Corruption and Transparency Collection
The corruption and transparency collection aims at providing documentation and basic thematic articulations around the term "corruption". Corruption denotes "dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery" (Oxford Dict.), but avoiding untransparent conditions is complex because at all level there might be a dominating group or a dominated one, and because everyone should be concerned by corruption, without excessive moralisation of others. The collection presents first the philosophical, socio-economic and political background to the subject. Second it gathers institutional documents and shows transparency in the global context and related to sustainable development. In a third set of perspectives are shown educational means to prevent corruption and promote transparency (as curricula or education in management and public administration). Other dimensions pertain to political means to prevent corruption, where transparency is considered as part of the democratic process, leadership and management related means to promote transparency and prevent corruption, and finally administrative and criminal law, retributive and preventive means.
ACCOUNTING CURRICULUM EVALUATION IN IMPLEMENTATION MERDEKA BELAJAR - KAMPUS MERDEKAABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the accounting curriculum in implementing the Merdeka Belajar-Kampus Merdeka (MBKM) Curriculum. It is qualitative research with an interpretive paradigm of the phenomenology approach. Data collection is done by interview, observation, and documentation. The study revealed that the learning process's characteristics, planning, and implementation had been going well. Curriculum accountability is realized by preparing reports and outreach to the academic community and stakeholders. This research theoretically contributes in the form of references to implementing the MBKM accounting curriculum associated with accountability. Practically, this research contributes to the formation of accounting curriculum designs and inputs to universities in maximizing their role in keeping up with the times in responding to the provision of work-ready graduates. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kurikulum akuntansi dalam implementasi Kurikulum Merdeka Belajar-Kampus Merdeka (MBKM). Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan paradigma interpretif pendekatan fenomenologi. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara, pengamatan, dan dokumentasi. Penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa karakteristik, perencanaan, dan pelaksanaan proses pembelajaran sudah berjalan baik. Akuntabilitas kurikulum diwujudkan dengan penyusunan laporan dan sosialisasi kepada civitas akademika dan stakeholder. Penelitian ini secara teoretis memberikan kontribusi berupa referensi implementasi kurikulum akuntansi MBKM yang dikaitkan dengan akuntabilitas. Secara praktis, penelitian ini berkontribusi dalam pembentukan desain kurikulum akuntansi serta masukan kepada perguruan tinggi dalam memaksimalkan perannya mengikuti perkembangan zaman dalam menyikapi penyediaan lulusan siap kerja.
Accountability in accounting from the perspective of Islam by the focus on Structuration TheoryAccountability-based accounting theoretical framework emphasizes the need for accountability in the accounting system. The present study, considering the importance of sociological theories in accounting knowledge and using Islamic theoretical foundations, seeks to investigate this important issue. The purpose of this study is to explain the concept and components of accountability in accounting from the perspective of Islam with a focus on Structuration Theory. The present article is in the category of qualitative research that has been done in line with the purpose of the research by reviewing scientific and Quranic texts and interviewing 15 Quranic science experts and faculty members of public and private universities in the fields of accounting, sociology, and Islamic sciences. In this study, the obtained information was analyzed by the theme analysis method. The research tools in the qualitative section were in-depth and semi-structured interviews and the research sample was selected using a combination of non-probabilistic, purposeful judgment, and snowball methods. According to the research findings, accountability approach, accountability levels, accountability dimensions, accountable elements, accountability principles, accountability reinforcement were identified as the main research themes that explain the components and model of accounting accountability from the perspective of Islam in the framework of Structuration Theory. The results show that the Islamic model, focusing on agency in Structuration Theory, covers the weaknesses of this theory, including ignoring ethics and strong intentions in an agency. Strengthening agency will lead to strengthening the structure and finally strengthening social systems. This will lead to the flourishing of accountability language in the accounting system.
Venture Capital Financing with Staged Investment, Agency
Conflicts and Asymmetric BeliefsWe consider a risk averse entrepreneur who approaches a diversified venture capitalist (VC) for financing of a project with positive potential return. We develop several models that capture key features of the venture financing, including staged investment, VC oversight costs and agency conflicts. The contract between the VC and the EN includes risk-free and pay-performance sensitive compensation. Moral hazard arises because the EN must exert effort for the project to succeed. Our model is novel in that it also allows for asymmetric beliefs about project quality due to the EN's optimism even when the VC and EN face symmetric information.
We first analyze the VC-EN relationship when the VC has bargaining power. We characterize the equilibrium levels for the pay-performance sensitivities, investment and effort over time and show they can be either increasing or decreasing or initially increasing and then decreasing. We find that asymmetric beliefs and risk aversion have opposite effects on the VC-EN relationship. When the EN is moderately more optimistic than the VC, he accepts more risk and exerts more effort and the VC responds with more investment. In contrast, risk aversion reduces effort and investment. Our model predicts a performance-sensitive investment policy where critical milestones must be achieved for investment to continue. These milestones increase with the risk aversion and decrease with the asymmetry in beliefs. Consequently, project duration increases with asymmetric beliefs and decreases with risk aversion.
We calibrate this core model to empirical data and use numerical analysis to demonstrate that the technical and systematic risks have opposite effects. The VC's payoff and the project's value and duration increase with technical risk and decrease with systematic risk.
We analyze the relationship when the EN has bargaining power, and find that the equilibrium and the corresponding implications for venture financing do change. In this setting, the negative effects due to risk aversion are more pronounced. We also find that if the EN's effort cannot be observed by the VC, then the pay-performance sensitivities, investment and effort all increase.
McKinsey & Company’s Conduct and Conflicts at the Heart of the Opioid Epidemic, Hearing Before the House Committee on Oversight and ReformOn April 27, 2022, Jessica Tillipman, Assistant Dean for Government Procurement Law Studies at The George Washington University Law School testified before the House Committee on Oversight and Reform regarding McKinsey & Company's potential Organizational Conflict of Interest between its contracts with the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) and its commercial, opioid manufacturer clients. Her testimony addressed the longstanding need to update and clarify the current legal framework governing Organizational Conflicts of Interest (OCIs) in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and the importance of government contractors maintaining strong internal ethics and compliance programs.
Bangladesh PRSP Forum Economic Update : Recent Developments and Future PerspectivesThis report was prepared for the PRSP
Implementation Forum (November 15-17), in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
It covers recent macroeconomic developments and draws on
recent and ongoing World Bank research and analysis
undertaken in the areas of Governance, Finance and Trade,
Public Administration, Infrastructure and Human Development.
The report notes that Bangladesh has some impressive and
sustained socio-economic trends - which outperform many
South Asian and other developing countries, but formidable
challenges remain notably on governance issues. However, the
Government is beginning to implement a broad-based reform
program to tackle governance issues, with donor support and
in the area of economic management, it has maintained
macroeconomic stability and pushed forward the structural
reform agenda despite a difficult political environment.
These efforts have produced relatively favorable development
outcomes. The report specifically details Bangladesh's
progress on the governance agenda, including actions to
improve transparency and public expenditure efficiency,
responsiveness, revenue mobilization, anti-corruption, and
the justice system reform. It also focuses on progress in
reducing governance impediments to improve investment
climate and empowering the poor. Besides describing
preliminary PRSP implementation measures, the report
spotlights the country's export growth and competitiveness.
Profile in Public Integrity: Laurence CockcroftA development economist and author, Laurence Cockcroft co-founded Transparency International in 1993 and served as Chairman of the U.K. chapter from 2000-2008. Cockcroft has drawn from his experience with Transparency International to author Global Corruption, as well as Unmasked: Corruption in the West, recently published in the U.K. and the U.S. by I.B. Tauris.
Evaluating of Stock Exchange Supervision over the Issuers: Adopting a Supportive Approach Islamic to StockholdersSupervising and assuring investors is considered as one of the most important bases for strengthening and developing the capital market. . Islam has considered customs and conditions for business, commerce and economic activity, among which we can mention fairness in transaction and protection of the rights of the parties in transactions. Transparency and certainty about respecting the investors' rights by the issuers are the concerns of those investing in different securities, including stocks and various types of Islamic securities (Sukuk). The greater the trust among the individuals in a society, the more the desire for investment, and in return, the more the issuers’ financial capabilities to launch investment projects and also to provide working capital. Thus, the capital market will succeed in financing as its main mission. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of supervision sufficiency applied by the Capital Market Supervisory Authority over the issuers of various securities in the stock exchange. In this study, 200 stockholders were selected randomly as statistical samples. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The structural equation model and the opinions of experts and informants were used to assess the construct validity and content validity, consequently. The results of the study indicate that, according to the shareholders, the level of the Stock Exchange supervision over the issuers is acceptable considering financial literacy, disclosure and transparency, and training activities; while, the supervision over corporate governance, audit quality, and insider information is not acceptable enough.
Assessing Australia's National Integrity Framework: A New Way ForwardHistorically, Australia has not been regarded as a particularly corrupt country. In 2012, Transparency International ranked Australia as the 7th least corrupt country in its Corruption Perceptions Index. This ranking has deteriorated six places in four years; in 2016, Australia landed in 13th place on the same index. This sharp decline, in conjunction with continued revelations of corrupt conduct in the public, private and union sectors, has resulted in unprecedented national attention on corruption issues. As a result, the Australian federal government is currently considering a suite of reforms related to anti-corruption enforcement, including the introduction of deferred prosecution agreements, increased penalties for white collar crimes, the introduction of a new corporate foreign bribery offence, and the strengthening of whistle-blower protections. Included in this suite of proposals, on 8 February 2017, the Australian Senate referred an inquiry regarding the establishment of a national integrity commission to a Select Committee, which was charged with the following goal: to examine whether a National Integrity Commission (“NIC”) should be established at the federal level to address institutional, organisational, political, electoral, and individual corruption and misconduct in the federal public sector. The Committee is required to report back on its findings to the Senate on or before 22 September 2017.
Protikorupční strategie politických stran ODS a ČSSD optikou individuální a systémové korupceThe phenomenon of corruption has recently become a hot discussion topic of all political parties. Separate chapters, focused specifically on the fight with corruption, are implemented into the parties' political programmes. However, despite the demonstrated endeavour to fight corruption, it seems that solutions of this major issue keep failing. Theorists, who specialize in corruption issues, agree that in the Czech Republic, corruption has already become a systemic issue. That means that it is no more just a pathological behaviour of individuals within the official norms. Vice versa, corruption has already progressed into the stage, where it creates its own norms. Moreover, these newly created norms are stronger than the official norms, and, this way, it is the incorrupt behaviour, which is now perceived as pathological. Fighting systemic corruption obviously requires different tools than fighting individual corruption. Being collective players, political parties use framing to depict the problem so that the solution they offer seems to be the only and the best. This bachleor's thesis illustrates how two major political parties in the Czech Republic - Civic Democratic Party (ODS) and Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) - look on the phenomenon of corruption and how they reflect it in their...
La chasse aux tigres et la chasse aux mouches – le Parti, l'État et l'administration en République populaire de ChineLe managérialisme emprunté par les autorités chinoises pour moderniser l’administration en évitant la réforme politique peut-il construire un État performant, à la hauteur des défis économiques, sociaux et environnementaux qui sont ceux de la Chine d’aujourd’hui ? Est-il susceptible de préserver la légitimité du Parti communiste chinois (PCC) ou d’en renouveler les modalités ? Est-il un substitut effectif à une réforme plus politique, ou en suggère-t-il au contraire le chemin ? Cet article situe la « question bureaucratique » dans son contexte historique et socio-politique chinois, et retrace le contour des grandes réformes adoptées par les autorités chinoises depuis 1978. Il montre que les reformes structurelles de l’organisation de État, pour nécessaires qu’elles aient été pour accompagner la politique de croissance, ont aussi participé d’une économie politique constituée de rentes contrôlées et captées par le parti, du développement de formes d’échange illicites et de la croissance des inégalités, trois tendances qui ont conjugue leurs effets pour attiser les tensions dans le Parti et éroder significativement sa légitimité. Ce sont ces dynamiques qui expliquent à la fois les difficultés et contradictions de la gouvernance chinoise contemporaine et l’agenda des réformes tel qu’il se dessine aujourd’hui.
Estado Abierto en México y uso de sistemas tecnológicos para la lucha contra la corrupciónEl objetivo de este artículo es contribuir a la discusión sobre la conformación de un Estado abierto digital, promovido en México durante las últimas décadas, a través de la regulación de la transparencia, el derecho de acceso a la información pública y los controles anticorrupción. Este análisis cualitativo, descriptivo y documental permite comprender los alcances de los principales cambios legislativos realizados y la Política Nacional Anticorrupción; la importancia de la integración de un Estado Abierto que comprende al gobierno, el parlamento y la justicia abiertos como nuevo paradigma para la lucha contra la corrupción, así como el papel que juegan los sistemas tecnológicos digitales en este proceso. Se argumenta, con información fundamentada, que este entramado institucional y tecnológico desarrollado, es aún insuficiente para avalar la existencia de un Estado Abierto que atienda de forma integral el fenómeno de la corrupción, ya que los actos irregulares continúan manifestándose en los tres poderes.
Analiza proračuna i proračunske transparentnosti Grada ZagrebaTema ovog specijalističkog diplomskog stručnog rada odnosi se na analizu proračuna i proračunsku transparentnost Grada Zagreba. Proračun je temeljni pravni i financijski akt. Proračunom se procjenjuju svi prihodi i rashodi, za jednu proračunsku godinu, u skladu sa zakonom. Cilj je ovoga rada približiti i objasniti financiranje i upravljanje državnim proračunom, jedinicama lokalne i područne (regionalne) samouprave te kako se i za što koriste proračunska sredstva Grada Zagreba. Na temelju proračuna ostvaruje se pravo ubiranja poreza i drugih proračunskih prihoda, kao i pravo namjenskoga trošenja u predviđenim iznosima te on utječe na cjelokupno ekonomsko i društveno stanje. Proračun Grada Zagreba dijeli se na opći i posebni dio, projekcije za naredne dvije godine i razvojne programe. On ima tri faze: priprema prijedloga, usvajanje te izvršavanje proračuna. U radu su prikazani elementi od kojih se sastoji proračunsko računovodstvo, kako se provodi i njegova načela. Pomoću proračunskih klasifikacija raščlanjuju se i prate prihodi i primici (rashodi i izdaci) po nositelju, ciljevima, namjeni, vrsti, lokaciji i izvorima financiranja. Proračunska transparentnost prikazuje koliko Grad Zagreb ima dostupnih potrebnih javnih dokumenata. Transparentnošću se provjerava ispravnost konkretnog proračuna i ima se uvid na svu raspodjelu resursa.
Význam výchovy v boji proti korupciThis thesis is concentrated to problems anti-corruption education. The notion of corruption, its causes and sorts, norms of corruption, the relation of corruption with ethics, sociology, economics and law. The place is given also to important differences between the situation in countries with an unbroken continuity of democracy. The sociological research was conducted to determine the attitudes of students to corruption. On the basis of defined sets of problems which should be the focus of anti-corruption education and formulated recommendations based on the requirements of pro-social education. Key words: sociological research, analysis, corruption, importance of anti-corruption education, teacher, student
Incidencia de los programas de integridad en la legislación anticorrupciónEl presente trabajo analiza la legislación de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, España, Estados Unidos, Francia y Reino Unido, que hace alguna referencia a los programas de integridad y la utilidad de los mismos frente a la prevención de delitos relacionados con la corrupción administrativa. El desarrollo del mismo se enmarca dentro del proyecto de Desarrollo Estratégico (PDE) de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, denominado PDE_9_2019 “Corrupción, fraude empresario y sistemas de cumplimiento en las organizaciones” que tiene por fin demostrar que programa de integridad que funciona eficazmente previene ampliamente las situaciones de corrupción. Entendemos que estos temas son de extrema relevancia en el contexto actual de pandemia que ha obligado a las organizaciones a modificar ciertos procedimientos.
Profile in Public Integrity: Daniel E. KarsonDaniel E. Karson is Chairman of Kroll, based in the New York office. Dan has more than 40 years’ experience directing investigations of business crimes. His practice areas include major fraud investigations, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, litigation support, contests for corporate control, Internet crimes, financial crimes, asset searches, product counterfeiting and due diligence. Dan launched Kroll’s European operations, opening its London office and serving as its first Managing Director in 1986. Dan also opened Kroll offices in Boston and Philadelphia, and served as Kroll’s General Counsel for eleven years. Prior to joining Kroll, Dan was General Counsel and Assistant Commissioner of the Department of Investigation of the City of New York, where he conducted major fraud investigations. At DOI, he was also the First Director of New York City’s Inspector General program and supervised the internal investigations offices of 24 mayoral agencies. Previously, Dan worked as an Assistant District Attorney of Bronx County, serving as Chief of Narcotics Investigations.
Best Practices in Municipal OversightIn June 2017, CAPI hosted Global Cities II, a conference that brought together cities from around the world to discuss anti-corruption efforts and share ideas for how to solve common problems. One major topic of discussion was oversight. This practitioner toolkit was conceived out of a breakout session on the topic of oversight, during which nearly 30 integrity professionals from CAPI’s city delegations brainstormed about the most important features of successful municipal oversight bodies. The resulting list of the most important qualities for oversight offices formed the backbone of this toolkit on best practices for municipal oversight entities. The toolkit was then supplemented by additional research and interviews with numerous practitioners. Obviously, oversight agencies differ dramatically in both mandate and function, and it is important to remember that oversight bodies exist in varying legal, cultural, and institutional atmospheres. The Association of Inspectors General, which provides a rich source of guidance in terms of the creation of an oversight body, notes that “[t]he fact that each OIG is different and approaches its mission within widely differing contexts precludes prescription of a consistent” set of principles, practices, and tools for oversight bodies. Notwithstanding the diversity among oversight offices, three features of successful oversight bodies emerged as virtually required for successful oversight: independence, jurisdiction/powers, and accountability. The following sections expand upon these three features. We then provide some additional thoughts on topics that practitioners also deemed important to success: building public trust; protection for whistleblowers and witnesses; requirements for employees to report corruption; and cross-agency coordination.
The Maritime Anti-Corruption Network: A Model for Public-Private Cooperation Against GraftFirms operating in global markets often face systemic corruption issues, such as frequent demands for operational facilitation payments (“grease payments”), sometimes paired with extortion and shakedowns. Many anti-bribery regimes prohibit such payments and the OECD has decried the “corrosive effect of small facilitation payments, particularly on sustainable development and the rule of law.” However, any firm that sets an internal policy against such payments risks being snubbed by government officials in certain markets where facilitation payments are expected. Scholars call this a “collective action problem,” in which the incentives motivating individual firms or government agents toward selfish behavior are misaligned with the best policies for the whole sector.
Innovations in Oversight: Cities' Proactive Approaches to Fighting CorruptionIn June 2017, CAPI presented the second installment of our signature conference, Global Cities II, which brought together anti-corruption leaders from government and civil society worldwide, including delegates from Bogotá, Cape Town, London, Melbourne, Miami, Montréal, New York, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, and San Francisco, to discuss important topics such as using data analytics to combat corruption, government transparency, enforcement challenges and victories, and innovations in oversight.
Directions for preventing corruption in the activities of local government officialsThe article analyzes the organizational and legal support for the implementation of anti-corruption policy in Ukraine (availability of legislation, system of anti-corruption bodies), evaluates the effectiveness of anti-corruption measures based on the dynamics of the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), considers the recommendations of Transparency International Ukraine CPI, highlighted the most promising anti-corruption the most frequently mentioned anti-corruption measures in the scientific literature are analyzed for the existing advantages and disadvantages and the most expedient directions of preventing corruption in the activities of local government officials are substantiated in view of modern realities.
Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption: Opportunities for International Cooperation and Results of ActivitiesThe format of international cooperation of the Conference of the Countries Participating in the UN Convention against Corruption, on the one hand, continues the traditions of international intergovernmental organizations, and on the other hand, represents a new format of interaction between states in the fi eld of anti-corruption activities, which has distinctive features. The Conference has a pivotal role in international cooperation on the prevention and combating of corruption due to the wide area of activities and the number of participants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the features of the functioning of the Conference of the Countries Participating in the UN Convention against Corruption and the results of its activities since 2006. Using the analysis of documents and scientifi c publications, the author concludes that despite the importance of the Conference as a platform for multilateral dialogue, the countries participating in the United Nations Convention against Corruption failed to achieve signifi cant progress in the declared areas of activity. The author highlights the main diffi culties faced by states in implementing anti-corruption measures based on the norms of international law.