Chemical safety : fundamentals of applied toxicology : the nature of chemical hazards
World Health Organization. Promotion of Chemical Safety Unit
International Programme on Chemical Safety
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals
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AbstractProduced under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization and within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals
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Electrocatalytic Activities of Pd-Ni Nanoparticles Obtained on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes towards Oxygen Evolution in 1M KOHJ. P. Singh, X. G. Zhang, Hu -lin Li, A. Singh and R.N. Singh (Electrochemical Science Group, 2008-04-01)Pd and Pd-Ni nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of a new catalytic support, modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), by chemical precipitation method at 900C and their physicochemical and electrocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in 1M KOH have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic and steady state voltammetries. It is observed that introduction of Ni from 0.6 to 1.7 wt% increases the electrocatalytic activity for the OER of the base metal (Pd) attached to the surface of MWCNTs (C) showing the greatest activity with 1.1 wt% Ni (i.e., PdNi0.5/C). At E = 0.55 V vs. SCE in 1M KOH at 250C, the apparent electrocatalytic activity of the PdNi0.5/C (1.1 wt%) electrode(~ 45 mAcm-2) was more than 90 times higher than that of the base Pd/C electrode (~ 0.4 mAcm-2).
Fosfomycin versus meropenem in bacteraemic urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (FOREST): study protocol for an investigator-driven randomised controlled trial.Rosso-Fernández, Clara; Sojo-Dorado, Jesús; Barriga, Angel; Lavín-Alconero, Lucía; Palacios, Zaira; López-Hernández, Inmaculada; Merino, Vicente; Camean, Manuel; Pascual, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús (BMJ Publishing Group, 2015-12-02)INTRODUCTION Finding therapeutic alternatives to carbapenems in infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is imperative. Although fosfomycin was discovered more than 40 years ago, it was not investigated in accordance with current standards and so is not used in clinical practice except in desperate situations. It is one of the so-called neglected antibiotics of high potential interest for the future. METHODS AND ANALYSIS The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the clinical non-inferiority of intravenous fosfomycin with regard to meropenem for treating bacteraemic urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by ESBL-EC. This is a 'real practice' multicentre, open-label, phase III randomised controlled trial, designed to compare the clinical and microbiological efficacy, and safety of intravenous fosfomycin (4 g/6 h) and meropenem (1 g/8 h) as targeted therapy for this infection; a change to oral therapy is permitted after 5 days in both arms, in accordance with predetermined options. The study design follows the latest recommendations for designing trials investigating new options for multidrug-resistant bacteria. Secondary objectives include the study of fosfomycin concentrations in plasma and the impact of both drugs on intestinal colonisation by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION Ethical approval was obtained from the Andalusian Coordinating Institutional Review Board (IRB) for Biomedical Research (Referral Ethics Committee), which obtained approval from the local ethics committees at all participating sites in Spain (22 sites). Data will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. DISCUSSION This project is proposed as an initial step in the investigation of an orphan antimicrobial of low cost with high potential as a therapeutic alternative in common infections such as UTI in selected patients. These results may have a major impact on the use of antibiotics and the development of new projects with this drug, whether as monotherapy or combination therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT02142751. EudraCT no: 2013-002922-21. Protocol V.1.1 dated 14 March 2014.
EpideMiology and control measures of outBreaks due to Antibiotic-Resistant orGanisms in EurOpe (EMBARGO): a systematic review protocol.Babu Rajendran, Nithya; Gladstone, Beryl Primrose; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Voss, Andreas; Carmeli, Yehuda; Burkert, Francesco Robert; Gkolia, Panagiota; Tacconelli, Evelina (BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-02-21)INTRODUCTION Improving our understanding of outbreaks due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and their control is critical in the current public health scenario. The threat of outbreaks due to ARB requires multifaceted efforts. However, a global overview of epidemiological characteristics of outbreaks due to ARB and effective infection control measures is missing. In this paper, we describe the protocol of a systematic review aimed at mapping and characterising the epidemiological aspects of outbreaks due to ARB and infection control measures in European countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS The databases MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Cochrane library will be searched using a 3-step search strategy. Selection of articles for inclusion will be performed by 2 reviewers using predefined eligibility criteria. All study designs will be included if they report an outbreak and define the microbiological methods used for microorganism identification. The target bacteria will be methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, ceftazidime-resistant and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, ceftazidime-resistant and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant and carbapenamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Data will be extracted using a tailored pilot tested form and the quality of reporting will be assessed using the ORION (Outbreak Reports and Intervention Studies Of Nosocomial infections) tool. Data will be synthesised and reported by the type of ARB, setting and country. Infection control measures and bundles of measures will be described. The effectiveness will be reported as defined by the authors. Regression analysis will be used to define independent factors associated with outbreaks' control. Heterogeneity between studies will be assessed by forest plots and I² statistics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION Ethical approval is not applicable for this study. Findings will be disseminated through journal publication and conference presentations and talks.