Now showing items 8893-8912 of 11024

    • T I Working Paper

      Transparency International (Transparency International, 2006)
      "In Africa, it is estimated that people live an average of six and a half years after infection. But if anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) treatment is started at the appropriate time, life expectancy is doubled or tripled. Even with massive and rapid scaling-up of ARVs, however, treatment is still not available to all who need it and by June 2005 UNAIDS/WHO estimated that in sub-Saharan Africa, only 11 per cent of those who needed treatment were receiving ARVs. This means that even where ARVs are provided for free or at heavily subsidised rates through donor-funded programmes, requests for ‘topup payments’ are common and the pressure to corrupt is intense. A 29-year-old Nigerian father of three spoke for many across the continent in the 2005 civil society organisation statement to the OAU Summit of Heads of States: ‘The ARVs that come to the centre are not given to those of us who have come out to declare our status, but to those “big men” who bribe their way through, and we are left to suffer and scout round for the drug.’iv ‘Scouting around for the drug’ often involves buying ARVs from informal sources, which is highly problematic, as drug traders know little about the appropriate combinations, side effects or dosage. Substituting one drug for another depending upon availability means treatment is likely to become ineffective and result in the development of resistance to ARVs. Moreover, the product may be expired or fake. The great human need for ARV drugs, so often from people on low incomes, feeds the already extensive international market in counterfeit drugs, which appear to offer a cure at low cost. Faking ARVs is potentially far more profitable than faking other drugs, and finances the bribery of customs, regulatory and hospital officials.
    • Tackling Corruption Through : Tax Administration Reform

      Rahman, Aminur (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-08-13)
      A weak tax administration encourages corruption that benefits both government officials and businesses at the expense of overall tax revenue. Collusive corruption is at the heart of most, if not all, problems related to tax administration. This note examines the drivers of corruption and suggests good-practice measures for reforming tax administration. It is one in a series addressing issues that governments of developing countries face in reforming their tax systems.
    • Tackling the Shelter Challenge : Developing the Mortgage Market in Egypt

      Nasr, Sahar; Abdelkader, Laila (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-08-13)
      The Egyptian revolution has brought to the forefront the need to focus on job opportunities; transparency and accountability; a fair and competitive environment; as well as equal access to finance, land, and housing-especially for underserved segments of society. Although the government of Egypt embarked on a macroeconomic and structural reform program in 2004, economic and social progress could not keep pace with the aspirations of many Egyptians, and spatial welfare disparities remained unchanged-contributing to the social discontent leading to the revolution. The housing sector tends to be a large part of the economy in most countries. It is a major factor in creating stable societies and a key indicator for social well-being.
    • Taiwan

      CHEN, Christopher C. H. (Institutional Knowledge at Singapore Management University, 2019-01-01)
    • Tajikistan

      World Bank Group (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-05-20)
      The Country Opinion Survey in Tajikistan assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Tajikistan perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Tajikistan on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Tajikistan; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Tajikistan; 3) overall impressions of the WBG’s effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Tajikistan; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG’s future role in Tajikistan.
    • Tajikistan - Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Assessment : Performance Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2012-06-12)
      This assessment is based on work
 undertaken between October 2006 and May 2007. The summary
 assessment covers the following three areas: an integrated
 assessment of PFM performance based on the 28+3 PEFA
 indicators, an assessment of the impact of PFM weaknesses,
 and the prospects for reform planning and implementation.
 The main report consists of four sections: an introduction,
 the country background (including a summary of fiscal
 performance), a detailed discussion of Tajikistan's
 performance against the PEFA indicators, and finally a
 discussion of the government reform process.
    • Tajikistan - Second Programmatic Public Expenditure Review : Volume 4. Public Expenditure Ttracking Survey (PETS), Health Sector

      World Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-06-12)
      This report, Second Programmatic Public
 Expenditure Review (PPER 2), is a sequel to PPER, which was
 published in July 2007. PPER 2 provides a detailed analysis
 of key public expenditure issues in Tajikistan and reports
 on the nonlending policy dialogue and technical assistance
 programs managed and coordinated by the World Bank. PPER 2
 has a special focus on social sectors, especially the health
 and education sectors. Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys
 (PETS) carried out for the first time in Tajikistan in 2007
 contributed to the findings in this report. The report also
 updates the macroeconomic and fiscal situation to take
 account of important developments in 2007 and analyzes the
 implications of energy sector reforms and investments for
 fiscal sustainability. This report is intended to contribute
 to improving the quality of life in Tajikistan through a
 comprehensive reform program. It spells out the
 macroeconomic, energy, and budget reforms necessary to
 achieve the growth the country seeks and, at the same time
 (and frequently via the same measures) the social welfare
 targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
    • Tajikistan - Second Programmatic Public Expenditure Review : Volume 1. Main Report

      World Bank (2008-06)
      This report, Second Programmatic Public
 Expenditure Review (PPER 2), is a sequel to PPER, which was
 published in July 2007. PPER 2 provides a detailed analysis
 of key public expenditure issues in Tajikistan and reports
 on the nonlending policy dialogue and technical assistance
 programs managed and coordinated by the World Bank. PPER 2
 has a special focus on social sectors, especially the health
 and education sectors. Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys
 (PETS) carried out for the first time in Tajikistan in 2007
 contributed to the findings in this report. The report also
 updates the macroeconomic and fiscal situation to take
 account of important developments in 2007 and analyzes the
 implications of energy sector reforms and investments for
 fiscal sustainability. This report is intended to contribute
 to improving the quality of life in Tajikistan through a
 comprehensive reform program. It spells out the
 macroeconomic, energy, and budget reforms necessary to
 achieve the growth the country seeks and, at the same time
 (and frequently via the same measures) the social welfare
 targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
    • Tajikistan - Second Programmatic Public Expenditure Review : Volume 2. Technical Background Papers

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2012-06-14)
      This report, Second Programmatic Public
 Expenditure Review (PPER 2), is a sequel to PPER, which was
 published in July 2007. PPER 2 provides a detailed analysis
 of key public expenditure issues in Tajikistan and reports
 on the nonlending policy dialogue and technical assistance
 programs managed and coordinated by the World Bank. PPER 2
 has a special focus on social sectors, especially the health
 and education sectors. Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys
 (PETS) carried out for the first time in Tajikistan in 2007
 contributed to the findings in this report. The report also
 updates the macroeconomic and fiscal situation to take
 account of important developments in 2007 and analyzes the
 implications of energy sector reforms and investments for
 fiscal sustainability. This report is intended to contribute
 to improving the quality of life in Tajikistan through a
 comprehensive reform program. It spells out the
 macroeconomic, energy, and budget reforms necessary to
 achieve the growth the country seeks and, at the same time
 (and frequently via the same measures) the social welfare
 targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
    • Tajikistan - Towards Accelerated Economic Growth : A Country Economic Memorandum

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2001-01-05)
      This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM)
 looks at the potential for accelerated economic growth in
 Tajikistan, where as of the peace agreement of mid-1997,
 renewed reform efforts have brought stability, where
 inflation is under control, small scale privatization has
 been completed, and, efforts to reform agriculture have been
 intensified. However, the main challenge lies in reducing
 poverty through economic growth, helping the Government
 develop a set of policies to achieve this objective. The
 report focuses on productive economic sectors, such as
 industry, and agriculture, although the importance of the
 power sector is also briefly discussed. Finance and banking,
 telecommunications and transport, are outlined, basically
 due to their importance in the expansion of domestic
 economic activity, and regional/international trade. The
 report stipulates macroeconomic stability is still fragile,
 namely due to low tax revenues, and rising foreign debt,
 constraining fiscal sustainability, while implementation of
 structural reforms remains elusive, and, the share of
 private sector is very low. Nonetheless, Tajikistan's
 potential to increase its output with little additional
 investment, lies in its human, and physical capital,
 provided these are used efficiently in the medium term.
 Sustaining macroeconomic stability, requires credibility,
 and consistency in monetary policies, improved revenue
 mobilization, and careful management of its foreign debt.
 But a medium-term strategy should be in place, to sequence
 reforms, and enable private development.
    • Tajikistan : Capital Expenditures and Public Investment Management

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-06)
      This policy note is part of the World
 Bank's Programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER)
 work program for FY2012-2014. The PER consists of a series
 of fiscal policy notes, which aim at providing the
 Government of Tajikistan with recommendations to strengthen
 budgetary processes and analysis. This policy note, the
 sixth in the series continues the fiscal policy dialogue
 conducted in the previous notes. It is structured as
 follows. Chapter 2 sets a macro-fiscal context for the
 analysis with a particular focus on fiscal policy
 challenges. Chapter 3 analyzes the composition and trends in
 capital expenditures to identify issues and offer solutions
 for improving efficiency of capital spending. Chapter 4
 reviews a public investment management process in Tajikistan
 to identify weaknesses in the capital budgeting cycle
 (planning, budgeting, implementation, and audit), and to
 recommend measures and remedies to address shortcomings in
 these processes. Chapter 5 provides the main conclusions: 1)
 although Tajikistan has enjoyed high economic growth and
 substantial external assistance, increasing uncertainties
 about the global environment and the Russian growth outlook
 put Tajikistan's growth prospects at high risk, and the
 fiscal space will be very tight; 2) Tajikistan needs to
 address both equity and sector allocation efficiency issues
 to better mobilize resources in support of national
 priorities; 3) analysis of the public investment management
 system suggests that lack of a unified methodological
 framework, fragmentation, and poor institutional links
 discourage efficient use of limited domestic resources and
 attraction of external financing; and 4) the proposed
 reforms need to be sequenced to take into account
 implementation capacity and expected benefits. This note
 provides detailed recommendations to the Government
 regarding public investment management.
    • Tajikistan : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-09-05)
      This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA), the first for Tajikistan, is a key diagnostic study aimed at identifying the overall financial management risks. It's timing coincides with a meeting of the Tajik Consultative Group in April 2003, which pledged US$900 million of support over the next three years. Addressing the numerous, systemic financial management weaknesses in Tajikistan will have an important impact on the governance arrangements which, in turn, will affect donor disbursements against these commitments. In this respect, the CFAA also aims to provide a roadmap for future advice and technical assistance in public sector accountability. It assesses structural reforms in public sector budget management, accounting and financial reporting, the treasury system, internal controls and internal and external audits. I t also examines the mechanisms of public accountability at the sub-national and community levels.
    • Tajikistan : Fiscal Risks from State-Owned Enterprises

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-06)
      This policy note is part of the World
 Bank's Programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER)
 work program for FY2012-2014. The PER consists of a series
 of fiscal policy notes, which aim at providing the
 Government of Tajikistan with recommendations to strengthen
 budgetary processes and analysis. This policy note, the
 fifth in the series continues the fiscal policy dialogue
 conducted in the previous notes. It is structured as
 follows. Chapter 2 reviews the role of state-owned
 enterprises (SOE) in Tajikistan's economy and
 identifies key issues. Chapter 3 assesses the fiscal risks
 posed by SOEs, especially those in the energy sector.
 Chapter 4 puts forth possible solutions. Chapter 5
 summarizes the main conclusions of this note: 1) despite
 privatizations and attempts at restructuring, Tajikistan
 still has a large, inefficient, and heavily indebted public
 sector; 2) the lack of comprehensive information about the
 sector undermines budget credibility and budget integrity;
 3) multiple but uncoordinated functions, responsibilities,
 and accountability lines limit government ability to form a
 comprehensive view of the SOE sector, define a consistent
 strategy, and effect transparency, performance, reporting,
 and oversight; 4) elaborate QFAs of SOEs and other public
 institutions create substantial fiscal risks and undermine
 the hard-earned benefits of fiscal consolidation; 5)
 liabilities, explicit and implicit, created by SOE
 operations are large and must be accounted for and properly
 delineated; 6) solutions proposed to address the major
 issues are phasing out QFAs, optimizing the size and scope
 of the SOE sector, and improving SOE management; and 7) SOE
 reform should be an integral part of the general reform agenda.
    • Tajikistan : Key Issues in Public Finance Management

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-12-17)
      This policy note is part of the World
 Bank's Programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER)
 work program for FY2012-2014. The PER consists of a series
 of fiscal policy notes, which aim at providing the
 Government of Tajikistan with recommendations to strengthen
 budgetary processes and analysis. This policy note, the
 fourth in the series, continues the fiscal policy dialogue
 conducted in the previous notes. It is structured as
 follows. Section 2 describes the current state of public
 finance management (PFM) reform in Tajikistan. Sections 3
 and 4 examine the amount and nature of public spending.
 Section 5 explores the objectives the Government aims to
 accomplish through its spending. Section 6 summarizes the
 conclusions of the note: 1) since 2009, significant progress
 has been achieved in strengthening the PFM systems in
 Tajikistan; 2) the PFM reform agenda remains large and
 complex and further progress depends upon overall progress
 in transparency, efficiency, and equitable governance; 3)
 the reasons for delays in PFM reform in Tajikistan have not
 generally been technical but have resulted from the
 challenges of managing the change associated with reform; 4)
 the Government is urged to refocus its efforts on delivering
 all targeted core reforms to obtain and share the amounts,
 nature, and accomplishments of public spending; 5)
 improvement in donor practices will help achieve these core
 objectives as well as facilitate planning, align budget
 spending with strategic goals, and strengthen
 accountability; 6) as the PFM reform strategy has passed its
 mid-point by 2014, the efforts need to be focused on
 completing the establishment of core PFM functions and on
 creating preconditions for more advanced reforms. This note
 provides a number of recommendations to the Government to
 help achieve its stated PFM reform.
    • Tajikistan : Moderated Growth, Heightened Risks

      World Bank Group (Washington, DC, 2014-12-08)
      Tajikistan s economic growth moderated to 6.7 percent in the first half of 2014 from 7.5 percent a year earlier as activity slowed in almost all sectors. Weaker world economic growth and lower prices for cotton and aluminum adversely affected the major export-oriented industries, pushing total industrial growth below 3 percent from nearly 7 percent a year earlier. Lower inflows of remittances due to the slowdown in Russia have translated into lower domestic demand and slower growth in services and housing construction. Though growth in agricultural output also moderated due to heavy rains and low temperatures, it was still a healthy 6 percent. Inflation began to pick up as food prices rose and tariffs for utilities were adjusted, reaching 4.7 percent for the first half of 2014 compared to 1.6 percent a year earlier. However, fixed investment grew swiftly as the public investment program got underway. GDP growth is projected to ease to 6.5 percent in 2014 because of the spillover effect from the slowdown in Russia and in export sales. A Russian slowdown affects Tajikistan largely through the remittances channel. A slackening in remittances weighs heavily on household demand, notably demand for services and housing construction. Inflation pressures are expected to increase but stable global food prices should help to keep growth in inflation within a single digit. Despite slower economic growth the fiscal deficit is projected to remain unchanged in 2014 because of higher than expected revenues from foreign trade, reforms in revenue collection, and spending restraint. The current account deficit is projected to widen to 3.7 percent of GDP because of sluggish export growth and the remittance slowdown. Tajikistan could perhaps benefit from the Russian ban on import of food from the West but fragile market links, limited economies of scale, poor access to credit, and barriers to entry and expansion limit Tajik ability to benefit from increased Russian demand.
    • Tajikistan : Programmatic Public Expenditure Review

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2012-06-12)
      The Programmatic Public Expenditure
 Review (PPER) has been designed to cover five themes which
 represent the key challenges for fiscal policy and Public
 Financial Management System (PFM) reforms in Tajikistan. The
 themes are as follows: Theme 1: Public Expenditure, Fiscal
 Space and Growth; Theme 2: Policy-based Budgeting; Theme 3:
 Efficiency of Public Expenditure in the Social Sectors;
 Theme 4: Fiduciary Risks; and Theme 5: Inter-governmental
 fiscal relations. Theme 1 responds to questions of fiscal
 policy design, especially related to the composition of
 expenditure and the magnitude of external borrowing, which
 are becoming increasingly important in Tajikistan and which
 are likely to have a profound impact on the long term
 development of the economy. Theme 2 responds to the decision
 taken by the Government of Tajikistan (GOT) in 2006 to
 reinvigorate efforts to implement the Medium-term
 Expenditure Framework (MTEF) and to seek financial and
 technical support from development partners for this
 endeavor. Theme 3 focuses on expenditure efficiency in the
 social sectors, an issue which has not hitherto been subject
 to rigorous analysis, using methodologies which include
 efficiency frontier analysis and Public Expenditure Tracking
 Surveys (PETS). Theme 4 focuses on fiduciary issues and
 includes a comprehensive evaluation of the PFM system using
 the internationally accepted best practice methodology of
 the Public Expenditure and Financial Assessment (PEFA).
 Theme 5 will provide advice on how the structure of
 inter-governmental fiscal relations can be reformed to best
 accommodate the requirements of the MTEF, other PFM reforms
 and the GOT'S Public Administration Reform Strategy
 (PARS). This volume of the PPER focuses mainly on Themes 1
 and 2, with chapters on how public expenditure can best
 support economic growth, and on fiscal space for priority
 expenditures (under Theme 1) and the introduction of the
 MTEF (Theme 2). It also includes a summary of the PEFA, the
 main report of which will be published separately.
    • Tajikistan : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2012-06-19)
      his Public Expenditure and Institutional Review is part of a package of analytical and advisory service products aimed at assisting the government and Tajikistan's other development partners to develop a medium- to long-term strategy for public sector reform to support the government's poverty reduction objectives. Specifically, this review aims to contribute to the developing a reform strategy by examining four cross-cutting areas for public expenditure management system: (1) policy formulation and organization of the government, including public administration and human resource issues; (2) the budget development and management process; (3) intergovernmental issues and local government reforms; and (4) public investment program planning and process. The report makes short- and long-term recommendations, including establishing a formal priority setting structure, appointing a head of the reform management structures with a clear mandate, amending the legal framework, restructuring the President's administration, reforming the civil service, setting budget ceilings, making all public documents and reports available to the public, improving the external audit framework, amending the public finance law, developing methods to evaluate and select public investment and centralized state investment project, replacing a part of credit financing with grant financing, retaining local authority to set rates and retain revenues, and implementing a new formula for financing sub-national administrations.
    • Tajikistan : Reinvigorating Growth in Khatlon Oblast

      Carneiro, Francisco; Bakanova, Marina (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-06)
      This report supports a joint World
 Bank-IFC initiative to review and evaluate economic growth
 prospects for Khatlon oblast in order to develop a private
 sector-driven strategy for accelerating the region's
 growth over the medium term.
    • Tajikistan : Reinvigorating Growth in the Khatlon Oblast

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-02-03)
      This report assesses the challenges and opportunities for the development of the Khatlon oblast in Tajikistan. The report argues that the rise in the strategic significance of Khatlon must be matched by responses in public policy and a strong upturn in private investment to strengthen economic prospects. The report identifies four key reform imperatives for stimulating growth in the oblast. These are: (i) promoting cities and internal connectivity to build labor skills, realize scale economies, and diversify output; (ii) harnessing the potential of agriculture for exports; (iii) reshaping public policies to encourage entrepreneurship and reduce corruption; and (iv) retooling free economic zones to build in internal supply chains and conform to modern management practices. The report also recognizes the critical importance of building security and antinarcotics defenses, but details in these areas lie outside the scope of the work. The underlying belief behind the assessment of the growth prospects of the oblast is that a rapidly prosperous Khatlon with rising private investment will itself be stabilizing.
    • Tajikistan : Review of Public Expenditures on Health

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08)
      This policy note is part of the World
 Bank's Programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER)
 work program for FY2012-2014. The PER consists of a series
 of fiscal policy notes, which aim at providing the
 Government of Tajikistan with recommendations to strengthen
 budgetary processes and analysis. This policy note, the
 second in the series, examines public expenditures on health
 in Tajikistan. After an introductory section, the note
 describes the institutional and administrative structure of
 the health sector. Section 3 presents health outcomes and
 health care utilization indicators. Section 4 describes
 health financing in Tajikistan and presents the main options
 to expand fiscal space for health. Section 5 reviews the
 health financing and organizational reforms implemented in
 Tajikistan. Section 6 provides the main conclusions: 1)
 despite progress, health sector outcomes are mixed in
 Tajikistan and utilization pattern of health services is
 characterized by significant inequalities; 2) public
 spending on health is relatively low and skewed towards
 hospitals rather than outpatient care; 3) the hospital
 sector is characterized by oversupply of beds, avoidable
 inpatient admissions, low occupancy rates, and excessive
 average length of stay; 4) an increase in public health
 expenditures since 2000 was largely driven by the expanding
 wage bill, while other expenditures had been compressed; 5)
 public health expenditures show a regressive incidence, with
 the distribution of inpatient care more pro-rich than
 outpatient care; 6) the large reliance on out-of-pocket
 produces a high incidence of catastrophic spending; 7) a
 number of health financing and organizational reforms have
 been initiated since 2000, but the scope and coverage is
 still limited; and 8) the overall prospect for increasing
 fiscal space for health in Tajikistan are positive, with
 rationalization of both the overall budget and the public
 health delivery system.