Author(s)Abu Ghuddah, 'Abd al-Sattar
Genetic Relatedness Ties
Islamic Legal Maxims
Risks and Benefits
Genetics, Molecular Biology and Microbiology
Genetic Screening / Genetic Testing
Gene Therapy / Gene Transfer
Genetics and Human Ancestry
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AbstractThis paper was submitted to the symposium held by the Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences (IOMS) in Kuwait during the period 13-15 October 1998 on genetics. The paper presents detailed juristic answers for different questions raised by the applications of genetic engineering such as prenatal diagnostic testing especially in case of endogamous marriage, gene therapy, genetic privacy and selective abortion.
In: Jundi, Ahmad Raja'i, ed., Al-wirathah wa al-handasah al-wirathíyah wa al-jinum al-bashari wa al-'ilaj al-jini: Ru'yah Islamíyah (al-juz' al-awwal) al-wirathah wa al-handasah al-wirathíyah wa al-jinum al-bashari [Genetics, genetic engineering, human genome and genetic therapy: An Islamic Perspective (vol. 1) genetics, genetic engineering and the human genome], Kuwait: Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences, 2000: 573-594.
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Privacy-preserving genomic testing in the clinic: A model using HIV treatmentMclaren P.J.; Raisaro J.L.; Aouri M.; Rotger M.; Ayday E.; Bartha I.; Delgado M.B.; Vallet Y.; Günthard H.F.; Cavassini M.; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-04-12)Purpose:The implementation of genomic-based medicine is hindered by unresolved questions regarding data privacy and delivery of interpreted results to health-care practitioners. We used DNA-based prediction of HIV-related outcomes as a model to explore critical issues in clinical genomics.Methods:We genotyped 4,149 markers in HIV-positive individuals. Variants allowed for prediction of 17 traits relevant to HIV medical care, inference of patient ancestry, and imputation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types. Genetic data were processed under a privacy-preserving framework using homomorphic encryption, and clinical reports describing potentially actionable results were delivered to health-care providers.Results:A total of 230 patients were included in the study. We demonstrated the feasibility of encrypting a large number of genetic markers, inferring patient ancestry, computing monogenic and polygenic trait risks, and reporting results under privacy-preserving conditions. The average execution time of a multimarker test on encrypted data was 865 ms on a standard computer. The proportion of tests returning potentially actionable genetic results ranged from 0 to 54%.Conclusions:The model of implementation presented herein informs on strategies to deliver genomic test results for clinical care. Data encryption to ensure privacy helps to build patient trust, a key requirement on the road to genomic-based medicine. © 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.
Al-Wirathah Wa Al-Handasah Al-Wirathiyah Wa Al-Jinum Al-Bashari Wa Al-'Ilaj Al-Jini: Ru'yah Islamiyah (Al-Juz' Al-Awwal) Al-Wirathah Wa Al-Handasah Al-Wirathiyah Wa Al-Jinum Al-Bashari Genetics, Genetic Engineering, Human Genome and Genetic Therapy: An Islamic Perspective (Vol. 1) Genetics, Genetic Engineering and the Human GenomeJundi, Ahmad Raja'i (2016-01-08)
The CGIAR at 40Ozgediz, Selcuk (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-03-03)The Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR) has been one of the most
successful research-for-development organizations over the
past 40 years. The $11 billion invested by CGIAR donor
members in research conducted by the international Centers
under its umbrella has yielded many multiples of that sum in
economic benefits to developing and emerging countries.
Annual economic benefits of research on rice in Asia alone
are equivalent to the total investment made by CGIAR donors
over 4 decades, leaving aside benefits in other continents
and from other research conducted by CGIAR institutions. The
CGIAR‘s success is due in part to the way it was organized.
The Group itself was an informal forum for dialogue among
donor members about research priorities, investment options,
and the continuing relevance and effectiveness of the
institutions supported. The international centers
constituted the core of the CGIAR. Each was (and still is)
an autonomous international organization governed by an
international board. The Group and the Centers were
originally advised by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC)
of distinguished scientists from developing and developed
countries, each appointed as an individual. The Group’s
activities were facilitated by its Secretariat based at the
World Bank in Washington, DC, and TAC’s activities by
another secretariat based at the food and agriculture
organization in Rome.