Now showing items 4382-4401 of 11024

    • G20 Priorities and Decisions under Turkey’s 2015 Presidency: Implementation, Inclusiveness and Investment for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth

      Marina Larionova; Mark Rakhmangulov; Elizaveta Safonkina; Andrey Sakharov; Andrei Shelepov (National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017-03-01)
      Turkey held the presidency of the G20 (Group of 20) from December 2014 to November 2015. During this period geopolitical tensions started to spread beyond the borders of the regions involved. Turkey went through a challenging time, with a slowing economy, two elections in 2015, revived political confrontations, two million refugees and frustrations in securing its borders and handling terrorism. Turkey defined three priorities for its presidency: inclusiveness, implementation and investment for growth. To combat inequality and ensure inclusive growth, it aimed to address the issues of small and medium-sized enterprises, such as access to finance, skills and global value chains, employment for youth and women, and support to the development of low-income countries. Inclusiveness was also explicit in G20 engagement with social partners. Implementation was emphasized, particularly related to the imperative to deliver on the G20 members’ commitments regarding growth strategies made at the 2014 Brisbane Summit.
 
 This article assesses the G20’s performance under the Turkey presidency within a functional paradigm focusing on the three main objectives of plurilateral summitry institutions: strengthening capacity for political leadership to launch new ideas and overcome deadlocks, reconciling domestic and international pressures, and consolidating collective management. To attain those objectives, institutions are expected to demonstrate leadership, solidarity, sustainability, acceptability, consistency and continuity. Efficiency is perceived as G20 performance on a combination of the criteria. Given the G20’s ultimate mission to achieve strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth, all the issues on Turkey’s G20 agenda were grouped according to these four growth pillars.
 
 G20 performance on each of the issue areas was assessed on six criteria using a three-point scale: high (1), medium (0) and low (−1) degree of performance. The overall assessment of G20 performance efficiency was estimated as the total of the average scores in each issue area divided by 11 (the number of policy areas on the agenda). Recognizing that implementation is crucial to G20 legitimacy, leadership and solidarity, Turkey made it one of its presidency’s priorities. Thus, the quality of accountability and level of compliance are considered within each policy area. The quality of engagement is included in the assessment of the acceptability of G20 decisions within respective policy areas, with the format of G20 engagement with outreach, including social partners, international institutions and non-G20 countries, explored in a separate section.
 
 The analysis showed that the G20 under the Turkish presidency attained a high level of consistency and continuity in all issues, ensuring the consistency of decisions across policy areas and their compatibility with the agenda of previous presidencies and G20 core agenda. Sustainability and acceptability were also quite high, as the G20 ensured the longevity of collectively produced solutions and got the endorsement of the decisions by other governments, international institutions and social partners. However, the Turkish presidency lacked leadership, showing not enough capacity to exercise political authority and overcome deadlocks, which could be partly explained by the challenges of the internal situation in Turkey. The lowest level was registered for solidarity as some G20 members did not fully commit to certain decisions and parts of the programs and documents were perceived as voluntary. The G20 displayed many of the features of plurilateral summitry institutions in all the areas under the goal of balanced growth and almost all with regard to the goal of inclusive growth. On sustainable growth, the performance was mixed on both energy and climate change. With a relatively high average for strong growth, the outcomes by issue were uneven: relatively high on macroeconomic cooperation and investment, and rather low on trade. The trade agenda was the only one with negative scores for leadership and solidarity, proving to be one of the most persistent challenges for the G20.
    • Gabon

      World Bank Group (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-05-20)
      The Country Opinion Survey in Gabon assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Gabon perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Gabon on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Gabon; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Gabon; 3) overall impressions of the WBG’s effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Gabon; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG’s future role in Gabon.
    • Gabon : Financial Sector Assessment

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-07-01)
      The report is a joint International
 Monetary Fund IMF-World Bank Financial Sector Assessment
 Program (FSAP), which examined Gabon's macroeconomic
 and financial context, and identified its financial
 soundness, as well as vulnerabilities. The country's
 financial sector is overall, profitable and stable, though
 still relatively underdeveloped. Banks - which dominate the
 financial sector - find their activities and growth
 potential, limited by the size of the non-oil economy, given
 that financing of the oil sector is largely undertaken
 outside the country. While the government retains a strong
 role in the financial sector, as owner and as client,
 through public enterprises, solvency levels in some of the
 banks are close to the forthcoming regulatory minimum of
 eight percent (effective in 2004).This risk is enhanced by
 the banking sector's portfolio concentration. Moreover,
 fiscal problems have in the past had direct, and indirect
 negative repercussions on the performance of the financial
 sector. The report further analyzes the legal, regulatory
 and supervisory issues, stating the judicial system is
 deficient, enhancing risks and costs of doing business,
 including for the financial sector, while the insurance
 market is for the most part, stagnant, and lacking product
 innovation. Recommendations for legal and judicial issues
 include a strengthened framework that enables transparency,
 including predictability in the disposition of financial
 sector litigation; and, recommendations for the financial
 sector development suggest pursuing adequate risk
 diversification strategies; merging with regional stock
 exchanges; and, identifying financial mechanisms to
 establish a micro-finance sector.
    • Gabon Public Expenditure Review : Better Management of Public Finance to Achieve Millennium Development Goals

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2012-03)
      Although Gabon has witnessed a significant decline in oil production over the last fifteen years, it still generates significant oil revenue which, due to its small population enables the country to have a per capita gross national income that is among the highest in Africa (8643 USD in 2010) and to be classified as an upper-middle income country. Despite this high level of wealth, the country is ranked 106th out of 187 countries in the Human Development Index of the United Nations (0.674 in 2011). Consequently, the major challenge for Gabon remains the effective use of its oil resources to diversify its economy, improve its basic social services and infrastructure, while accumulating financial savings that will enable the country to avoid sudden and sharp cuts in public spending once the oil resources have been used up. The Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRSP) that covered the period from 2006 to 2008 targeted the reversal of the downward trend of the main development indicators and a significant improvement in the living conditions of the population. It was prepared using a consultative approach, based on the broad participation of civil society, and results-oriented, with the ultimate goal of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It was structured around four strategy areas: (i) promoting strong, sustainable, high quality and pro-poor economic growth, (ii) significantly improving access of the entire population to basic social services, (iii) improving infrastructure, and (iv) promoting good governance. The analysis of budgetary expenditure in the priority sectors during the period 2006-08, shows that this expenditure was far below the envisaged envelopes. The achievement rates for road programs fluctuate between 0 percent and 55 percent. This may partly explain the slow progress towards achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs).
    • Gag Rules and Trade Secrets in Managed Care Contracts: Ethical and Legal Concerns

      Brody, Howard; Bonham, Vence L. (2015-05-05)
      Gag rules-clauses in managed care contracts that prevent physicians from disclosing information that the plan may find disparaging, but that could relate directly to the patient's health-have recently been the subject of ethical condemnation and legislative prohibition. Another serious problem in managed care contracts, trade secrets, or guidelines and quality assurance mechanisms that are imposed on physicians while their origins are shrouded in proprietary secrecy, have by contrast received little attention. Responses to these ethical challenges to the physician's integrity must involve individual physicians, managed care organizations, professional organizations, and public policymakers.
    • Gaining momentum: towards integrated reporting practices in GCC countries

      Ahmed, Ahmed Hassan; Elmaghrabi, Mohamed Esmail; Dunne, Theresa; Hussainey, Khaled (2020-07-19)
      <
    • Gaining momentum: towards integrated reporting practices in Gulf Cooperation Council countries

      Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Elmaghrabi, Mohamed Esmail; Dunne, Theresa; Hussainey, Khaled (2020-09-14)
      <
    • Gaining Momentum:Towards integrated reporting practices in Gulf Cooperation Council countries

      Ahmed, Ahmed Hassan; Elmaghrabi, Mohamed E; Dunne, Theresa; Hussainey, Khaled (2020-09-14)
      <
    • Gaining Momentum:Towards integrated reporting practices in Gulf Cooperation Council countries

      Ahmed, Ahmed Hassan; Elmaghrabi, Mohamed E.; Dunne, Theresa; Hussainey, Khaled (2020-09-14)
      <
    • Gains That Could Be Achieved through Full Application of Deming's Total Quality Management

      MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING; Price, Nathanael (2007-05-10)
      In his seminal work, "Out of the Crisis," W. Edwards Deming provided American corporations with a direction and method for improving both man and machine in an effort to transform the way in which these corporations performed and managed both service and industry functions. His ideas for statistical control have taken hold within the workplace and are becoming increasingly popular among managers and corporate executives who are intent on improving the bottom line. However, most companies have limited their incorporation of Deming's methods and failed to include Deming's approach to improved leadership and employee involvement. This study will review the human aspects of Deming's ideas and their convergence with an existing theory on employee engagement. Additionally, the impacts of employee engagement will be reviewed to better understand the potential gains that may be had by corporations when they implement Deming's Total Quality Management to the extent that he originally intended.
    • Gains that could be achieved through full application of Deming's total quality management

      University of Maryland.; Price, Nathaniel. (2012-03-14)
      In his seminal work, Out of the Crisis, W. Edwards Deming provided American corporations with a direction and method for improving both man and machine in an effort to transform the way in which these corporations performed and managed both service and industry functions. His ideas for statistical control have taken hold within the workplace and are becoming increasingly popular among managers and corporate executives who are intent on improving the bottom line. However, most companies have limited their incorporation of Deming's methods and failed to include Deming's approach to improved leadership and employee involvement. This study will review the human aspects of Deming's ideas and their convergence with an existing theory on employee engagement. Additionally, the impacts of employee engagement will be reviewed to better understand the potential gains that may be had by corporations when they implement Deming's Total Quality Management to the extent that he originally intended.
    • Gambia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-07-01)
      In the Gambia, effective public financial management is promoted through a reasonably sound budget framework. However, there are a number of serious weaknesses, which create a high level of fiduciary risk. (Appendix 1 of this report.) Fiduciary risk means here that there is a risk that resources are not accounted for properly, that they are not used for intended purposes and that expenditure does not represent value for money. There are also risks associated with the governance environment. These weaknesses include poor resource allocation, non-compliance, limited execution, inadequate monitoring and scrutiny, insufficient capacity, lack of enforcement, non-transparency, and poor parliamentary oversight. The Government's pledge to strengthen governance needs to be translated into measures to address these weaknesses. This report recommends the following recommendations for providing evidence that significant progress has been made towards the fundamental benchmarks in public financial management: 1) Strengthen linkages between policies and budget expenditures through updating sectoral public expenditure reviews (PERs) for education, health, and agriculture & natural resources, and completing two new PERs in the infrastructure (transportation) and local government sectors. 2) Provide spending departments with indicative resource envelopes beyond the coming month/quarter to facilitate their planning and management. 3) Update the accounting records (including bank reconciliations), immediate address concerns with information technology systems (OMICRON, WANG) and urgently close the annual accounts. 4) Issue audit opinions on financial statements for 1991-1999.
    • Gambling with the public sphere: Accounting's contribution to debate on social issues.

      Irvine, Helen J.; Moerman, Lee (Elsevier, 2017-10)
      This paper explores the contribution of accounts, especially counter-accounts, to the debate on social issues in the public sphere. We examine a social activist organisation's challenge to a major corporation to acknowledge the issue of problem gambling and change its poker machine operations. While the professionally sanctioned corporate financial statements and corporate responsibility reports failed to contribute relevant information for an informed public debate, the activist organisation sponsored and produced both narrative and calculative counter-accounts which contributed to public debate. We initially anchor our approach in Habermas' to explore dialogic accounts and democratic accountability at the deliberative-agonistic divide. Our contextualised, theorised narrative identifies the accounts and counter-accounts provided by the protagonists.&#13; &#13; Practically, the paper demonstrates the power of counter-accounts to reinvigorate debate in the public sphere, irrespective of whether it stimulates a change in corporate behaviour. We therefore contend that social accounting should be empirically examined and contextually interpreted. The case brings into focus the deliberative-agonistic divide inherent in democratic systems and recognised in the social accounting literature, and suggests that ideological differences make it difficult for corporate and activist protagonists to co-exist as friendly enemies. This challenges Habermas' conception of a public sphere as naively idealistic, since it neglects contemporary ideological, political and power differentials, but proposes a space in which debate about accounting's role in social issues can be agonistically debated. It leads us to call for more theoretically informed, contextualised case studies to examine the potential of accounting to enable public debate on social issues.
    • Gambling with the public sphere: NGO social activism, pokies and corporate accountability

      Irvine, Helen J.; Moerman, Lee (Elsevier, 2017-05)
      This paper explores the contribution of accounts, especially counter-accounts, to the debate on social issues in the public sphere. We examine a social activist organisation's challenge to a major corporation to acknowledge the issue of problem gambling and change its poker machine operations. While the professionally sanctioned corporate financial statements and corporate responsibility reports failed to contribute relevant information for an informed public debate, the activist organisation sponsored and produced both narrative and calculative counter-accounts which contributed to public debate. We initially anchor our approach in Habermas' to explore dialogic accounts and democratic accountability at the deliberative-agonistic divide. Our contextualised, theorised narrative identifies the accounts and counter-accounts provided by the protagonists.&#13; &#13; Practically, the paper demonstrates the power of counter-accounts to reinvigorate debate in the public sphere, irrespective of whether it stimulates a change in corporate behaviour. We therefore contend that social accounting should be empirically examined and contextually interpreted. The case brings into focus the deliberative-agonistic divide inherent in democratic systems and recognised in the social accounting literature, and suggests that ideological differences make it difficult for corporate and activist protagonists to co-exist as friendly enemies. This challenges Habermas' conception of a public sphere as naively idealistic, since it neglects contemporary ideological, political and power differentials, but proposes a space in which debate about accounting's role in social issues can be agonistically debated. It leads us to call for more theoretically informed, contextualised case studies to examine the potential of accounting to enable public debate on social issues.
    • Games of truth in the age of transparency: international organisations and the construction of corruption

      Woermann, Minka; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Philosophy.; Snyman, Roan Alexander (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-02-21)
      Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.
    • Gandhi’s Prophecy: Corporate Violence and A Mindful Law for Bhopal

      Patel, Nehal A. (SelectedWorks, 2015-09-28)
      Abstract Over thirty years have passed since the Bhopal chemical disaster began, and in that time scholars of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have discussed and debated several frameworks for improving corporate response to social and environmental problems. However, CSR discourse rarely delves into the fundamental architecture of legal thought that often buttresses corporate dominance in the global economy. Moreover, CSR discourse does little to challenge the ontological and epistemological assumptions that form the foundation for modern economics and the role of corporations in the world. I explore methods of transforming CSR by employing the thought of Mohandas Gandhi. I pay particular attention to Gandhi’s critique of industrialization and principle of swadeshi (self-sufficiency) to address the tension between multinational corporations and local communities worldwide. Gandhi’s principle of swadeshi especially is salient in light of Bhopal, where local survivors have struggled to raise awareness of the persistent degradation of their environment. I discuss the current state of CSR, Bhopal’s ongoing relevance to modern industrialization, and a potential future for CSR that incorporates swadeshi for local populations.
    • GAO: Government Accountability Office and General Accounting Office

      LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE; Kaiser, Frederick M. (2007-06-22)
      On July 7, 2004, an old congressional support agency was given a new name, while keeping the same initials (GAO): at that time, the General Accounting Office, established in 1921, was re-designated the Government Accountability Office (P.L. 108-271). The renaming, which came at the request of its head, the Comptroller General (CG), is designed to reflect the agency's evolution and additional duties since its creation more than eight decades before. Importantly, the act also expands the CG's authority over pay and personnel matters. The GAO is the largest of three agencies that provide staff support, research, review, and analysis for Congress. GAO operates under the control and direction of the CG of the United States, who is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate, for a 15-year nonrenewable term. GAO was established in 1921 as an independent auditor of government agencies and activities by the Budget and Accounting Act. The office was intended to be "independent of the executive departments," the entities it would audit and review. GAO now provides a variety of services to Congress that extend beyond its original functions and duties. Current activities include oversight, investigation, review, and evaluation of executive programs, operations, and activities. Throughout much of its history, the office has experienced growth in its powers, duties, and resources. In the mid-1990s, however, it was the subject of congressional hearings, studies, and proposals for change, connected with its mission, roles, and capabilities; these reviews were generated in part by criticisms of its perceived orientation. As a result, GAO's budget and authorities were reduced. GAO's budget was cut by 25% over a 2-year period (FY1996 and FY1997), resulting in a 39% reduction in its staff over a 7-year period. However, the office's funding has since risen: from $358 million in FY1998 to $488.6 million in FY2007, with a request of $531 million for FY2008.
    • GCP accreditation - A worthwhile investment [4]

      Burgess L.J.; Sulzer N.U. (2006)
      [No abstract available]
    • [GCR 2006: Corruption and Health] The causes of corruption in the health sector

      Savedoff, William D. (Transparency International, 2006)
      "Corruption exists in all types of health care systems. William Savedoff and Karen Hussmann look at the reasons why the health sector is especially vulnerable to corruption, and ask whether the vulnerabilities are different in kind and in magnitude, depending on the type of system chosen. An analysis of Colombia and Venezuela shows that very different manifestations of corruption emerged as the two countries’ health care models diverged. If there is corruption, no matter which system is opted for, and how well it is funded, health spending may not lead to commensurate health outcomes. In the United States, Americans spend more on health care than many other industrialised countries, yet health outcomes are arguably no better."