Now showing items 5708-5727 of 11024

    • Kampagnen für Informationszugang, Whistleblowing in Südafrika

      Florini, Ann; Calland, Richard (Transparency International, 2003)
      "Informationszugang ist zum Schlachtruf für Hunderte von Bürgerbewegungen und Organisationen der Zivilgesellschaft in der ganzen Welt geworden. Von Basisorganisationen in den Dörfern bis hin zu internationalen Kampagnen behaupten Gruppierungen der Zivilgesellschaft das Recht der Bürger zu wissen, was Regierungen, internationale Organisationen und private Unternehmen tun und wie öffentliche Ressourcen vergeben werden. Einige dieser Bemühungen spiegeln Antikorruptionsanliegen wider. Andere sind breiter angelegt und zielen auf eine Verbesserung der Regierungsführung, aber da Korruption in der Dunkelheit gedeiht, wird jeder Fortschritt in Richtung auf eine Öffnung der Regierungen und der zwischenstaatlichen Organisationen für öffentliche Prüfungen gleichzeitig auch die Antikorruptionsbemühungen fördern.
    • KAP Keys for Clinicians: Based on TIP #2: Pregnant, Substance-Using Women

      Mitchell, Janet L. (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), 2001-01-01)
      Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series #2. 7 pages. Knowledge Application Program ( KAP ).  This is a brief, summarized, and applied version of TIP 2. Tip 2 informs and encourages treatment programs to broaden and strengthen services for women, particularly  pregnant  women who abuse substances. Also: treatment guidelines, medical guidelines, legal and ethical guidelines, training guidelines for programs, assessment instruments, continuum of care model program, quality assurance monitoring, and comprehensive care flow charts.
    • Kazakhstan

      World Bank Group (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-05-20)
      The Country Opinion Survey in Kazakhstan assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Kazakhstan perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Kazakhstan on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Kazakhstan; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Kazakhstan; 3) overall impressions of the WBG’s effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Kazakhstan; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG’s future role in Kazakhstan.
    • Kazakhstan - The New Pensions in Kazakhstan : Challenges in Making the Transition

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2004-05)
      This report discuses Kazakhstan's
 pension system reform which is nearing the completion of the
 sixth year of its implementation. In addition to the need
 to address the design and operation of the payout phase of
 the pension system, the report finds two main areas in which
 changes and refinements to the pension system should be
 considered: (1) Changes to the basic benefit and financing
 structure of the system, during both the transitional and
 fully implemented stage. These should be aimed at improving
 the capacity of the system to provide adequate and equitable
 benefits; and (2) Improvements to the institutional and
 regulatory infrastructure to enhance the security and
 efficiency of the pension system. The report also provides
 recommendations for changes to the initial framework that
 would enhance the capacity of the reform to achieve the
 long-term goal of a sustainable, affordable and equitable
 pension system. This study reviews the experience gained, in
 the light of current conditions and projected outcomes, and
 draws conclusions about the likely medium and long-term
 consequences of the current design of the pension system.
 The report also provides recommendations for changes to the
 initial framework that would enhance the capacity of the
 reform to achieve the long-term goal of a sustainable,
 affordable and equitable pension system.
    • Kazakhstan : Agricultural Insurance Feasibility Study, Volume 1. Main Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-12-17)
      Agriculture is a very important
 socioeconomic sector in Kazakhstan. The Government of the
 Republic of Kazakhstan (GRK) introduced a national
 compulsory crop insurance scheme in 2005 in order to provide
 grain producers and other farmers with a minimum level of
 protection against catastrophic climatic events. The overall
 objective of the current study is to assist the GRK in
 improving the existing mandatory crop insurance program. The
 study aims to identify sustainable market-based alternatives
 to the current crop insurance system in Kazakhstan. In this
 regard, all of the options for improving the current system
 that were developed under this study are market based and
 take into account global experience and the best insurance
 and reinsurance industry practices for agricultural
 insurance. The study follows the principles established in
 the agriculture risk management framework developed by the
 World Bank. The study focuses mainly on spring wheat crop
 production in the principal growing regions of Kazakhstan.
 The study is set out in six chapters. Chapter one gives
 introduction and objectives of the study. Chapter two
 presents an overview of agricultural production systems and
 markets in Kazakhstan, followed by an assessment of the
 climatic hazards and other risks affecting spring wheat in
 the country s main crop areas. Chapter three reviews the
 structure and performance of the current mandatory crop
 insurance system in Kazakhstan and identifies a series of
 institutional, operational, technical, and financial
 drawbacks of the current system. Chapter four presents a
 phased strategy and a series of options and recommendations
 for the GRK to consider for the introduction of market based
 solutions that aim to strengthen the current scheme. Chapter
 five explores the opportunities for developing new crop
 insurance products in Kazakhstan, including prefeasibility
 analyses for area-yield index insurance (AYII), weather
 index insurance (WII), and named-peril hail insurance for
 selected rayons. Finally, chapter six deals with the
 challenges of tailoring crop insurance to the needs of
 lower-income smaller farmers.
    • Kazakhstan : Agricultural Insurance Feasibility Study, Volume 2. Annexes

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2011-10)
      Agriculture is a very important
 socioeconomic sector in Kazakhstan. The Government of the
 Republic of Kazakhstan (GRK) introduced a national
 compulsory crop insurance scheme in 2005 in order to provide
 grain producers and other farmers with a minimum level of
 protection against catastrophic climatic events. The overall
 objective of the current study is to assist the GRK in
 improving the existing mandatory crop insurance program. The
 study aims to identify sustainable market-based alternatives
 to the current crop insurance system in Kazakhstan. In this
 regard, all of the options for improving the current system
 that were developed under this study are market based and
 take into account global experience and the best insurance
 and reinsurance industry practices for agricultural
 insurance. The study follows the principles established in
 the agriculture risk management framework developed by the
 World Bank. The study focuses mainly on spring wheat crop
 production in the principal growing regions of Kazakhstan.
 The study is set out in six chapters. Chapter one gives
 introduction and objectives of the study. Chapter two
 presents an overview of agricultural production systems and
 markets in Kazakhstan, followed by an assessment of the
 climatic hazards and other risks affecting spring wheat in
 the country s main crop areas. Chapter three reviews the
 structure and performance of the current mandatory crop
 insurance system in Kazakhstan and identifies a series of
 institutional, operational, technical, and financial
 drawbacks of the current system. Chapter four presents a
 phased strategy and a series of options and recommendations
 for the GRK to consider for the introduction of market based
 solutions that aim to strengthen the current scheme. Chapter
 five explores the opportunities for developing new crop
 insurance products in Kazakhstan, including prefeasibility
 analyses for area-yield index insurance (AYII), weather
 index insurance (WII), and named-peril hail insurance for
 selected rayons. Finally, chapter six deals with the
 challenges of tailoring crop insurance to the needs of
 lower-income smaller farmers.
    • Kazakhstan : Public Expenditure Review, Volume 3. Annexes and Statistical Appendix

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-21)
      The report is the public expenditure review for Kazakhstan, and builds upon previous work on the country's transition experience to a market-oriented economy, and of recent public sector reforms. It comprises three volumes, namely, the Summary Report, the Main Report, and Annexes and Statistical Appendix, aiming at identifying key public expenditure issues, suggesting also, possible strategies, and policy options. Although the country achieved significant progress in liberalizing, and stabilizing the economy, including implementing institutional reforms to discipline public expenditures, outstanding issues remain, particularly regarding the persistent fiscal imbalance, the deficient domestic resource mobilization management, unreliable expenditure prioritization, and inefficient budgetary execution. The report suggests strategy options, and policy reforms that should, through a programmed deficit reduction, attain fiscal sustainability. These options address: the rationalization of domestic resource mobilization, mainly oil/gas rents to preserve domestic savings, capital, and development of non-oil sectors; the need for governmental action on program priority, such as budgeting, and performance evaluation; strengthening intergovernmental relations, through improved fiscal decentralization, increased local accountability, and tax reforms; and, creating the initiative for private participation.
    • Kazakhstan : Public Expenditure Review, Volume 1. Summary Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-21)
      The report is the public expenditure
 review for Kazakhstan, and builds upon previous work on the
 country's transition experience to a market-oriented
 economy, and of recent public sector reforms. It comprises
 three volumes, namely, the Summary Report, the Main Report,
 and Annexes and Statistical Appendix, aiming at identifying
 key public expenditure issues, suggesting also, possible
 strategies, and policy options. Although the country
 achieved significant progress in liberalizing, and
 stabilizing the economy, including implementing
 institutional reforms to discipline public expenditures,
 outstanding issues remain, particularly regarding the
 persistent fiscal imbalance, the deficient domestic resource
 mobilization management, unreliable expenditure
 prioritization, and inefficient budgetary execution. The
 report suggests strategy options, and policy reforms that
 should, through a programmed deficit reduction, attain
 fiscal sustainability. These options address: the
 rationalization of domestic resource mobilization, mainly
 oil/gas rents to preserve domestic savings, capital, and
 development of non-oil sectors; the need for governmental
 action on program priority, such as budgeting, and
 performance evaluation; strengthening intergovernmental
 relations, through improved fiscal decentralization,
 increased local accountability, and tax reforms; and,
 creating the initiative for private participation.
    • Kazakhstan : Public Expenditure Review, Volume 2. Main Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-21)
      The report is the public expenditure review for Kazakhstan, and builds upon previous work on the country's transition experience to a market-oriented economy, and of recent public sector reforms. It comprises three volumes, namely, the Summary Report, the Main Report, and Annexes and Statistical Appendix, aiming at identifying key public expenditure issues, suggesting also, possible strategies, and policy options. Although the country achieved significant progress in liberalizing, and stabilizing the economy, including implementing institutional reforms to discipline public expenditures, outstanding issues remain, particularly regarding the persistent fiscal imbalance, the deficient domestic resource mobilization management, unreliable expenditure prioritization, and inefficient budgetary execution. The report suggests strategy options, and policy reforms that should, through a programmed deficit reduction, attain fiscal sustainability. These options address: the rationalization of domestic resource mobilization, mainly oil/gas rents to preserve domestic savings, capital, and development of non-oil sectors; the need for governmental action on program priority, such as budgeting, and performance evaluation; strengthening intergovernmental relations, through improved fiscal decentralization, increased local accountability, and tax reforms; and, creating the initiative for private participation.
    • Kazakhstan : Solid Growth, Unsettled Global Environment - Kazakhstan Economic Update, Fall 2013

      World Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-10)
      While the world economy continues to be
 unsettled, economic growth in Kazakhstan has been solid.
 Strong domestic demand, coupled with increased oil output
 and favorable weather conditions, is likely to boost
 economic growth. An expansion of credit was the key driver
 of growth in private consumption and investment activity in
 2013. Income growth in the country had a positive impact on
 poverty indicators, with prosperity shared broadly. Prudent
 macroeconomic policy has helped the economic performance.
 Prospects of additional oil output with Kashagan coming on
 stream will help boost economic activity in the coming years
 and increase Kazakhstan s vulnerability to external shocks
 unless the country succeeds in diversifying its endowments
 from natural resources to stronger institutions and higher
 quality human capital. In his recent speech on the strategic
 vision Kazakhstan-2050, the President of Kazakhstan
 highlighted the need to diversify the endowments of the
 country to achieve its development objectives. He
 reiterated the key development priorities for the country to
 become one of the top 30 developed countries by 2050. Trade
 policy will remain a central instrument to help the country
 integrate into the global economy, but Kazakhstan will face
 a complex trade policy environment in the medium-term.
    • Kazakhstan : Strategic Review of the Mining and Metallurgy Sector

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-26)
      Kazakhstan is exceptionally endowed with petroleum, and mineral resources. However, since independence, the vast majority of new investment in the sector has been devoted to petroleum, while, new investment in the mining, and metallurgical sector has not been commensurate with the country's geological potential, or with the importance of a sector accounting for over thirty percent of total export earnings, ten percent of GDP, and nineteen percent of total industrial employment. The study focuses on the minerals legislation, and regulation as the corner stone of development of the mining, and metallurgy sector, governing access by the private sector to mineral rights, highlighting the country's fundamental problem, i.e., the confusion of the mining and metallurgy, with the oil/gas sector, pointing that the economics of the two sectors are entirely different. It outlines the tendering system for blocks of geologically prospective ground contemplated in the legislation, while a practice extensively used in oil/gas industry, is quite uncommon in mining/metallurgy, actually proven an unsuccessful practice. Moreover, mining taxation as applied to mining and metallurgy is fundamentally unattractive to new investment, and not competitive internationally. In order to fairly administer the legislation, public institutions are essential, where the focus should be on funding, logistical support, and training of professionals, thus far insufficient for long term sustainability. It is recommended that government proceed with a responsible program of divestiture, such as the reactivation of the "blue chips" program, and include environmental, and infrastructure considerations.
    • Kazakhstan Economic Update No. 1, Spring 2015

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2015-05)
      Kazakhstan’s gross domestic product
 (GDP) growth slowed in 2014 because of weak demand and the
 fall in oil prices. Government policies were directed to
 mitigating the impact of lower oil prices on growth. So far
 labor market and poverty reduction outcomes do not seem to
 have been affected by the downturn, thanks to continued job
 creation, inter-sectoral and geographic mobility, and new
 employer social arrangements. The same factors that slowed
 growth in 2014 are also clouding the outlook for the medium
 term. Trade and transport services will be affected by a
 knock-on effect from lower mining and industrial exports.
 However, GDP growth is projected to recover gradually along
 with oil prices. Continuing the current policy mix of modest
 fiscal expansion and tight monetary policy will not boost
 the economy; for the medium term a more neutral monetary
 policy stance and a more flexible exchange rate regime will
 more sustainably support growth.
    • Kazakhstan Economic Update, Fall 2015

      World Bank Group (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-12-08)
      Kazakhstan’s economy faces the challenge
 of adjusting to a large terms-of-trade shock in a context of
 declining domestic and external demand. The authorities
 responded to the collapse of global oil prices through a
 rapid fiscal adjustment followed by corresponding monetary
 and exchange-rate policy adjustments. A difficult external
 environment will continue to affect Kazakhstan’s medium-term
 outlook. In the medium term, the economy continues to face
 significant downside risks, including the possibility of
 delays in Kashagan offshore oil production or a protracted
 recession in Russia and a further slowdown in China. Over
 the longer term, diversification of the economy will be
 required to increase its resilience to external shocks.
    • KCP Perspectives 3(1)

      World Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-04-08)
      This newsletter includes the following headings: learning from the experiments that didn t happen: matching grant programs in Africa; message from the editor; and the worldwide governance indicators: synthesizing perceptions of governance quality across countries and over time.
    • Keep Driving -- An Assessment of the Afghan Development Program

      ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA; Gabel, Michael P (2011-03-30)
      A large body of literature has focused on the establishment of the necessary security conditions that will convince the people of Afghanistan to support the GIRoA. Yet there is more to creating stability for a state in conflict or emerging from conflict than merely establishing security. There is a need for increases in development programs that require both military and civilian assistance. Civilians must partner with host nations to establish the capacity of national and sub-national government institutions, and to help rehabilitate key economic sectors. This will help the government defeat insurgents who promise only violence. Growth is critical to undermine extremists' appeal in the short term and for sustainable economic development in the long term. A focus on development is an excellent way to expand our analysis and assessment of Afghan polices. As noted in the United States Institute for Peace (USIP) model for stability and reconstruction development, there are five key areas and seven cross-cutting principles that should be addressed in developing a strategy and policy for stability operations. These key areas are creating a safe and secure environment, developing a sustainable economy, promoting stable governance, guaranteeing social well-being, and instituting the rule of law. This paper will review one key area for improving conditions in Afghanistan: developing a sustainable economy. This developmental effort is important for creating opportunities for a better future for the Afghan people, but it is equally important to donors and host nations during stability operations since development will limit insurgent opportunities. Through improved employment, markets, and infrastructure, Afghans will gain a greater appreciation for their government, legitimizing the state. As the state becomes more legitimate, security will improve and state functions will stabilize, eventually leading to national growth and sovereignty.
    • Keeping the Promise of Social Security in Latin America

      Pugatch, Todd; Gill, Indermit S.; Yermo, Juan; Packard, Truman (Washington, DC: World BankPalo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2012-06-07)
      Nations around the world (both large and
 small, rich and poor) are engaged in debate over how to
 reform their social security systems and care for the aged.
 For many countries this debate requires speculation on
 hypothetical scenarios, but in Latin America a rich body of
 experience on social security reform has been accumulating
 for more than a decade (for Chile, more than two decades).
 This report, entitled, Keeping the Promise of Social
 Security in Latin America, takes stock of those reforms,
 evaluates their successes and failures, and considers the
 lessons that can be drawn for the future of pension policy
 in the region. The authors draw on a series of background
 papers and surveys commissioned specifically for this
 inquiry, as well as existing research conducted by
 themselves and other pension experts. In the debate on
 pension reform there is no orthodoxy, as reflected in major
 differences of opinion among leading experts. Despite more
 than a decade of experience with pension reform in Latin
 America, although undoubtedly a major step forward, reforms
 are still works in progress. This report furthers enrich
 the policy dialogue that is of crucial importance to the
 future of the region.
    • Kenya : Accelerating and Sustaining Inclusive Growth

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2008-07)
      This report focuses on what needs to be
 done in the next five years to realize a significantly
 higher growth potential and sustain high growth in Kenya.
 The challenge before Kenya and the new government is to take
 the economy to the next phase of development. The report
 attempts to do this in two ways. First, it applies the
 insights from the recent empirical work and experience in
 other high growth countries to Kenya to propose a growth
 strategy. The strategy, so developed, will validate and
 likely help sharpen the broad thrust and direction of the
 ongoing reform efforts. Second, it drills down selectively
 into certain aspects of the growth strategy to generate a
 set of specific policy and institutional reforms. The net
 result is a reform agenda consisting of detailed policy
 actions that are expected to add up to a well-articulated
 growth strategy. Apart from influencing government action,
 the report is also expected to influence thinking about
 growth in policy circles outside the government. In its
 analysis, the report draws upon the state-of-the-art
 thinking on the issues of growth, which is going through
 considerable rethinking among economists and practitioners.
 Among several departures from the conventional view, the new
 thinking shies away from providing prepackaged answers to an
 economy's problems and emphasizes country-specific
 analysis instead. Similarly, the focus has shifted from
 identifying correlates of growth at a macroeconomic level
 (as in growth regressions), to identifying constraints to
 growth at a microeconomic level. This report reflects this
 shift in thinking and draws mainly upon analysis specific to
 Kenya (such as growth diagnostics and investment climate
 assessment) to arrive at conclusions relevant to policy
 choices. This report reinforces the findings of the Vision
 2030 document in several areas, adds value in many others,
 and modifies some. Most significantly, this report agrees
 with the Vision that tourism, manufacturing, and service
 sectors based on Information and Communication Technology
 (ICT) are likely engines for growth. However, this report is
 much less emphatic than Vision 2030 about the sectors
 (identified winners and flagship projects) on which
 government should focus for delivering the aspired growth.
 The emphasis of the report is instead on generic
 economy-wide reforms aimed at reducing business costs and
 improving productivity.
    • Kenya : Accounting and Auditing

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-07-23)
      This report assesses accounting and auditing practices in Kenya in relation to the requirements of the International Accounting Standards (IASs) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), and the International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) issued by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). The report addresses the institutional capacity needed to ensure compliance with the international standards and to improve the quality of financial reporting in the country. It highlights strengths and weaknesses of the institutional framework and presents an action plan for institutional capacity building. Kenya has recently made progress in closing the gap between national accounting and auditing practices and international standards, notably by adopting the IASs and ISAs as national requirements. However, its compliance with these requirements is partial, due to enforcement mechanisms that continue to evolve and inadequate resources. In spite of these difficulties, institutional investors in Kenya perceive that the quality of financial reporting has significantly improved over the past 12 months. However, the legal framework governing accounting and financial reporting, the professional education and training arrangements, the professional body, and the enforcement mechanism need improving. Stakeholders in the country believe that successful completion of appropriate capacity-building initiatives, through implementation of an action plan, would help develop accounting and auditing practices and improve compliance with international standards within a period of three to five years.
    • Kenya : Transport Sector Memorandum, Volume 1. Strategy

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-07-26)
      This Memorandum is intended to initiate
 discussion regarding the appropriate infrastructure strategy
 and policy direction which will lead to a sustainable
 transport sector which provides access for people and goods
 within Kenya and integrates Kenya into the global economy.
 Unless these two objectives are achieved, the prospects for
 substantial and continuing social and economic development
 in Kenya are limired. Large segments of Kenya's
 population will remain isolated in the rural areas, and the
 economy will continue as a producer of primary commodities
 and basic manufactues for domestic and perhaps regional
 consumption. The report states as the first and most
 important action to reverse the deterioration in the
 transport sector, a very major change in the philosophic
 approach of politicians to the sector is needed. They have
 to start to treat infrastructure as integral to the economic
 rather than the political process. Beyond this overarching
 change in approach, the following should also be considered
 as needed steps for implementing the strategy: increase
 private sector investment and management in the ports,
 airports, railways, and roads systems; reduce the role of
 the public sector in day-to-day management while retaining
 core functions for all modes of transportation and
 increasing public funding; and in terms of financing, rely
 on performance contracting under either maintenance
 concessions or long-term performance-based contracts.