Codes of Ethics
The Codes of Ethics Collection is a thematic collection that aims to build a comprehensive structure of professional codes of ethics. The collection has six main parts: References, About codes of ethics, Codes of ethics by sectors, Codes of ethics by professions, Codes of ethics by geography, Other voluntary ethical regulations.
- BF0 References
- BF1 About codes of ethics
- BF100 Why are codes of ethics used?
- BF101 What are codes of ethics?
- BF102 How are codes of ethics developed and used?
- BF103 What limitations do codes of ethics have?
- BF104 Beyond codes of ethics-Values
- BF105 Law vs. codes of ethics
- BF2 Codes of ethics by sectors
- BF200 State
- BF201 Private sector
- BF202 Public services (state or privately funded)
- BF203 Civil society
- BF204 Multisectoral (coalitions, etc.)
- BF3 Codes of ethics by professions
- BF300 Primary industry
- BF301 Processing, manufacturing and utilities
- BF302 Trades, transport and equipment operators
- BF303 Sales and services
- BF304 Protective services
- BF305 Education
- BF306 Social sciences
- BF307 Legal
- BF308 Health
- BF309 Natural and applied sciences
- BF310 Culture, the arts, recreation, sports
- BF311 Religion
- BF312 Business, finance and administration
- BF313 Management (public and private sector)
- BF314 Governance
- BF315 Multisectorial
- BF4 Codes of ethics by geography
- BF400 Africa
- BF401 America
- BF402 Asia
- BF403 Europe
- BF404 Oceania
- BF5 Other voluntary ethical regulations
- BF500 Product certification
- BF501 Standardization
- BF502 Religious law (canon law, sharia, etc.)
Italian corporate codes of ethics : the influence of national regulatory frameworkIn Italy, as elsewhere, codes of ethics are an integral part of the development of an ethical business behaviour and of a corporate identity and culture. In the present paper, ten codes of ethics adopted by ten large Italian companies active in different sectors are analysed within the theoretical framework of discourse analysis. The scope of this study is to understand whether the selected companies opt for a legalistic or a commitment-oriented code type. The analysis conducted on the collected corpus reveals the presence, or lack of thereof, of the typical traits of the two types both at a macro- and a micro-textual level, although a tendency to employ a hybrid code was detected.
Between Personal and Professional : Swedish journalists' perception of professional ethics in the wake of the #MeToo movementThis thesis is a qualitative study that examines the correlation between the activist movement #MeToo and the possible effects it had on journalists’ professional conduct with regard to ethics, through the theoretical framework of journalism culture and patriotic journalism. The analysis is based on six semi- structured interviews with journalists that were involved in publications during the height of the #MeToo movement in Sweden. The study indicates that the movement influenced the informants, several found it difficult to differentiate the personal and work-related impact it had on them at the time. Their intense coverage of the movement was fueled by the engaged public, as well as the activist movement itself, which could be interpreted as market orientation or interventionism – or both. Their expressed solidarity with the movement’s values and goals, as well as the fact that their own industry had a specific #MeToo- campaign, positioned the journalists between their solidarity to the society and their professional identity.
Italian corporate codes of ethics. The influence of national regulatory frameworkIn Italy, as elsewhere, codes of ethics are an integral part of the development of an ethical business behaviour and of a corporate identity and culture. In the present paper, ten codes of ethics adopted by ten large Italian companies active in different sectors are analysed within the theoretical framework of discourse analysis. The scope of this study is to understand whether the selected companies opt for a legalistic or a commitment-oriented code type. The analysis conducted on the collected corpus reveals the presence, or lack of thereof, of the typical traits of the two types both at a macro- and a micro-textual level, although a tendency to employ a hybrid code was detected.
Legalistic and commitment-oriented corporate codes of ethics. Distinctive macro textual and lexico-syntactic traitsWith its relatively recent major role in corporate discourse, code of ethics is the expected privileged locus for a company to signal its ethical commitment to self-regulation. As underlined by Catenaccio and Garzone (2017), a legalistic approach seems to be distinguishable from a commitment-oriented approach. The present study aims to investigate if distinctive traits of the two approaches are identifiable both at a macro-textual level and at micro-textual (lexical and syntactic) level and, if so, if they are influenced by business sectors. In order to do that, a selection of codes from eight distinct industries of the top 100 FTSE companies will be investigated within the theoretical framework of discourse analysis.
Legalistic and commitment-oriented corporate codes of ethics: distinctive macro textual and lexico-syntactic traitsLegalistic and commitment-oriented corporate codes of ethics: distinctive macro textual and lexico-syntactic traits
Analysis of professional perceptions relating to the effectiveness of codes of ethics for journalists in SpainThe methodology used in the present study is based on quantitative content analysis using the survey technique. This technique makes it possible to obtain empirical data on various key aspects of the profession that are determining factors in ascertaining Spanish journalists’ views of one of the instruments of accountability that is external to the media: general ethical codes.
The results show that Spanish journalists are largely confident in the effectiveness of ethical codes in their profession. Likewise, it was seen that variables such as age, professional experience or the media with which they work influence the perceptions that professionals have of such instruments.
If we understand journalism as a profession whose mission is to guarantee the citizenship their right to information, it is essential to be familiar with the tools provided by the profession itself in order to be accountable to the public regarding this professional mission. Hence the importance of instruments of accountability and the perceptions of the professionals themselves regarding their effectiveness.
ON THE NATURE OF LAW: THE RELEVANCE OF DEONTOLOGICAL NATURAL LAW PERSPECTIVE IN MODERN TIMESThis paper considers a perspective of the deontological approach to natural law as constituting a satisfactory opinion of the nature of law, and analyses the main features of natural law theory providing that the law and morality are interlinked. It is impractical to decide a case entirely upon codified legal rules, as judges have a duty to apply the moral value of the system. The paper acknowledges that the concept of law is prominent in the moral values of society, as if the law is exceptionally unjust it should not be applied.
Effects of Instrumentality and Personal Force on Deontological and Utilitarian Inclinations in Harm-Related Moral DilemmasMoral dilemmas often concern actions that involve causing harm to others in the attempt to prevent greater harm. But not all actions of this kind are equal in terms of their moral evaluation. In particular, a harm-causing preventive action is typically regarded as less acceptable if the harm is a means to achieve the goal of preventing greater harm than if it is a foreseen but unintended side-effect of the action. Likewise, a harm-causing preventive action is typically deemed less acceptable if it directly produces the harm than if it merely initiates a process that brings about the harmful consequence by its own dynamics. We report three experiments that investigated to which degree these two variables, the instrumentality of the harm (harm as means vs. side-effect; Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and personal force (personal vs. impersonal dilemmas; Experiments 2 and 3) influence deontological (harm-rejection) and utilitarian (outcome-maximization) inclinations that have been hypothesized to underly moral judgments in harm-related moral dilemmas. To measure these moral inclinations, the process dissociation procedure was used. The results suggest that the instrumentality of the harm and personal force affect both inclinations, but in opposite ways. Personal dilemmas and dilemmas characterized by harm as a means evoked higher deontological tendencies and lower utilitarian tendencies, than impersonal dilemmas and dilemmas where the harm was a side-effect. These distinct influences of the two dilemma conceptualization variables went undetected if the conventional measure of moral inclinations, the proportion of harm-accepting judgments, was analyzed. Furthermore, although deontological and utilitarian inclinations were found to be largely independent overall, there was some evidence that their correlation depended on the experimental conditions.
Training and auditor’s deontologyAs part of the exercise of their profession, auditors are confronted with situations involving ethical dilemmas. We wonder if training can influence his or her ethical reasoning and the perception of the dilemma. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to determine if an ethics course had an influence on their ethical reasoning process and their perception of the moral intensity of ethical issues. The results show that training increases the ability to identify an ethical dilemma, but seems to limit its perceived intensity. On the other hand, counter-intuitively, training appears to decrease the intention to act strictly in accordance with deontological codes, in favor of an action more consistent with the personal ethics of the auditor. A qualitative study based on semi-directive interviews with experienced auditors supports these results. Discussions with supervisors or with peers and experience are ways of learning that complement theoretical training and influence the ethical intent of auditors, sometimes moving them away from a response that is strictly in accordance with the rules of law.
Formation et déontologie de l'auditeurDans le cadre de l’exercice de leur profession, les auditeurs sont confrontés à des situations impliquant des dilemmes éthiques.Nous nous demandons si une formation peut influencer le raisonnement éthique de l’auditeur et sa perception d’un dilemme.Pour cela, nous avons procédé à une expérimentation afin de déterminer si un cours d’éthique avait une influence sur le processus de raisonnement éthique et la perception de l’intensité morale des dilemmes éthiques.Les résultats montrent que la formation augmente la capacité à identifier un dilemme éthique, mais semble en limiter l’intensité perçue. D’autre part, de façon contre-intuitive, la formation semble diminuer l’intention d’agir strictement de manière déontologique, au profit d’une action plus en adéquation avec l’éthique personnelle de l’auditeur.Une étude qualitative fondée sur des entretiens semi-directifs auprès d’auditeurs expérimentés conforte ces résultats. Les discussions avec les supérieurs hiérarchiques ou avec les pairs et l’expérience constituent des modes d’apprentissage complémentaires aux formations théoriques qui influencent l’intention éthique des auditeurs en les éloignant parfois d’une réponse strictement conforme aux règles de droit.
Novos Media, Nova DeontologiaHá medida que os Novos Media trazem novos desafios - bem como novos riscos - para a função e identidade do jornalismo, há uma crescente pressão para adotar - e adaptar -mecanismos de auto-regulação, como por exemplo, códigos deontológicos, a fim de melhor fixar os limites éticos do jornalismo digital. Este artigo destaca os princípios dos Novos Media (como hipermédia, hiperlinks, interatividade, glocalidade, personalização e instantaneidade) que, tomados em conjunto, colocam constrangimentos éticos de ordem jurídica, corporativa, profissional e individual. Estas limitações sugerem que uma nova deontologia é necessária para que os jornalistas possuam diretrizes específicas que direcionem a sua prática online. Sugere-se que o primeiro, passo crucial, para esta revisão ética generalizada sobre o jornalismo digital pode ser feito através de códigos deontológicos supra-nacionais.
La psico-criminologia: questioni deontologiche e questioni di metodoLo scopo di questo capitolo è quello di focalizzare l’attenzione sugli aspetti etici e deontologici, e metodologici, che si affrontano nella realtà professionale forense penale e criminologica, per quanto riguarda sia gli aspetti relativi all’esecuzione della pena sia al trattamento dell’individuo adulto autore di reato. Il senso di un’analisi critica che unisce deontologia e metodologia risiede nel fatto che l’aderenza etica dell’attività professionale psicologica trova la sua concreta e diretta espressione nell’operare professionale, responsabile e metodologicamente corretto. L’utilizzo di una metodologia precisa, adeguata al contesto, valida e affidabile, è quella in grado di garantire la riduzione dell’errore casuale e sistematico e di aumentare la corrispondenza tra obiettivi e benefici dell’intervento. Questo capitolo inizierà confrontando le similarità e le differenze che esistono tra il contesto giuridico e quello psicologico-clinico, per passare ad una descrizione della cornice normativa e deontologica entro la quale lo psicologo forense e criminologo opera. Due casi di individui autori di reati violenti verranno presentati al fine di evidenziare le questioni deontologiche, di competenza e metodologiche che il professionista deve affrontare quando è chiamato ad esprimere un parere professionale strutturato e competente rispetto (a) alla valutazione dei benefici dell’intervento, dei progressi raggiunti, e alla (possibile scelta di) riconfermare in un programma di intervento specialistico, un aggressore sessuale (primo caso) e (b) alla valutazione del rischio di ricaduta criminale (secondo caso).
Is Agent-Neutral Deontology Possible?It is commonly held that all deontological moral theories are agent-relative in the sense that they give each agent a special concern that she does not perform acts of a certain type rather than a general concern with the actions of all agents. Recently, Tom Dougherty has challenged this orthodoxy by arguing that agent-neutral deontology is possible. In this article I counter Dougherty's arguments and show that agent-neutral deontology is not possible.
Un diacono, un codice, una storia. La Historia Langobardorum a Montecassino alla fine dell'VIII secoloSi propone una rilettura e una ridatazione dell'inventario contenuto nel manoscritto Biblioteca statale del Monumento nazionale della Abbazia Benedettina della Ss. Trinità di Cava De' Tirreni, Codices Cavenses, Cod.2, contenente le Etymologiae di Isidoro, assegnato allo scriptorium di Montecassino e datato alla fine del secolo VIII, in particolare 779-797, ossia agli anni di abbaziato di Teodemaro. Il manoscritto contiene un inventario di codici, a c. 69r, fra i quali è presente un riferimento alla Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono. Il riferimento ad un codice della Historia Langobardorum fornisce infatti il solo ed unico traccia della circolazione manoscritta ddel testo di Paolo Diacono in area cassinese. Si tratterebbe della unica attestazione (ancorché indiretta) italo meridionale della Historia Langobardorum, attestazione talmente di alta datazione da corrispondere alla presenza di Paolo Diacono a Montecassino.
Rethinking IT Professional EthicsProfessional computer ethics has widened its scope over the last 20 years as a direct result of the massive growth in computer mediated services by government and industry, and concerns over how data and interaction processes are recorded. These shifts are explored in conjunction with the parallel decline in community trust of government. The growing importance of a broader view and action framework for professional computer societies is delineated.
Quality Pastoral Relationships in Healthcare Settings: Guidelines for Codes of Ethics&quot;Pastoral caregiver-patient relationships&quot; sections in ethical codes commonly provide a list of principles, proscriptions and prescriptions, with a focus on boundaries to safeguard the professional character of pastoral relationships and avert their harmful potential. The article promotes this code section&apos;s coherency and comprehensiveness by respectively (i) drawing a framework in the context of which ethical guidance can be orderly presented, and (ii) focusing on the inter-personal core of pastoral relationships and their healing potential.
THE ROLE OF INTERACTIVE METHODS IN OPTIMIZATION OF TEACHING PROCESS OF THE ETHICS AND DEONTOLOGY IN PHARMACYThe article considers the use of the Interactive Discussion method during seminar discussions in the Ethics and Deontology in Pharmacy discipline with first-year students of the Pharmacy Faculty. It is stated that this method provides an opportunity to thoroughly address the issues raised and equally involve all the participants into discussion, regardless of the level of their training, abilities, character etc. This is an important advantage because it is rather difficult to access all students when applying a traditional approach in a class due to the complexity of study material, the number of people in a group and the duration of a class (1.5 hours). Meanwhile, comprehensive understanding of the study material by all students is a vital part of training qualified pharmaceutical specialists. Nowadays, in the competitive environment, pharmacists are required to know and successfully apply service standards, commercial technology, sales psychology, profound presentation skills, ability to handle conflicts etc. After all, quite often consumers get angry due to the lack of required medicine or its excessively high price and provoke the pharmacist behind the counter to conflict. Such problems can be successfully resolved provided the pharmaceutical specialist keeps their behavior ethical and communicates politely in a particular situation. The article describes discussing situational tasks as an element of the Interactive Discussion method. The participants were divided into groups and did the following tasks in a row: “Working in pairs”, “Role playing”, “Finding a solution” and “Writing an essay”. When answering, the students displayed creativity solving situational problems, considering them from different angles (of a patient, pharmacist, pharmacy manager, doctor). At the end of the seminar, students were interviewed about the feasibility of using this method in teaching the Ethics and Deontology in Pharmacy subject (Advantages, Disadvantages, Questions). The students provided positive feedback on the productivity of the teamwork.