Now showing items 5647-5666 of 11024

    • Jamaica

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2015-05-11)
      Jamaica has experienced 30 years of low
 economic growth and high fiscal deficits, with a significant
 impact on the development of the financial sector. As part
 of the overall growth and competitiveness reform agenda, the
 authorities have embarked on ambitious financial sector
 legislation reforms to address weaknesses. Lack of access to
 credit and equity constrain Micro, Small and Medium Sized
 Enterprise (MSME) operations and growth, and ultimately
 their contribution to the economy. High interest rates and
 low penetration of credit to households and MSMEs can be
 explained by high credit risk as a result of high
 information asymmetries in the market, as well as limited
 competition in the banking sector. The authorities should
 complete the establishment of a regulatory and supervisory
 framework for deposit-taking institutions proportionate to
 the risks and the activities they undertake. The impact of
 public policies has been limited and programs on housing,
 MSME finance, and agriculture finance would be welcomed to
 address market gaps, in support of financial inclusion. The
 financial inclusion agenda also requires a comprehensive
 strategy on consumer protection regulation and supervision.
    • Jamaica

      International Monetary Fund; World Bank (Washington, DC, 2015-05-19)
      Financial infrastructure is the
 underlying foundation of a country’s financial system. It is
 comprised of all institutions, information, technologies,
 rules, and standards which enable financial intermediation.
 The quality of a country’s financial infrastructure
 determines the efficiency of intermediation, the ability of
 lenders to evaluate risk and of borrowers to obtain credit,
 insurance, and other financial products at competitive
 terms. This report covers two dimensions of Jamaica’s
 financial infrastructure: 1) payments, remittances, and
 securities settlement systems, and; 2) credit reporting
 systems. This technical note does not provide a detailed
 assessment of individual payments system in the form of a
 Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC), but uses
 the framework of international standards for carrying out a
 detailed analysis of the existing systems in Jamaica,
 including the Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems
 (CPSS) and International Organization of Securities
 Commissions (IOSCO) Principles for Financial Markets
 Infrastructure (PFMIs), the CPSS General Guidance for
 National Payment System Development, the CPSS-World Bank
 General Principles on International Remittance Services
 (GPs), the World Bank General Principles for credit
 reporting and related methodologies. The information used in
 the assessment includes relevant national laws, regulations,
 rules and procedures governing the systems and other
 available material.
    • Jamaica - Country Economic Memorandum : Unlocking Growth

      World Bank (World Bank, 2012-03-19)
      The objective of this report is to
 identify the main obstacles to longer term growth in
 Jamaica. The report takes a holistic approach, examining a
 large set of economic and social factors that may be
 hindering growth and filtering them through a growth
 diagnostic analysis to narrow the focus to those that
 constrain growth the most. Building on the results of the
 growth diagnostic analysis, the report then discusses each
 key obstacle and identifies possible reform scenarios to
 unlock growth in Jamaica. The report also examines how the
 country might further accelerate growth through private
 sector development. This Country Economic Memorandum
 assesses the key causes that have stalled Jamaica's
 economy over the past four decades and presents
 recommendations to unlock its growth potential. There is a
 basis for optimism in that Jamaica has had political
 stability, high rates of private investment, significant
 reduction of poverty in rural and urban areas, and improved
 income distribution. Nonetheless, this report shows that,
 since independence in 1962, long-term economic growth has
 been disappointing and underperformed most other countries.
 The findings of this study indicate that Jamaica's
 disappointing economic performance is traceable to low
 productivity caused by (i) deficiencies in human capital and
 entrepreneurship that are due to high migration rates and to
 deficiencies in the quality of education and training
 offered to the labor force, among other factors, (ii) a high
 rate of crime, and (iii) distortionary tax incentives
 combined with 'enclave' development that does not
 spill over to the rest of the economy.
    • Jamaica : Accounting and Auditing

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-07-25)
      This report assesses both the mandatory
 requirements and the actual practices of the accounting and
 auditing professions in Jamaica, using the International
 Accounting Standards (IAS) and the International Standards
 of Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks. The assessment was
 conducted using a diagnostic tool developed by the World
 Bank under a joint initiative of World Bank and
 International Monetary Fund on the Reports on the Observance
 of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The Institute of Chartered
 Accountants of Jamaica (ICAJ) initially carried out a
 self-assessment with the assistance of an international
 consultant, to prepare the ground for obtaining financial
 assistance under the Multilateral Investment Fund program of
 the Inter-American Development Bank.
    • Jamaica : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-09-05)
      The Bank conducts Country Financial
 Accountability Assessments (CFAA) in all borrower countries.
 The specific objectives of the CFAA are to review the key
 aspects of public financial management at the national
 level: a) flow of funds to government entities and Bank
 projects, including planning, cash management, and
 budgeting; b) accounting and financial reporting; and c)
 auditing of public sector activities. The Bank carried out
 field work for a CFAA in Jamaica in May 2000. This CFAA
 makes the following recommendations: 1) Inefficient in the
 government's planning process and its subsequent
 integration into the budget process result in an inefficient
 execution of the budget, monitored mainly by cash flows
 rather than outputs. 2) Current budget formulation formats
 need to be simplified in order to increase their usefulness
 and assure more accurate estimates. 3) The government's
 decentralized cash management arrangements should be
 tightened to allow for greater central control over the
 amount of outstanding cash balances. 4) The government
 accounting function is more advanced than many Caribbean
 countries. However, there are still aspects to be improved.
 5) The government's detailed financial reports on the
 budget and public sector expenditures should be more timely
 and focus more on actual expenditures rather than only the
 budgeted amounts. 6) As of 2000, the hardware and software
 of the Financial Management Information System (FMIS) needs
 to be upgraded.
    • Jamaica : Parliamentary Oversight of Public Finances--An Institutional Review

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-11-14)
      Sound legislative oversight of public finances is crucial to ensure efficiency and effectiveness of public spending. All national governments, and particularly those that are accountable to their citizens through free elections and the voice of civil society, are concerned with the efficiency and efficacy of public finances. More broadly, well-functioning parliaments promote good governance; enhance transparency and accountability, including for public expenditures and their results; widen public discourse on national priorities and options; and build better partnerships between officials and representatives and their electorate. In all this, those among the citizenry with the least have the most to gain. This report responds to a request from the Government of Jamaica to review the structure and capacity of the Parliament of Jamaica to undertake its constitutional role with respect to oversight of the nation's public finances. Jamaica's Parliament is the country's supreme legislative body, consisting of an elected House of Representatives and an appointed Senate (Upper House), as well as the Queen or her representative, as the ceremonial head, and the Governor General. The Government of Jamaica has amended various legislations to adopt a Fiscal Responsibility Framework (FRF). The FRF includes specific fiscal targets as well as provisions to include the Ministry of Finance (MOF) and public service control over expenditures and lending.
    • Jamaica : Toward a Strategy for Financial Weather Risk Management in Agriculture

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-02-22)
      This report forms part of the technical
 assistance provided by the World Bank under the Non-lending
 Technical Assistance Program for the Caribbean
 'market-based agriculture risk management in the
 Caribbean.' The program is largely financed by the
 European Union All Agriculture Commodities Program (AACP)
 Initiative and contributions from the International Fund for
 Agriculture Development (IFAD) and the World Bank. This
 document provides technical input for designing a national
 strategy for addressing the financial weather risks facing
 the agricultural sector of Jamaica. As such, it identifies
 the various options from current available financial risk
 transfer instruments for addressing crop weather risks for
 small farmers (livestock risks are not directly addressed in
 this report) and identifies the public investments needed
 for supporting market development of the agricultural
 insurance market. The report is structured in five sections
 to facilitate its presentation. The first two sections
 present a snapshot of the Jamaican economy and agricultural
 sector, and the current situation of agricultural insurance;
 third section addresses a set of key issues for designing a
 government strategy for agricultural financial weather risk
 management; fourth section contains the elements of public
 policy and investments to support market development for
 agricultural insurance, and various illustrations of how to
 structure financial weather risk management instruments for
 the sector. The report concludes with a short section
 containing final remarks and recommendations.
    • Jamaica : Weather Insurance for the Coffee Sector Feasibility Study

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-04-22)
      The present report is intended as a
 technical, organizational and financial summary of the
 feasibility study to review options and to make decisions on
 whether or not this program meets the needs of the industry.
 It is recognized that decisions on whether or not to proceed
 towards a future insurance program will require significant
 consultation with farmers and processors, and an agreement
 on an implementation plan, including decisions on pilot
 testing. Chapter two describes the risk modeling undertaken
 during the study and the outputs. These outputs are used to
 define key elements of a parametric insurance product, such
 as zoning of coffee farmers within the blue mountain area,
 the frequency and severity of the wind hazard, and how the
 expected impact of those hazards was estimated by division
 into altitude bands to create vulnerability profiles.
 Finally the outputs can be used to price different insurance
 options. Chapter three considers the organizational options
 and requirements to deliver a parametric insurance product
 to coffee farmers, and some financial implications including
 structuring insurance and reinsurance protection. Chapter
 four considers the issues and steps which will be needed for
 implementation, including options for piloting and scaling
 up, and legal and regulatory requirements.
    • Jamaica Country Opinion Survey Report (July 2013 - June 2014)

      World Bank Group (Washington, DC, 2014-07-31)
      The Country Opinion Survey for FY2013 in Jamaica assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Jamaica perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral
    • Jamaica Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes

      World Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-06-13)
      This Report on Observance and
 Codes-Accounting and Auditing (ROSC-A&A) assesses the
 corporate sector accounting, financial reporting, and
 auditing practices in Jamaica. It builds on its predecessor,
 a 2003 ROSC-A&A, and its aims to assist the Government
 of Jamaica's efforts to strengthen accounting and
 auditing practices and to enhance financial transparency in
 the corporate sector, so as to support the Government's
 economic reform program and provide greater confidence to
 current and potential investors with respect to the
 financial reporting environment. Jamaica has embarked on an
 economic reform program whose main objectives are to contain
 the country's growing economic and external
 vulnerabilities and address economic imbalances, while
 putting the country on a path to sustainable growth.
 Important reforms include: (a) strengthening public
 finances, including through comprehensive tax reform,
 expenditure rationalization, and improved public debt
 management and public financial management; (b) enhancing
 the resilience of the financial sector through strengthened
 supervisory, regulatory, and crisis-management frameworks;
 and (c) improving growth generating efficiency through
 enhancements to the business environment and strengthened
 institutional capacity and governance.
    • James F. Alderson: White-hat Accountant With Moral Courage

      Christensen, David; Boneck, Robin (OpenSPACES@UNK: Scholarship, Preservation, and Creative Endeavors, 2015-10-01)
      The objective of this case study is to increase resolve to have moral courage by studying the whistleblowing experience of James Alderson. After a brief introduction about Alderson, whistleblowing, and moral courage, accounting students read a detailed description of Alderson’s experience in “HeBlewtheWhistleand HealthGiants Quaked” (Eichenwald 1998). They then identify essential elements of moral courage, explore how to blow the whistle, and identify character traits that may have contributed to Alderson’s success. Accounting students are inspired by Alderson’s experience, and report an increased resolve to have moral courage. Instructor notes about the case objective, suggestions for implementation and assessment, and answers to the requirements are available.
    • Jamkesmas Health Service Fee Waiver

      World Bank (World Bank, Jakarta, 2012-02)
      Macroeconomic growth and incomes have
 been on the rise since the Asian Financial Crisis (AFC), but
 health service utilization and health outcomes in Indonesia
 have been slower to improve. Jamkesmas could provide
 valuable benefits by allowing cardholders to acquire
 preventative, curative, and catastrophic health care
 services without fees. When it promotes healthy households,
 keeps students active, alert, and participating in their
 education, returns adults to work sooner, and saves
 households from the high costs of healthcare,
 Jamkesmas' sizeable individual benefits should be
 matched by increased social benefits resulting from a
 healthy and productive population. Jamkesmas has been
 provided to poor households, but many non-poor have also
 received Jamkesmas benefits due to dual central and local
 targeting processes which have led to frequent mismatches
 and errors in coverage. Health service providers find
 Jamkesmas difficult and costly to implement resulting in
 fewer services provided, and funds spent, on Jamkesmas
 beneficiaries. Local regulations regarding public health
 center management often conflict with Jamkesmas mandates,
 leaving health service providers confused and unwilling to
 use Jamkesmas funds to provide Jamkesmas beneficiaries with
 planned services. The future costs of an improved Jamkesmas
 program have not been adequately publicized and
 Jamkesmas' financial, fiscal, and political
 sustainability is uncertain.
    • January 20, 2011 -- Products and Risk Management

      Digital Commons @ Western New England University School of Law, 2011-01-20
      On January 20, 2011, Western New England College Law and Business Center for Advancing Entrepreneurship held an information session with a panel of experts, Professor William Childs, Western New England College School of Law; Michael McMyne, SVP & Chief Claim Officer Burlington Insurance Group Guilford Specialty Group; and Attorney George Marion, Bulkley, Richardson and Gelinas, LLP providing an overview of product liability law and risk management strategies for small businesses and manufacturers.
    • Japanese Corporate Governance: Structural Change and Financial Performance

      Colpan, A. M.; YOSHIKAWA, Toru; Hikino, T.; Miyoshi, H. (Institutional Knowledge at Singapore Management University, 2007-01-01)
      This paper analyzes institutional and legal changes related to corporate governance and their impact on financial performance in Japan since the second half of the 1990s. We attempt to address two issues systematically: (1) how much the governance reforms of Japanese firms transformed the conventional system of alliance capitalism and managerial control; and (2) what economic outcomes those governance changes have yielded. As the Commercial Code and other legal and institutional frameworks were revised, Japanese firms experienced shifts in terms of stock ownership, corporate control and managerial organizations. Our empirical results show that the influence of new ownership composition and reformed governance mechanisms on financial performance remains varied. We find that certain factors, such as foreign and financial investors, functioned positively, while others, like the executive officer system and stock options, had little or negative performance effect. Japanese management apparently appeased market investor pressure by superficially institutionalizing various governance reforms, while enhancing financial performance through strategic modifications. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
    • Japan’s Role in Africa

      Wolfowitz, Paul (2005-10-11)
      Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank, discussed how Japan’s success is an inspirational example for developing countries. Now, Japan is the second largest shareholder in the World Bank and a valued partner. Today the world is challenged to help the poor countries achieve the millennium development goals and that Japan and the World Bank have a common set of priorities in that endeavor. The Hong Kong round of the Doha development trade round is a big challenge ahead. The relationship between Japan and the World Bank is one of the most critical ones.
    • Job Creation through Infrastructure Investment in the Middle East and North Africa

      Yepes, Tito; Foucart, Renaud; Estache, Antonio; Ianchovichina, Elena; Garsous, Grégoire (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-08)
      In the next 10 years or so, the infrastructure sector has the potential to generate significant employment. This paper estimates annual job creation of about 2.0 million in direct jobs and 2.5 million in direct, indirect and induced infrastructure-related jobs just by meeting the infrastructure investment needs of about 6.9 percent of gross domestic product (about US$106 billion) for the Middle East and North Africa region on average. The breakdown in expected needs is 11 percent in developing oil exporters, 6 percent in oil importing countries, and 5 percent in the Gulf Cooperation Council oil exporters. Needs are particularly high in electricity and roads. While important, infrastructure job creation will not resolve the region's unemployment problem alone and its job creation potential varies greatly across countries. Moreover, the current ability to finance and hence meet the infrastructure needs varies significantly across countries. Oil importers are likely to fall short under business as usual scenarios. In a region in which the public sector is the main source of infrastructure financing, fiscal choices will thus matter to job creation through infrastructure. But there are more challenges, including the governance of job creation, and the proper targeting and costing of subsidies for job creation and the (re)training programs needed. Managing expectations will also matter, as infrastructure jobs will help but will not solve the region's unemployment and underemployment problems.
    • Jobs, Growth, and Governance in the Middle East and North Africa

      World Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2003)
      This report identifies the following as
 the fundamental challenges and changes that the Middle East
 and Africa must meet and make in order to improve living
 standards over the next two decades: Between eighty and one
 hundred million new jobs to be created by 2020. Economic
 growth to be lifted from a sluggish 3.4 percent over the
 late 1990s to at least 6-7 percent a year. Governance to
 move from traditional autocracies to more inclusive
 governments, accountable to the people. Women to be more
 equitably included in economic activity and to harness the
 significant potential economic benefits from an increasingly
 educated and healthy female population. Public sectors to
 open the door to more private initiative. Economies
 dependent on oil and workers' remittances to diversify
 into manufacturing and services. Closed trading regimes to
 integrate with new trading partners in the region and the
 world. Impossible? No. Imperative? Yes. The political
 imperatives for such change and the stability of the old
 order are two opposing forces. The balance is shifting
 toward the need for reform as joblessness and slow growth
 make the old order increasingly costly and unsustainable.
    • Johnson v. Wells Fargo Bank Nat’l Ass’n, 132 Nev. Adv. Op. 70 (September 29, 2016)

      Griffith, Brittni (Scholarly Commons @ UNLV Law, 2016-09-29)
      The Court considered whether the Bank Secrecy Act prevents financial institutions from disclosing all investigative information in discovery to an adverse party. The Court held that the Bank Secrecy Act only precludes the disclosure of information relating to the existence of a suspicious activity report or the procedural nature of the suspicious activity report’s generation.
    • Joint Strategic Oversight Plan for Afghanistan Reconstruction FY13

      The plan identifies 13 strategic issues and describes focus areas within each of these issues to guide the development of audits, inspections, and evaluations that will provide oversight for the major reconstruction programs in the coming fiscal year. Through this plan, we will be able to conduct comprehensive oversight of the reconstruction effort. This plan enables us to better leverage our resources to cover issues most critical to Afghanistan s reconstruction and to provide Congress, United States implementing agencies, and the American people with more focused assessments to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of critical reconstruction programs and to mitigate fraud, waste, and abuse.