Now showing items 6938-6957 of 11024

    • Packbots, the Soccer World Cup 2014, and Security: Is this the Future?

      Michael, Katina (SelectedWorks, 2014-03-04)
      What is a packbot? How can it be put to positive uses? How has it been commercialised from military application to consumer-centric applications? What does the Roomba vacuum cleaner have in common with the Negotiator and Warrior and Real Baby? Where are we headed with this new technology? Towards greater situational awareness? Towards evidence based policing? How will consumers/citizens respond? WHy are these machines being deployed in Brazil, for a soccer tournament of all places! Will it stop hooliganism? Will the packbot extendable arm reach out and use its claw to stop the perpetrators? Or will these bots comb the ground for surveillance imagery? We all await to see the value proposition!
    • Pahal: Shaasan Sudhaar Ki Ore And Transparency International India

      S, Dr. Sonia; Assistant Professor, Institute of Management Studies and Research, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (Hr.) India; Dalal, Dr. Garima; Assistant Professor, Institute of Management Studies and Research, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (Hr.) India (Journal Of Business Management & Social Sciences Research, 2013-08-15)
      Corruption in India is associated with the delivery of public services and is spread throughout the hierarchy, it has high frequency but each case is characterized by a relatively low amount. Much more apparent and played up by the media is the big-ticket corruption and the recent 2G spectrum example is only one among a long history of such examples that have come up in the public domain. Corruption is not a cultural phenomenon but an administrative one. Improper allocation of discretion, not backed up by adequate monitoring, poor enforcement of laws, and lack of punishments all add up to create an environment where corrupt behavior has become more a norm rather than an exception. Many such laws and rules hail from pre-independence times when discretion was allocated to government functionaries without adequate controls on their functioning. Transparency International India is implementing a grassroots initiative,Pahal: Shaasan Sudhaar Ki Ore in four districts each in four states, namely Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand and Bihar since April, 2009. This initiative is the next logical step taken after the TII’s India Corruption Study, 2008 carried out to measure the extent of bribes paid by the rural below poverty line (BPL) households to avail the eleven basic (PDS, Hospitals, School Education, Electricity, Water Supply) and need based services (Land Records, Housing, Forest, NREGS, Banking & Police). 
    • Pahal: Shaasan Sudhaar Ki Ore And Transparency International India

      S, Dr. Sonia; Dalal, Dr. Garima (Journal Of Business Management & Social Sciences Research, 2013-08-15)
      Corruption in India is associated with the delivery of public services and is spread throughout the hierarchy, it has high frequency but each case is characterized by a relatively low amount. Much more apparent and played up by the media is the big-ticket corruption and the recent 2G spectrum example is only one among a long history of such examples that have come up in the public domain. Corruption is not a cultural phenomenon but an administrative one. Improper allocation of discretion, not backed up by adequate monitoring, poor enforcement of laws, and lack of punishments all add up to create an environment where corrupt behavior has become more a norm rather than an exception. Many such laws and rules hail from pre-independence times when discretion was allocated to government functionaries without adequate controls on their functioning. Transparency International India is implementing a grassroots initiative,Pahal: Shaasan Sudhaar Ki Ore in four districts each in four states, namely Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand and Bihar since April, 2009. This initiative is the next logical step taken after the TIIs India Corruption Study, 2008 carried out to measure the extent of bribes paid by the rural below poverty line (BPL) households to avail the eleven basic (PDS, Hospitals, School Education, Electricity, Water Supply) and need based services (Land Records, Housing, Forest, NREGS, Banking & Police).
    • Pain assessment in elderly nursing home residents (Schmerzassessment bei älteren Menschen in der vollstationären Altenhilfe)

      Sirsch, E; Schuler, M; Fischer, T; Gnass, I; Laekeman, MA; Leonhardt, C; Berkemer, E; Drebenstedt, C; Löseke, E; Schwarzmann, G; et al. (Springer Verlag, 2012-08)
      In Germany, there is currently no guideline for pain assessment in elderly people. Pain management in nursing home residents is, however, legally required. For this particular group, especially for people with dementia, suitable interdisciplinary orientations for health care are lacking in Germany. The working group “Pain and Age” of the German Pain Society (“Deutschen Schmerzgesellschaft”) in conjunction with the German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (“Deutschen Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen”), Witten, has embarked on the development of interdisciplinary S3-Guideline for “Pain Assessment in Elderly People in Nursing Homes”, based on the methodology suggested by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (“Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften e. V.”), the German Agency for Quality in Medicine (“Ärztliche Zentrum für Qualität in der Medizin”), and that described in the DELBI (“Deutschen Leitlinien-Bewertungsinstrument”). Delegates of the 38 scientific societies and interest groups currently participating can contribute to the contents on three different levels. The present article outlines the methods for developing the guideline.
    • Pain assessment in elderly nursing home residents. Methods paper for the S3-guideline development

      Sirsch, E; Schuler, M; Fischer, T; Gnass, I; Laekeman, MA; Leonhardt, C; Berkemer, E; Drebenstedt, C; Löseke, E; Schwarzmann, G; et al. (2012-08-01)
      In Germany, there is currently no guideline for pain assessment in elderly people. Pain management in nursing home residents is, however, legally required. For this particular group, especially for people with dementia, suitable interdisciplinary orientations for health care are lacking in Germany. The working group "Pain and Age" of the German Pain Society ("Deutschen Schmerzgesellschaft") in conjunction with the German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases ("Deutschen Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen"), Witten, has embarked on the development of interdisciplinary S3-Guideline for "Pain Assessment in Elderly People in Nursing Homes", based on the methodology suggested by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies ("Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften e. V."), the German Agency for Quality in Medicine ("Ärztliche Zentrum für Qualität in der Medizin"), and that described in the DELBI ("Deutschen Leitlinien-Bewertungsinstrument"). Delegates of the 38 scientific societies and interest groups currently participating can contribute to the contents on three different levels. The present article outlines the methods for developing the guideline. © Deutsche Schmerzgesellschaft e.V.
    • Pakistan - City development strategy for Peshawar

      World Bank (World Bank, 2012-03-19)
      The newly delineated Peshawar City District (PCD) has undergone significant transformations in the past ten years. Originally encompassing the adjoining districts of Charsadda and Nowshera, the district gradually shrunk in size after both sub-divisions acquired a district status of their own in the mid-nineties. However, as the provincial capital, Peshawar continues to enjoy a special status within North West Frontier Province (NWFP). It houses the provincial parliament, headquarters of all provincial public sector agencies, major Banks, Development Finance Institutions (DFls), academic institutions, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), industry, various trading houses, and major private sector institutions. Over two million people co-exist in Peshawar in an environment that is marked by a high incidence of poverty, unemployment, poor access to quality social services, alarming levels of air and water pollution, and a worsening law and order situation. Their aggregate effect is that Peshawar has not only become a less desirable city from the perspective of the common citizenry, but more importantly, from the perspective of the local and international business community, that is so critical for its long-term growth. Rapid changes in the federal and the provincial governments have also adversely impacted on systems of governance. As a result, the development environment is characterized by a high degree of politicization, adhoc policies, inadequate planning, poor accountability, and generally weak capacities.
    • Pakistan - Balochistan Economic Report : From Periphery to Core, Volume 1. Summary Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2008-05)
      Balochistan offers some of the best
 assets for development. Balochistan is generously bestowed
 with natural and locational resources. It possesses the
 largest land area of any province of Pakistan, proving vast
 rangeland for goats, sheep, buffaloes, cattle, camels and
 other livestock. Its southern border makes up about two
 thirds of the national coastline, giving access to a large
 pool of fishery resources. As a frontier province, it is
 ideally situated for trade with Iran, Afghanistan, Central
 Asia and the Persian Gulf countries. Over the last four
 decades, it supplied cheap natural gas to Pakistan's
 economic centers, supporting the country's
 industrialization. This report offers an empirical analysis
 of provincial economic development and the ways in which the
 provincial and federal governments, supported by donors, can
 help to foster it. It is organized around three topics: the
 stock taking of economic outcomes over the last decades; the
 Strategies for inclusive economic development of generating
 growth, delivering services, and financing development in
 the future; and the instruments for today's economic
 policies to bring about the required changes. The five main
 findings of the report are as follows. First, there are good
 reasons to be optimistic about Balochistan's
 development. Provincial and federal reforms, the synergies
 between Balochistan's and Pakistan's development
 agenda in the areas of energy and trade, and the strong
 performance of the national economy present a unique
 opportunity to move Balochistan from the periphery to the
 core of economic development to the benefit of its people.
 Second, in order to overcome the challenges that held back
 provincial development for many decades, Balochistan should
 pursue a development agenda around generating growth,
 delivering services, and financing development. This
 approach can make sure that Balochistan's development
 path is inclusive, where the gains are shared across regions
 and population groups. Third, generating growth requires
 leveraging Balochistan's resource and locational
 advantages, deepening its capacity for value-addition, and
 strengthening the foundations for business activity. Fourth,
 delivering services depends on improving the public
 administration, making devolution more effective and
 scaling-up of basic services with innovative approaches
 involving the private sector and communities. Finally,
 financing development relies on a prudent management of
 provincial expenditures, strengthening the capacity for
 revenue collection, and advancing fiscal devolution.
    • Pakistan - Balochistan Province : Public Financial Management and Accountability Assessment

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2007-05)
      This document reports on a Public
 Financial Management and Accountability Assessment (PFMAA)
 for the province of Balochistan. The study was commissioned
 jointly by the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank (ADB),
 the UK Department for International Development (DfID), and
 the European Commission (EC). The Government of Balochistan
 welcomed the initiative of the World Bank, ADB, DFID and EC
 in carrying out the PFM assessment. The provincial Finance
 Department is also working on framing new financial rules in
 order to streamline utilization of funds while ensuring
 transparency in financial management.. The PFMAA was
 conducted against 31 Public Financial Management (PFM)
 performance measurement indicators in accordance with the
 Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) framework.
    • Pakistan - Federal Procurement Baseline Indicator Systems Assessment

      World Bank (World Bank, 2009-06-01)
      The Baseline Indicators (BLIs) assessment has been conducted by the Development Partners and the Government of Pakistan as a precursor to carrying forward the Government's efforts to upgrade the Country Procurement Systems (CPS) to international standards and to help it assess the level and type of technical assistance required for achieving this objective. The assessment, being the first phase of a comprehensive procurement performance assessment, covered the four pillars as well as all the indicators and sub-indicators in each pillar based on a review of the existing regulatory framework and the institutional and operational arrangements and as provided for in the Organization for Economic Development (OECD) Development Advisory Committee (DAC) guidelines. While the views expressed in the report were the subject of discussions at the stakeholders' workshop, they do not necessarily represent the views of the Government of Pakistan. The result indicates that compared to the standard required for a transparent, efficient and effective procurement system, the existing system in Pakistan needs to be improved substantially. The highest achieved rating is for pillar one, the legislative and regulatory framework, which is an amalgam of specific legislation and sub-legislation impacting the procurement activity of the government and the older legislative instruments affecting the overall operations of the public and/or the private sectors. The Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) is the apex body of the institutional framework (pillar two) governing the public procurement arena. The Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) was involved as a member of the Kazi committee to prepare a standard bidding document and standard General Conditions of Contract (GCC) for all engineering contracts. Improvements in improving the procurement market and operations (pillar three) can only happen when substantial progress has been achieved in reforming pillars one and two of the procurement framework. Integrity and efficiency in the public procurement system (pillar four) is the ultimate goal of all procurement systems and is not easily achieved. This, therefore, requires changes not only within the specific procurement related legislation, but also across a raft of other legislation to ensure an overall enabling environment. Coupled to this is the need to motivate decision makers and civil society to actively participate in ensuring the implementation of the revised legislation. This will require several years, but the effort could be started at an early stage of the reform process.
    • Pakistan - Khyber Pakhtunkhwa : Public Expenditure Review

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-10-02)
      Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) is one of the
 least-developed and crisis-prone provinces in Pakistan.
 Located in far north of the country, the province covers 10
 percent of the total land area and is a home to 13 percent
 of the country's population spread over seven
 administrative districts. Majority of the population (83
 percent) is rural, averaging 7.6 members per household-well
 above the national average of 6.6. The literacy rate remains
 low at 49 percent with more than half of population having
 no access to tap water while unemployment runs at 8.5
 percent. KP's relative underperformance is primarily
 due to low levels of growth, socio-economic underdevelopment
 and lack of public services compared to other provinces of
 Pakistan. Cognizant of the challenges to growth in KP and
 acting upon the assessment of Pakistan Government's
 Post-Crisis Needs Assessment (PCNA) of the region in October
 2010, the donors agreed on a harmonized approach to meet the
 short- and medium-term social and economic needs of KP,
 including the establishment of a Multi-Donor Trust Fund
 (MDTF). This Public Expenditure Review (PER) of KP was
 undertaken in partnership with the government of KP and is
 one of the important outcomes of PCNA funded by the MDTF.
 The report on Operationalization of Post Crisis Needs
 Assessment (OPCNA) highlighted the need for strengthening
 KP's public financial management (PFM) as fundamental
 to improving public services and therefore the quality of
 life in KP. The report acknowledges the strong government
 ownership of reform initiatives which are taken with a view
 of strengthening all aspects of public finances. KP adopted
 a comprehensive fiscal reform program in 2001-02 based on
 four pillars, namely: 1) enhancing resources; 2)
 strengthening ex-ante and ex-post PFM reforms; 3) fiscal
 decentralization; and 4) instituting an output-based
 accountability mechanism.
    • Pakistan - North West Frontier Province : Public Financial Management and Accountability Assessment

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2007-05)
      The North West Frontier Province (NWFP)
 is the third largest province of Pakistan. The province is
 landlocked and the land routes to the north are few and
 difficult, passing through hilly terrain. The province
 itself is largely mountainous, with only 30 percent
 cultivated land. Nearly 50 percent of the population lives
 in the mountainous and arid areas. The province shares a
 long border with eastern and southern Afghanistan and most
 of its population has the same ethnic background (Pushtoon)
 as parts of bordering Afghanistan. This document reports on
 a Performance Measurement Framework (PFM) assessment by
 describing the existing financial systems briefly and rating
 these systems against the laid down indicators of the PFM
 Performance Measurement Framework. The study has been
 conducted in line with the Public Financial Management
 Performance Measurement Framework, using six critical
 dimensions of performance for an open and orderly PFM system.
    • Pakistan - Operational Design for the Project Development Fund and for the Viability Gap Fund

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-02-19)
      This final report is the fifth
 deliverable for the World Bank funded project
 'operational design for the project development fund
 and for the viability gap fund'. Taking into account
 feedback and further consideration of issues rose in the
 previous Reports, it aims to: provide high level
 recommendations on the overall Public Private Partnership
 (PPP) framework in Pakistan, recognizing international best
 practice but also taking into account the specific Pakistan
 context and the challenges faced their-in; provide the
 analysis of the project pipeline for PPP projects in
 Pakistan, on the basis of consultations undertaken in
 Islamabad in May 2009; and design possible structures for
 the Project Development Fund (PDF) and for the Viability Gap
 Fund (VGF), that is informed by the current local enabling
 environment for PPPs, including the institutional
 capabilities and the existing pipeline of PPP projects. This
 final report incorporates feedback from the World Bank and
 the Government of Pakistan on each of the above-listed
 issues, which were set out and discussed in details in
 previous reports.
    • Pakistan - Public Expenditure Management : Strategic Issues and Reform Agenda

      World Bank (2004-01-28)
      This report focuses principally on three key dimensions of better public expenditure management in Pakistan. First, it is paramount to continue financial discipline and reduce the overall size of the public sector deficit, including the sizable losses of public enterprises. The modest progress made in reducing the government's fiscal deficit during the past few years has been undermined by the persistence of high level of losses of public enterprises, especially Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), and Karachi Electricity Supply Company (KESC). To reduce the unsustainable burden of public debt, the fiscal deficit, which has averaged 5.5 percent of GDP (excluding grants) and 3.4 percent (including grants) during the past three years, must be brought down further. Provision needs to be made for the large and continuing public enterprise losses and unfunded contingent liabilities of the public sector. A strong and successful government revenue mobilization effort, which will gradually raise the ratio of revenues from 17 percent of GDP (FY02) to say 20 percent over the next decade, remains central to restoring Pakistan's fiscal health. But as the experience of the past few years shows, the structural weakness in the taxation structure (relatively heavy dependence on trade taxes) and the institutional weaknesses in the tax collection machinery (especially on the income tax side) will continue to dampen revenue growth for some time. Thus it will be prudent to assume, at best, only moderate growth in the ratio of government revenues to GDP over the next five years. Even on the assumption of a steady increase in the ratio of government revenue to GDP, the growth in overall public spending in real terms will be modest over the next few years because of the need to reduce the deficit further and to fund public enterprise losses and contingent liabilities. Indeed, in the medium term overall public spending as a proportion of GDP is unlikely to increase from the level of 22 percent witnessed in recent years, even if grant assistance remains at a relatively high level.
    • Pakistan - Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Assessment of Federal Government

      World Bank (World Bank, 2010-06-01)
      This Public Expenditure and Financial
 Accountability (PEFA) Assessment applies the PEFA framework
 and methodology to provide a snapshot of the current status
 of the federal government's public financial management
 (PFM) system. The report makes no recommendations on policy
 matters it is specifically concerned with the status of the
 PFM system and issues relating to financial management
 processes. It does suggest weaknesses and strengths as well
 as possible priority areas to take advantage of strengths or
 to address higher-risk weaknesses. It makes no
 recommendations, however, on specific measures or action
 plans. The report provides a basis for these matters to be
 taken up subsequently, but, consistently with the PEFA
 framework, they should be subject to a separate discussion
 during the formulation of a government-led PFM reform
 agenda. The structure of the PFM performance report is as
 follows: chapter two gives background information and the
 country economic, fiscal, and institutional context. Chapter
 three provides details on each performance indicator (PI)
 score. Chapter four summarizes the government's ongoing
 PFM reform programs. Annex one gives a summary of the PEFA
 assessment; annex two provides sources of information,
 including a list of documents reviewed and officials
 consulted; and annex three shows key organizational elements
 of Pakistan's PFM structure.
    • Pakistan - Public Expenditure
 Management : Strategic Issues and Reform Agenda

      World Bank (2013-07-30)
      This report focuses principally on three
 key dimensions of better public expenditure management in
 Pakistan. First, it is paramount to continue financial
 discipline and reduce the overall size of the public sector
 deficit, including the sizable losses of public enterprises.
 The modest progress made in reducing the government's
 fiscal deficit during the past few years has been undermined
 by the persistence of high level of losses of public
 enterprises, especially Water and Power Development
 Authority (WAPDA), and Karachi Electricity Supply Company
 (KESC). To reduce the unsustainable burden of public debt,
 the fiscal deficit, which has averaged 5.5 percent of GDP
 (excluding grants) and 3.4 percent (including grants) during
 the past three years, must be brought down further.
 Provision needs to be made for the large and continuing
 public enterprise losses and unfunded contingent liabilities
 of the public sector. A strong and successful government
 revenue mobilization effort, which will gradually raise the
 ratio of revenues from 17 percent of GDP (FY02) to say 20
 percent over the next decade, remains central to restoring
 Pakistan's fiscal health. But as the experience of the
 past few years shows, the structural weakness in the
 taxation structure (relatively heavy dependence on trade
 taxes) and the institutional weaknesses in the tax
 collection machinery (especially on the income tax side)
 will continue to dampen revenue growth for some time. Thus
 it will be prudent to assume, at best, only moderate growth
 in the ratio of government revenues to GDP over the next
 five years. Even on the assumption of a steady increase in
 the ratio of government revenue to GDP, the growth in
 overall public spending in real terms will be modest over
 the next few years because of the need to reduce the deficit
 further and to fund public enterprise losses and contingent
 liabilities. Indeed, in the medium term overall public
 spending as a proportion of GDP is unlikely to increase from
 the level of 22 percent witnessed in recent years, even if
 grant assistance remains at a relatively high level.
    • Pakistan - Public Sector Accounting and Auditing : A Comparison to International Standards

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2007-05)
      This assessment of public sector
 accounting and auditing for Pakistan is generally meant to
 help implement more effective public financial management
 through better quality accounting and public audit processes
 in Pakistan and to provide greater stimulus for more
 cost-effective outcomes of government spending. More
 specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's
 accounting and audit authorities and other interested
 stakeholders with a common, strongly-founded, knowledge as
 to where local practices stand against the internationally
 developed norms of financial reporting and auditing; (b) to
 assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths for
 improving the accordance with international standards; and
 (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements.
    • Pakistan - Punjab Province : Public Financial Management and Accountability Assessment

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2012-06-12)
      This document reports on a Public
 Financial Management and Accountability Assessment (PFMAA)
 for the province of Punjab. The study was commissioned
 jointly by the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank (ADB),
 the UK Department for International Development (DfID), and
 the European Commission (EC). The Government of Punjab
 (GoPj) managed the process through a Steering Committee
 chaired by the Finance Secretary. This summary assessment
 uses the indicator-led analysis to provide an integrated
 assessment of the Punjab Province's PFM system against
 the six core dimensions of PFM performance and provides a
 statement of the likely impact of those weaknesses on
 budgetary outcomes, on aggregate fiscal discipline, and on
 the strategic allocation of resources and efficient service
 delivery. The PFMAA was conducted against 31 Public
 Financial Management (PFM) performance measurement
 indicators in accordance with the Public Expenditure and
 Financial Accountability (PEFA) framework.
    • Pakistan - Reforming Provincial Finances in the Context of Devolution : An Eight Point Agenda

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-08)
      Public finances in Pakistan have been characterized by unsustainably, high fiscal deficits; poor revenue mobilization; a persistent trend of centralization; massive vertical imbalances between the federal, and provincial governments; problematic expenditure structures; weak financial management; the atrophy of local governments; and, lack of accountability. Recently the Government has announced a bold, and potentially path-breaking devolution initiative to address some of these problems, by establishing strong, accountable local governments. Focussing on the provinces, their financial health, and the delivery of infrastructure, and public services, this report puts forward recommendations for reform in the following areas: 1) adjusting federal-provincial fiscal relations to reduce vertical fiscal imbalances; 2) improving the effectiveness of public services through devolution; 3) prioritizing provincial expenditures in favor of critical non-wage operations and maintenance, and reducing the dominant share of establishment costs; 4) improving expenditure programming, and management; 5) restructuring provincial civil services; 6) mobilizing provincial revenue, streamlining tax structures, and rationalizing user charges; 7) strengthening financial management; and, 8) developing systematic approaches to provincial debt management.
    • Pakistan - Rural Factor Markets : Policy Reforms for Growth and Equity

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-07-23)
      Accelerating rural economic growth and
 reducing rural poverty requires a comprehensive strategy
 built on sound analysis covering all major aspects o f the
 rural economy including agricultural output markets, input
 markets (seeds, fertilizer, extension), factor markets
 (land, water, labor and credit), the rural non- farm
 economy, and targeted interventions. This report focuses on
 one aspect o f this complex puzzle - rural factor markets.
 It builds on earlier work on output and input markets, and
 anticipates future analytical work on the rural non-farm
 economy and other key aspects o f the rural economy. The
 report identifies the main factor market inefficiencies in
 rural Pakistan, provides estimates of their impact in terms
 of efficiency and equity, and suggests policy measures to
 improve the functioning of these markets, increase rural
 incomes and help reduce rural poverty. In presenting the
 results, each factor is discussed in turn, drawing on
 descriptions of institutional constraints and statistical
 analysis of recent household survey data. Key new findings
 include quantitative estimates of the importance of linkages
 across factor markets and the impact of factor market
 inefficiencies on agricultural output and revenues. In
 addition, the report shows that for the 61 percent of rural
 poor households that do not cultivate crops (agricultural
 laborers and non-farm households), expanding output of
 major crops may not be sufficient to significantly raise
 their incomes, even with substantial multiplier effects on
 the rural non-agricultural economy.
    • Pakistan - Strengthening the Insolvency Regime : Non-Lending Technical Assistance Final Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-02-15)
      The importance of a modern, binding and
 effective insolvency regime is undeniable. Nearly 90
 countries around the world have reformed their bankruptcy
 codes since Second World War, and over half of them have
 done so during the last decade. One of the key aspects in
 the reform process is the delicate balance addressed by a
 modern insolvency system which encourages the organization
 of viable firms and liquidates unviable firms. The financial
 and macroeconomic crises, as recently experienced in
 Pakistan, provide an opportunity for bankruptcy reform, as
 the potential employment impact often places the issue of
 insolvent companies high on the policy agenda. The three
 fundamental goals of any insolvency law are: 1)
 transparency, including a system for publicizing and
 indexing judgments, an accessible method for registering
 securing interest and an effective notice of insolvency
 proceedings, 2) predictability - in terms of being fair,
 simple and clear, which if not achieved ends up costing more
 as financial institutions compensate the uncertainty with
 additional credit costs; and 3) efficiency, which
 conceptually is clear but empirically is difficult to measure.