by the inability to satisfy the need for such resources. The phenomenon is a typical example of the Inverse Tragedy of the Commons, i.e. resources are underexploited in contrast to the unsustainable and destructing overexploitation in the Classic Tragedy of the Commons. An analysis of IT and the grid sector which attempts to share resources for better usage efficiency, reveals two challenges, which lead to the heart of the paradox: i) From a macro perspective all grid infrastructures involve not only mere technical solutions but also dominantly all of the autopoietic social sub-systems ranging from religion to policy. ii) On the micro level the individual players and their psychology and risk behaviour are of major importance for acting within the macro autopoietic framework. Consequently, the challenges of grid implementation are similar to those of other pressing global issues as e.g. climate protection. This is well described by extending the Human Ecology triangle to a rectangle: invironment-individual-society-environment. By applying this extension of this classical field of interdisciplinary basic and applied research to the grid sector, i.e. by further extension to an e-Human Grid Ecology rational, the Grid Inverse Tragedy of the Commons can be understood and approached regarding the internalization challenge into e-Society and e-Life, from which then guidelines for the day-to-day management can be derived. This is of general importance for many complex fields and thus with similar paradoxes and challenges. By using grid Long-range power-law correlations were found using correlation analysis on almost the entire observable scale of 132 completely sequenced chromosomes of 0.5x106 to 3.0x107 bp from Archaea, Bacteria, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. The local correlation coefficients show a species specific multi-scaling behaviour: close to random correlations on the scale of a few base pairs, a first maximum from 40 to 3400 bp (for Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster divided in two submaxima), and often a region of one or more second maxima from 105 to 3x105 bp. Within this multi-scaling behaviour, an additional fine-structure is present and attributable to codon usage in all except the human sequences, where it is related to nucleosomal binding. Computer-generated random sequences assuming a block organization of genomes, the codon usage, and nucleosomal binding explain these results. Mutation by sequence reshuffling destroyed all correlations. Thus, the stability of correlations seems evolutionarily tightly controlled and connected to the spatial genome organization. In summary, genomes show a complex sequential organization related closely to their three-dimensional organization. Consequently, grids can be established by solving the Grid Inverse Tragedy of the Commons using a e-Human Grid Ecology rational and indeed be used as e.g. in genome research for DNA sequence pattern analysis very successfully to determine for decades unresolved questions which demand very heavy IT support. Thus, indeed the solutions for the demand requirements in the research commons of e-Societies can be tackled successfully by such a systemic approach.