Author(s)Boeira, Sergio Luis
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AbstractThe objective of this essay is to demonstrate bonds between the literature which deals with business ethics and the one that deals with social capital, beginning with Sánchez Vázquez’s focus on moral and ethics, in order to contribute with the perception of political, institutional, corporate and community processes, turned to the broadening of the sense of citizenship. In addition, it intends to point out the borderline of such bonds, concluding that the social capital, generated in the processes of constitution of a corporate moral of partnership and social responsibility, tends to have a low intensity in relation to certain stakeholders, while it accentuates and/or maintains a high intensity in relation to others. Such division tends to be more accentuated in countries and regions whose history has forged civic institutions and cultures in which freedom and moral responsibility maintain weak bonds. Nevertheless, in counterpart, the constitution of norms of social responsibility in the companies, such as SA 8000, under the control of governments and citizens, has been impelling the generation of social capital in increasingly extended scopes, reinforcing, thus, those bonds
Este ensaio tem como objetivo evidenciar vínculos entre a literatura que trata de ética empresarial e a que trata de capital social, partindo de um enfoque de moral e ética de Sánchez Vázquez, a fim de contribuir com a percepção de processos políticoinstitucionais, empresariais e sociocomunitários voltados para a ampliação da cidadania.Além disso, pretende-se apontar os limites de tais vínculos, concluindo-se que o capital social, gerado nos processos de constituição de uma moral empresarial de parceria e de responsabilidade social, tende a ter uma baixa intensidade em relação a determinados stakeholders, enquanto acentua e/ou mantém uma alta intensidade em relação a outros. Tal divisão tende a ser mais acentuada em países e regiões cuja história tenha forjado instituições e culturas cívicas nas quais a liberdade e a responsabilidade moral mantêm laços mais distensos ou fracos entre si. Porém, em contrapartida, a constituição de normas de responsabilidade social nas empresas, como a SA 8000, sob a fiscalização de governos e cidadãos, tem impulsionado a geração de capital social em âmbitos crescentemente ampliados, reforçando tais laços.
Este ensayo tiene por objetivo evidenciar los vínculos entre la literatura que trata de La ética empresarial y la que trata del capital social, a partir del enfoque de moral y ética de Sánchez Vásquez, para contribuir con la percepción de los procesos políticoinstitucionales,empresariales y sociocomunitarios que se dirigen hacia la ampliación de la ciudadanía. Además, se pretende apuntar los límites de tales vínculos de donde se concluye que el capital social generados en los procesos de una moral empresarial de parceria y de responsabilidad social tiende a tener una baja intensidad si relacionada a determinados stakeholders en cuanto acentúa e/o mantiene una alta intensidad si relacionada otros. Tal división tiende a ser mas profunda en países y regiones cuya historia haya constituido instituciones y culturas cívicas en las cuales la libertad y la responsabilidad mantienen lazos más flojos entre ellos. Pero, en contrapartida, la formulación de normas de responsabilidad social en las empresas, como la SA 8000, com la fiscalización de gobiernos y ciudadanos ha impulsionado la generación de capital social en ámbitos crecientemente ampliados, estrechando tales lazos.
(Revista) ISSN 1807-1384
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Social Protection in Low Income Countries and Fragile Situations : Challenges and Future DirectionsOvadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe; Das, Maitreyi; Andrews, Colin; Elder, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05-28)Demand for social protection is growing in low income countries and fragile situations. In recent years, the success of social protection (SP) interventions in middle income countries (MICs) like Brazil and Mexico, along with the series of food, fuel, and financial crises, has prompted policymakers in low income countries (LICs) and fragile situations (FSs) to examine the possibility of introducing such programs in their own countries. Flagship programs in countries as diverse as Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, and Rwanda have shown the adaptability of social protection interventions to the LIC context. Yet, despite growing levels of support for these initiatives, many challenges remain. In LICs and FSs, governments are confronted with a nexus of mutually reinforcing deficits that increase the need for SP programs and simultaneously reduce their ability to successfully respond. Governments face hard choices about the type, affordability, and sustainability of SP interventions. The paper reviews how these factors affect SP programs in these countries and identifies ways to address the deficits. It supports the establishment of resilient SP systems to address specific needs and vulnerabilities and to respond flexibly to both slow and sudden onset crises. To achieve this, both innovation and pragmatism are required in three strategic areas: (i) building the basic blocks of SP systems (e.g., targeting, payments, and monitoring and evaluation); (ii) ensuring financial sustainability; and (iii) promoting good governance and transparency. These issues suggest the possibility of a different trajectory in the development of social protection in LICs than in MICs. The implications for World Bank support include the need to focus on increasing knowledge and operational effectiveness of SP programs, fostering institutional links between multiple SP programs, and using community capacity and technological innovations to overcome bottlenecks in operations.
Managing Risk, Promoting GrowthWorld Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02-08)A growing body of evidence demonstrates
that individuals and households experience a range of
positive outcomes from social protection. Social protection
increases productivity and growth. Countries can realize
significant benefits by creating an integrated social
protection system. Social protection is affordable in
low-income countries despite tight budgets. While overall
spending on social protection in Africa remains low by
international standards, experience suggests that social
protection programs can achieve national coverage at the
cost of only 1 to 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
While this is only a portion of the financing required to
operate a social protection system, it draws attention to
what countries can achieve in the short-term. Indeed, one
way in which existing social protection spending can be made
significantly more efficient would be by reallocating
existing financing for inefficient subsidies and ad hoc
emergency food aid to predictable safety nets. At the same
time, pursuing reforms to social security systems will
ensure their fiscal sustainability, while expanding
coverage. Notably, the costs of not protecting poor families
are very high, are borne disproportionately by women and
children, and undermine the productivity of future
generations. The Strategy will be implemented by leveraging
partnerships, knowledge, and the World Bank's financing
instruments. The World Bank will continue to invest in
analytical work to fill knowledge gaps and promote an
evidence-based dialogue for social protection systems in
Africa and further innovation. It will work with governments
to build country-owned national social protection systems
with the aim of reducing fragmentation in the sector. The
Bank also will pay particular attention to institutional
development and capacity building by using its lending to
increase the coverage of successful social protection
interventions. Throughout this work, the Bank will work in
coordination with governments, development partners, the
private sector, academics, civil society, and beneficiaries.