Now showing items 3354-3373 of 11024

    • E-Governance as an anti corruption tool

      Iqbal, M. Sohel; Seo, Jin-Wan ([Busan], 2008)
    • E-GP Functional Specifications

      Inter-American Development Bank; Asian Development Bank; World Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2007-04)
      Authorities in developed and newly
 developing countries alike have been seeking to reform and
 strengthen the governance and management frameworks around
 their systems of public procurement. Their objectives have
 been to enhance effective management, reduce the risk of
 corruption, promote economic activity, and strengthen policy
 and strategic development. Increasingly an important part of
 these reforms has become the systematic application of
 technology to the processes of public procurement, including
 in the advertising of business opportunities, management of
 information and workflows, document delivery, purchase
 orders and transactions. This systematic application of
 technology to government procurement, or e-Government
 Procurement (e-GP), can lead to a substantial automation of
 the procurement process but requires significant reforms and
 process improvements in the management of procurement. These
 reforms have seen the introduction of new procurement laws
 and regulations, the introduction of new training for public
 procurement officers, changes in management procedures
 including standardization and simplification, and enhanced
 competition for government procurement opportunities.
 However one key issue deserves further attention namely
 defining the functional specifications of the e-GP system
 that is to be acquired or built, this is the subject of this
 paper. This paper seeks to give guidance on what functions
 and qualities they could seek from their e-GP system, or if
 they are engaging a third party provider then this may also
 give guidance on what capabilities they might require in
 their service level agreement
    • E-Medicine and Health Care Consumers: Recognizing Current Problems and Possible Resolutions for a Safer Environment

      Brann, Maria; Anderson, James G. (2016-01-09)
      Millions of Americans access the Internet for health information, which is changing the way patients seek information about, and often treat, certain medical conditions. It is estimated that there may be as many as 100,000 health-related Web sites. The availability of so much health information permits consumers to assume more responsibility for their own health care. At the same time, it raises a number of issues that need to be addressed. The health information available to Internet users may be inaccurate or out-of-date. Potential conflicts of interest result from the blurring of the distinction between advertising and professional health information. Also, potential threats to privacy may result from data mining. Health care consumers need to be able to evaluate the quality of the information provided on the Internet. Various evaluative mechanisms such as codes of ethics, rating systems, and seals of approval have been developed to aid in this process. The effectiveness of these solutions is evaluated in this paper. Finally, the paper addresses the importance of including patients in developing standardized quality assurance systems for online health information.
    • E-Participation: informing and transforming local government decision making

      Rahman, Hakikur; Demediuk, Peter; Solli, Rolf (Information Science Reference, 2010)
    • e-Procurement reference guide

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-07-28)
      This on-line e-Procurement reference guide attempts to summarize and reference the materials in the area of e-Procurement that are publicly available on-line. The guide offers a mechanism to easily search and access the information on a particular e-Procurement subject in 15 areas. Each of the 15 sections presents an overview of a particular subject matter and is aimed to outline the summary of the main issues. The guide also references to numerous training materials developed as part of the distance learning series on e-Procurement organized by the World Bank institute in 2009 and 2010. Additionally, it links to country specific presentations made at various e-Procurement conferences around the world. The main text provides links to the reference materials that were selected to provide more information and insights.
    • E-transparency as an organizational innovation in financial services – the case of Lithuania

      Ginta Railiene (Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia (FEUP), 2015-04-01)
      The development of e-transparency culture requires certain organizational changes related to innovative ways of organizing, structuring and presenting information to interested parties and employing digital technologies. This paper presents the discussion of concepts needed to be researched in order to disclose the e-transparency level of finance institution. It is suggested to focus on content of required and voluntary information (content quality) and on channels for information dissemination (channel quality). The methodology is employed in defining the e-transparency level of Lithuanian credit providers and assessing how innovative finance institutions are in disseminating the regulatory and voluntary information. The research results indicate that Lithuanian banks are contributing to legal requirements, but voluntary presentation of data is rather brief and ways used for information dissemination are poor compared to IT possibilities. The e-transparency culture and organizational innovations in credit unions are under development.
    • Early childhood education teachers’ perception of the integration of anti-corruption education into Islamic religious education in Bawean island Indonesia

      Suyadi Suyadi; Sumaryati Sumaryati; Dwi Hastuti; Anip Dwi Saputro (Sinan Olkun, 2020-05-01)
      All religions in the world, including Islam, prohibit corruption and the likes. However, apart from the majority of the Muslim population, many religious figures were found to be involved in corruption. A question arises about whether Islam has taken adequate prevention. Thus, the study aims to explore teachers’ perceptions of the need to include anti-corruption education even if they have already had Islamic religious education. The research applied a qualitative descriptive method and took the settings of Islamic education institutions, particularly early childhood education. Participants were 58 female early childhood education teachers from 58 Indonesian schools on Bawean Island. The collected data were analyzed using the Dev and Qayyum (2017) feedback technique. The results show that 71.30% of all teachers in Bawean had a positive perception of the importance of anti-corruption education, while the rest, 28.37%, had a negative impression. Therefore, it is necessary to align the understanding of the people before implementing the mentioned education. The results can be the reference for other researches that fail to reach the goal of anti-corruption education due to the different perceptions.
    • Early childhood educator mental health: performing the national quality standard

      Corr, Lara; Cook, Kay; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; Davis, Elise; Waters, Elizabeth (Early Childhood Australia Inc., 2017-12-01)
    • Earnings Growth and Employment Creation

      Independent Evaluation Group (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-04-21)
      The primary aim of this evaluation is to
 develop lessons from the Bank’s experience in the three
 selected countries of Columbia, Tunisia, and Turkey
 regarding assistance aimed at employment creation and
 earnings growth. The evaluation focuses on employment
 creation and earnings growth because these have a strong
 bearing on the extent to which the central objective of
 poverty reduction is achieved. The evaluation assesses the
 impact of the Bank’s assistance on employment outcomes and
 focuses on relevance and effectiveness of Bank engagement on
 employment issues. Two findings in connection with outcomes
 across the three countries are highlighted. First, progress
 in economic growth and earnings was better than progress in
 employment and unemployment. Second, although the
 availability of statistics on employment and earnings
 outcomes has improved, there are still significant
 deficiencies. These findings suggest a number of
 implications for Bank support during the global unemployment
 crisis as follows: (a) deploy the Bank’s integrative
 capability to provide support in the different areas
 affecting employment outcomes; (b) focus on the classical,
 cyclical, and structural sources of unemployment; (c) update
 and improve employment and earnings data; (d) adjust
 programs to emphasize support with strong employment
 earnings effects;(e)advise countries on affordable fiscal
 stimuli; (f) support the development of unemployment
 insurance mechanisms; and (g) develop strategies to advance
 job flexibility and worker protection. IEG recommends that
 the Bank continue focusing on advice and projects to improve
 coverage and quality.
    • Earnings smoothing, executive compensation, and corporate governance : evidence from the property-liability insurance industry

      Eckles, David L. (Centro de Documentación de Fundación Mapfre, 2011-09-01)
      Sumario: Unlike studies that estimate managerial bias, we utilize a direct measure of managerial bias in the U.S. insurance industry to investigate the effects of executive compensation and corporate governance on firms' earnings management behaviors. We find managers receiving larger bonuses and stock awards tend to make reserving decisions that serve to decrease firm earnings. Moreover, we examine the monitoring effect of corporate board structures in mitigating managers' reserve manipulation practices. We find managers are more likely to manipula te reserves in the presence of particular board structures. Similar results are not found when we employ traditional estimated measures of managerial bias.
    • Earnings smoothing, executive compensation, and corporate governance : evidence from the property-liability insurance industry

      Eckles, David L. (2011-09-01)
      Sumario: Unlike studies that estimate managerial bias, we utilize a direct measure of managerial bias in the U.S. insurance industry to investigate the effects of executive compensation and corporate governance on firms' earnings management behaviors. We find managers receiving larger bonuses and stock awards tend to make reserving decisions that serve to decrease firm earnings. Moreover, we examine the monitoring effect of corporate board structures in mitigating managers' reserve manipulation practices. We find managers are more likely to manipula te reserves in the presence of particular board structures. Similar results are not found when we employ traditional estimated measures of managerial bias.
    • East Asia and the Pacific Confronts the “New Normal”

      Nehru, Vikram (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-07)
      Developing East Asia is leading the global economic recovery, although performance varies across the region. In some countries, the monetary stance is already being tightened in light of emerging inflationary pressures; but it is premature to withdraw the fiscal stimulus until the global recovery is on a firmer footing. Fortunately, most countries in the region have adequate fiscal space and relatively low debt burdens. To ensure that the momentum of the recovery transitions into sustainable and inclusive growth over the medium term, the governments in the region must once again focus their attention on medium-term structural reforms. This means different policy priorities in different countries especially given the diversity of the region. In addition, the region faces two common priorities regional economic integration and climate change. Making progress on both fronts will be critical to the region's medium-term prospects.
    • East Timor : Policy Challenges for a New Nation

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-28)
      The main challenge facing East Timor, is
 how to reconcile a simultaneous existence of acute poverty
 and severe shortage of human management skills, with solid
 prospects of future flows from the country's natural
 resource wealth. Policies to meet these two priorities -
 sustained poverty and sound management of natural resources
 - are the focus of this report. It looks at the pressing
 concerns of managing the economic transition from the United
 Nationals Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)
 within the next two years; at the issue of wealth creation
 and the need to enhance the private investment climate; at
 the need to devise a framework for saving the oil and gas
 revenues; at the importance of raising human development
 standards; at the limited number of qualified personnel able
 to formulate high priority development objectives,
 compounded by the need to build effective governance; and,
 at the overwhelming incidence of poverty in rural areas, and
 the strong correlation between consumption poverty, and low
 levels of education. In setting a strategy for growth and
 poverty reduction, the report highlights the importance of
 maintaining the prevailing efforts at raising farm incomes,
 and productivity, while improving the quality of rural
 education, and health facilities, including a tax policy
 vision that can play a role to avoid exacerbating urban
 bias. On improving the business environment, there is need
 for capacity building, and micro-finance programs, but
 within an adequate legal framework, and prudential
 regulations. The administrative priorities would require
 enhanced citizen monitoring on government performance, with
 an input in public services to improve transparency - which
 would emerge from an assessment of cost, effectiveness, and capacity.
    • East Timor Public Administration : Public Expenditure Management and Accountability Note

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2002-04)
      This study focuses on the implications of East Timor's transitions from United Nations administration to Independence, from reconstruction to development and from aid dependence to fiscal independence for public expenditure policy and management. Following an assessment of the existing systems and their constraints, it makes recommendations for improvements in the public expenditure management system as a tool for achieving: 1) Macro-Economic Stability and Growth, by delivering a sustainable and productive application of resources; 2) Poverty Reduction, by allocating resources to programs that benefit and meet the needs of the poor; 3) Value-for-Money in the application of public funds, by focusing on economy, efficiency and effectiveness in public spending; 4) Good Governance, by ensuring transparency in decision-making and expenditure management, and accountability within the public sector, to the legislature and ultimately to the public. 2. The note is intended first as a contribution to the Government's on-going reform strategy. Summary recommendations are presented at the end of this report. The note is also intended as a contribution to independent assessments of the Government's financial management system undertaken by external partners. Six Chapters, including the Introduction, comprise the report: Chapter 2 reviews public expenditure trends over the past two years, covering aggregate expenditure, structural and execution issues, and ending with an assessment of the distribution of the benefits of public spending in three sectors, power, health and education. Chapter 3 examines the institutional framework and process of planning and budgeting in core government, autonomous agencies and the arrangements for oil fund management. Chapter 4 assesses budget execution and control systems, including supporting systems for personnel, supply and procurement, and asset management. Chapter 5 examines the relationship between the core public expenditure management system and external partners, including donors and NGOs, and oversight institutions. Chapter 6 presents a brief overview of the capacity building challenges in the area of public expenditure management and proposes a prioritization of actions to address issues identified in the body of the report.
    • ‘East-West’ or ‘North-South’?: mapping the corruption levels in post-socialist EU-members: a cross section study based on the corruption perception index and the global corruption barometer of transparency international.

      Papapanagos, Harry; Παπαπανάγος, Χάρρυ; Πρόγραμμα Μεταπτυχιακών Σπουδών στις Πολιτικές και Οικονομικές Σπουδές Σύγχρονης Ανατολικής και Νοτιοανατολικής Ευρώπης; Malliaros, Nikolaos G.; Μαλλιαρος, Νικόλαος (Πανεπιστήμιο Μακεδονίας, 2016-03-09)
      Διπλωματική εργασία--Πανεπιστήμιο Μακεδονίας, Θεσσαλονίκη, 2015.
    • Ecological economics : A Luhmannian analysis of integrated reporting

      Birmingham Business School ; University of Birmingham [Birmingham]; Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion (CERAG) ; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)-Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 (UPMF)-Université Grenoble Alpes (UGA); Université Grenoble Alpes (UGA); Alexander, David; Blum, Véronique (HAL CCSDElsevier, 2016-09)
      International audience
    • Ecological economics: A Luhmannian analysis of integrated reporting

      Birmingham Business School ; University of Birmingham [Birmingham]; Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion ( CERAG ) ; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ( CNRS ) -Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 ( UPMF ) -Université Grenoble Alpes ( UGA ); Université Grenoble Alpes ( UGA ); Alexander , David; Blum , Véronique (HAL CCSDElsevier, 2016-09)
      International audience
    • Ecology, History, and Development : A Perspective from Rural Southeast Asia

      Hayami, Yujiro (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2014-02-20)
      The process by which different
 ecological conditions and historical trajectories interacted
 to create different social and cultural systems resulted in
 major differences in economic development performance within
 Southeast Asia. In the late 19th century, Indonesia, the
 Philippines, and Thailand commonly experienced
 vent-for-surplus development through exploitation of unused
 lands. Nevertheless, different agrarian structures were
 created. Indonesia s development was mainly based on the
 exploitation of tropical rain forest under Dutch
 colonialism. It resulted in the bifurcation of the rural
 sector between rice-farming peasant proprietors and large
 plantations for tropical export crops based on hired labor.
 In the Philippines, exploitation of the same resource base
 under Spanish rule resulted in pervasive landlessness among
 the rural population. Relatively homogeneous landowning
 peasants continued to dominate in Thailand, where delta
 plains that were suitable only for rice production formed
 the resource base for development. These different agrarian
 structures associated with different social value systems
 have accounted for differential development performance
 across the three economies in the recent three decades.
    • Economic and non-financial performance indicators in universities : The Establishment of a performance-driven system for Australian higher education

      Macquarie University. Macquarie Graduate School of Management; Guthrie, James; Neumann, Ruth (Routledge, 2007)
      This article presents the findings of a project investigating the intended and unintended consequences of the contemporary performance-driven environment in the Australian higher education sector (AHES) focusing on the performance mechanisms used and the performance information required. It is argued that the establishment of a performance-driven, market-oriented university system in Australia has created a context in which fiscal and economic performance indicators have become dominant in understanding the 'performance' of the AHES and of individual universities' activities. This article analyses the AHES policy environment since the mid-1980s and outlines Australia's performance-based funding approach to universities. The contribution of universities to the nation's economy and the developing benchmarks and performance indicators (PIs) used for annual reporting at system and institutional levels are described. Several key issues are identified as arising from contemporary government policies. These issues, which form the basis for the suggested future research agenda, touch the core of university purposes and operations and need thought and resolution to ensure the long-term success of Australian public universities.
    • Economic and Social Impacts of Self-help Groups in India

      Liu, Yanyan; Deininger, Klaus (2012-03-19)
      Although there has been considerable recent interest in micro-credit programs, rigorous evidence on the impacts of forming self-help groups to mobilize savings and foster social empowerment at the local level is virtually non-existent, despite a large number of programs following this pattern. The authors use a large household survey to assess the economic and social impacts of the formation of self-help groups in India. They find positive impacts on empowerment and nutritional intake in program areas overall and heterogeneity of impacts between members of pre-existing and newly formed groups, as well as non-participants. Female social and economic empowerment in program areas increased irrespective of participation status, suggesting positive externalities. Nutritional benefit was more pronounced for new participants than for members of pre-existing groups. Evidence of higher consumption - but not income or asset formation - by participants suggests that at the time of the survey, the program's main economic impact had been through consumption smoothing and diversification of income sources rather than exploitation of new income sources. Evaluation of such programs in ways that allow heterogeneity of program impact can yield highly policy-relevant insights.