Now showing items 10700-10719 of 11024

    • Yardstick competition in German municipalities

      Finken, Jan (Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut an der Universität zu Köln (FiFo Köln) Köln, 2009)
      Does increasing transparency improve fiscal policy behavior of local governments? One way this could take place is via Yardstick Competition between incumbents of neighboring municipalities. This paper contributes to the literature by introducing a simple model which employs probabilistic voting to show the effect of Yardstick Competition on the amount of political rents diverted from the tax revenue. Since additional rents lower the probability of being reelected, the incumbent will reduce equilibrium rents if voters use information on fiscal performance in similar municipalities to evaluate the incumbent's quality. I test this hypothesis on a panel dataset of municipal budget and electoral data in the german state of Northrine-Westphalia. I show evidence for Yardstick Competition in the local business and property tax rates.
    • Yemen

      World Bank Group (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-05)
      The Country Opinion Survey in Yemen assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Yemen perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Yemen on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Yemen; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Yemen; 3) overall impressions of the WBG’s effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Yemen; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG’s future role in Yemen.
    • Yemen : Economic Monitoring Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-04-07)
      Decelerating Gross Domestic Product, or GDP growth widening primary non-oil fiscal deficit persisting double digit inflation and rapidly dwindling current account surpluses characterize the weaknesses in the Yemeni economy. Decline in oil production is proving to be an important turning point in Yemen s economic development. With the annual growth of GDP projected around percent for the second year in a row Yemen s per capita GDP is set to decline again in 2005. Underlying primary non-oil fiscal deficit continued to widen to 27 percent of GDP in 2004, reflecting the poor resource mobilization efforts. Inflation has persisted near 12 percent annual rate in the last two years and the inevitable revisions to petroleum prices and introduction of general sales tax will call for tighter monetary management to contain inflation in 2005. The buffer of foreign exchange reserves that the government has built to US $ 5 billion from high oil prices by end 2004 (some months of imports equivalent), could only provide a temporary cushion against erosion of current account balance.
    • Yemen : Towards Deeper Trade Integration

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-05-15)
      This note sketches a possible strategy
 for Yemen to deepen integration with the Gulf Cooperation
 Council (GCC). It advocates that Yemen put priority on such
 integration as a complement to its ongoing effort to accede
 to the WTO, and pause temporarily the implementation of the
 free trade agreement with Arab League signatories of the
 Greater Arab free Trade Agreement. As there is no standard
 set of GCC accession requirements, closer integration with
 the GCC will require development of specific action plans
 for the various policy areas covered by the GCC that
 identify specific measures to be undertaken by Yemen and GCC
 partners to realize the potential benefits of cooperation.
    • Yemen Civil Society Organizations in Transition : A Mapping and Capacity Assessment of Development-Oriented Civil Society Organizations in Five Governorates

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-06)
      Civil society in Yemen is vibrant and diverse but highly fragmented. It includes independent registered and organized civic groups, less organized local self-help organizations, and charity oriented groups. The first period, from 1950 to 1963, saw a growth in associational activity in the modern enclave of late colonial Aden and within the protectorates of the northern imamate amidst heavy immigration and modernization. A second stage of development took place in the late 1970s and 1980s with very little central control but exceptional affluence thanks to remittances from citizens employed in the Gulf. As the political transition in Yemen continues, there is renewed interest in engaging local Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the process of service delivery, decentralization, institution building and in encouraging inclusion and greater citizen participation. The Government has requested that the World Bank update its earlier work on CSOs in Yemen to map and to assess the capacities of present-day, development-oriented CSOs in five governorates. Nearly all of the CSOs that participated in this study were formally registered, non-governmental organizations that were generally independent of tribal or religious affiliation. There is an important opening in Yemen at present to encourage greater social accountability among CSOs and through CSO-Government partnerships. Social accountability includes a growing emphasis on beneficiary engagement in monitoring and assessing government performance as well as service providers, particularly in providing feedback on, and voicing demand for, improved service delivery. Based on this study's findings, it is recommended that the Government reform CSOs-related procedures, including registration, re-licensing, and decentralize avenues for CSO-ministry collaboration on service delivery and standards development to the governorate-level branches of the respective Ministries. Finally, it is recommended that training be made available for Yemeni journalists that cover the work of the country's civic sector or development issues in general.
    • Yhteiskuntavastuudiskurssit integroidussa raportoinnissa

      fi=Johtaminen|en=Management|; fi=Yhteiskuntatieteiden tiedekunta|en=Faculty of Social Sciences|; Mäkinen, Olli (fi=Lapin yliopisto|en=University of Lapland|, 2019-03-29)
      Tämän Pro gradu -tutkielman tarkoituksena on tutkia, millaisia diskursseja suomalaiset pörssiyhtiöt käyttävät yhteiskuntavastuusta. Yritysten yhteiskuntaraportointi on ollut jatkuvassa muutoksessa 2010-luvulla, kun International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) esitti vuosikymmenen alussa omat suosituksensa vastuullisuusraportoinnin yhdistämisestä yrityksen vuosikertomukseen ja tämän jälkeen Etelä-Afrikan pörssi alkoi vaatia kaikilta listaamiltaan yrityksiltä vastuullisuusraporttia.
 Tutkimuksen kohteeksi olen valikoinut yhtiöitä, jotka käyttävät vastuullisuusraportoinnissaan kansainvälistä Global Reporting Initiativen (GRI) raportointimallia. Lopulliseksi aineistoksi olen valinnut Ahlstromin, Keskon. Spondan, Tikkurilan ja YIT:n vuoden 2016 vuosikertomukset.
 Tutkimukseni tuloksena esittelen neljä erilaista diskurssia; auktoriteettidiskurssin, sidosryhmäkeskeisen diskurssin, toimintakeskeisen diskurssin ja esteettisen vastuullisuuden diskurssin. Auktoriteettidiskurssissa yhtiö nojaa kansainvälisiin auktoriteetteihin omassa vastuullisuudessaan, sidosryhmäkeskeisessä diskurssissa suhteet sidosryhmiin, erityisesti asiakkaisiin, ja sidosryhmien oma vastuullisuustoiminta saavat suuren roolin, toimintakeskeisessä diskurssissa yhteiskuntavastuuta lähestytään oman toiminnan ja tehokkuuden näkökulmasta ja esteettisen vastuullisuuden diskurssissa pääpaino on yrityksen toiminnan yhteiskunnalle tuottamassa lisäarvossa.
    • Yoruba proverbs and the anti-corruption crusade in Nigeria

      Ademilokun, MA (Forum Press, 2014-07-25)
      Corruption is entrenched in the public space in Nigeria. Various attempts by policymakers to stamp out this social cankerworm seem not to be yielding positive results, as more incidences of corruption continue to ravage the polity. This paper therefore contributes to the campaign for anti-corruption in Nigeria by drawing on proverbs to persuade Nigerians to resist corruption. Proverbs as an embodiment of the distilled thoughts and wisdoms of a people can be applied to different human conditions for change. Drawing on thirty purposively selected proverbs that touch on the Yoruba concept of “Ewà Inú” (inner beauty), this paper deploys a sociocultural-linguistic approach to reveal how the rhetorical force of the proverbs can help reveal the evils in corruption and persuade against it.Keywords: Corruption; anti-corruption crusade; proverbs; ewà-inú (inner beauty); socio-cultural linguistics; Nigeria
    • You Can Run But You Can’t Hide: The Advance of Shareholder Activism

      Greenberg, Kendall (Scholarship @ Claremont, 2018-01-01)
      Shareholder activism has exploded in popularity since the turn of the century, due in large part to impressive relative returns generated by its major participants. The result has thus been a surge in assets invested in the category, to in excess of $170 billion today up from less than $3 billion in 2000 (Inglis 2015; Romito 2015). This influx of capital, in absolute dollars and pace of growth, has caused many to wonder whether activists truly create shareholder value and, if so, if the value generated is sustainable. Numerous studies of activist interventions prior to 2009 reveal significant stock price gains around the time of activist arrival and positive longer term buy-and-hold abnormal returns as well. The question remains, however, whether those trends have continued as volume of transactions and number of activists have increased post the recent global financial crisis. In this report, we perform an empirical analysis focused on a hand-collected dataset of 1,088 activist interventions from 1995-present. This dataset includes all 13D filings, as well as Under the Threshold activist campaigns. First, we analyze stock price returns for this group over short- and long-term periods and find that activists continue to unlock shareholder value in recent deals comparable to that of earlier ones. We then perform a proprietary regression to identify which factors drive the most successful returns. Such insights should prove informative for investors employing an activist strategy and companies looking to manage areas of vulnerability.
    • Young people, big ideas: participatory budgeting fixes a river

      Solli, Rolf; Demediuk, Peter; Adolfsson, Petra (Common Ground, 2011)
      Citizen participation in local government budgeting is an important emerging public management
 reform movement in many countries including Canada, Brazil, France, Germany, Spain,
 Australia and now Sweden. ‘Participatory budgeting’ programs bring local communities into the decision-
 making process around formal resource allocation plans, and have the potential to give new
 levels of voice and choice about service and infrastructure expenditure to disconnected or disadvantaged
 and marginalised citizens and groups. This case study explores the form and function of the first tranche
 of participatory budgeting programs in a new major initiative that is sponsored by the central agency
 for local governments (kommuns) in Sweden. The kommun’s program set aside a substantial sum of
 money to be used in a new project around safety or the environment, and used groups of final year
 school students to design the participative processes, produce alternative proposals for a project, and
 vote on a final decision. The paper interrogates how the participatory budgeting program intersects
 with the themes of economic, cultural, social and environmental sustainability. The case study details
 the causes and dynamics behind the unanticipated choice made by the groups to compete rather than
 cooperate, and considers the way in which the final project decided upon was bolstered in funding,
 scope and execution by linking its main strands to other policy objectives. In the end, this engagement
 initiative was as much about strengthening democracy and a sense of community as it was about
 generating, capturing and implementing good ideas.
    • Youth and Corruption

      Transparency International (Transparency International, 2009)
      "In its worst instances, corruption is institutionalised and socially ingrained in a country, making it difficult to discern corruption as a problem from just ‘the way things are done’. Older generations may have a vested interest in maintaining the corrupt status quo, or may have become tired of seeing promises for change never materialise. In contrast, youth are usually more open to wide-scale transformation and have the will to pursue it. Parents, teachers, political leaders, employers and peers shape the environment for young people to take on these roles and empower them to make the ‘right’ decisions in their lives. As a group, young people make up a sizeable cohort of their communities and societies. According to most recent data, nearly one-fifth of the world’s population is between 15 and 24 years old and they largely live in developing countries.1 When people under 15 are included in this figure for youth, their share reaches nearly 60 per cent of the population in developing nations and roughly 30 per cent in industrialised countries.2 As these statistics show, young people have the sheer numbers needed for social change and provide an unprecedented force for shifting the future in the global fight against corruption. Further progress on anti-corruption work will be hard to advance without young people playing a leading role."
    • Zagrożenie korupcją w świetle doświadczeń państwa rosyjskiego – rozważania kryminologiczne i prawne

      Laskowska, Katarzyna (Temida 2, 2014-12-22)
      Dr hab. Katarzyna Laskowska, prof. UwB, Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    • Zagrożenie korupcją w świetle doświadczeń państwa rosyjskiego – rozważania kryminologiczne i prawne

      Laskowska, Katarzyna (Temida 2, 2014-12-22)
      The paper entitled „The threat of corruption in the light of Russian experience
 – criminological and legal reflections” presents the sources and indications of corruption as well as legal reaction against that phenomenon. There is no criminological definition of corruption in Russian criminology, however there is legal one in the Anti–Corruption Act of 2008. The paper shows the scale and extend of that phenomenon among public officials of the legislative, executive and judicial branches, their connections with organized crime and the existence of peculiar price list of corrupted services. That phenomenon is depicted as something which wrecks both Russian country and society. There are presented some legal considerations regarding penal, civil law and administrative measures aimed at reducing the scale of the phenomenon.
 It is remarked pessimistically that although there is a broad definition of corruption in legal system, preventing and fighting the phenomenon is very difficult for the reason that there are many deficiencies in prosecuting it and it has been deep-rooted in society’s conscious.
    • Zakaz zatrudnienia radnego w jednostce samorządu terytorialnego, w której sprawuje on mandat

      Serwin, Krzysztof
      W pracy zostały przedstawione zagadnienia związane z zakazem zatrudnienia radnego w jednostce samorządu terytorialnego, w której sprawuje on mandat. W pierwszej części wyjaśniam najważniejsze pojęcia zawarte w pracy, przedstawiam genezę tego zakazu, oraz porównuje go z zakazem zatrudnienia w innych państwach. Kolejna część pracy dotyczy zakazu nawiązywania stosunków zatrudnienia z jednostką samorządu terytorialnego. Zostały przeanalizowany tutaj zakaz zatrudnienia w urzędzie, jednostce organizacyjnej oraz wyjątki od tych zakazów. Następna część dotyczy sytuacji szczególnej, w której radny wykonuje prace dla komisji w takiej jednostce. Została tutaj przeanalizowana także sytuację zakazu powierzenia radnemu pracy przez organy wykonawczy. Ostatni rozdział odpowiada na pytanie do kogo skierowany jest zakaz. Dokonana analiza ma pokazać niekonsekwencję i niejednoznaczność w przypadku stosowania tych przepisów. Na koniec zostały sformułowane wnioski wypływające z tej tematyki, oraz sposoby przeciwdziałania problemom z tymi uregulowaniami.
    • Zambia - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review : Country Financial Accountability Assessment, Annex, Volume 2

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2003-11)
      The challenges faced by Zambia in public
 expenditure management (PEM) have been longstanding, and
 will require targeted efforts, as well as a strong degree of
 political will to address. The recently launched
 constitutional review, which includes issues of public
 finance, the anti-corruption campaign of the new Government,
 and the renewed interest by Parliament in governance issues,
 and accountability have all been encouraging steps.
 Nevertheless, for Zambia to assure that public
 accountability is enduring, and not dependent upon the
 Government of the day, it must take steps to strengthen
 institutions of the State that can provide public oversight,
 and that promote basic checks and balances. This report
 provides a very detailed analysis of the country's PEM,
 and accountability processes. Yet, many of the
 recommendations are not new, but have been cited in previous
 reports of the Bank, and/or other donors. Effective
 implementation of public sector reforms will likely remain a
 challenge in Zambia. The limited capacity of Government
 suggests the need to target a few major aspects of public
 finance, and to address them persistently: improving
 compliance with existing regulations; strengthening the
 oversight institutions of the State; promoting public access
 to information; and, rebuilding information management, and
 reporting systems. The report also deals with the second
 objective of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP),
 i.e., with ways and methods by which the Government can
 ensure efficient, equitable, and transparent management of
 public resources. It also focuses on the dimension of
 governance, i.e., the effectiveness of government to be able
 to provide public services. The specific objectives of the
 report are to: (a) provide a comprehensive and integrated
 assessment of Zambia's overall fiduciary risk, i.e.,
 budget management, financial systems and auditing, and
 public procurement; (b) document PEM reforms progress
 to-date, and challenges facing Zambia; and, (c) develop a
 realistic action plan, outlining short and medium term
 remedial measures, which the Government should implement
 with donor support.
    • Zambia - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review : Country Procurement Assessment Review, Annex

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-07-31)
      The challenges faced by Zambia in public expenditure management (PEM) have been longstanding, and will require targeted efforts, as well as a strong degree of political will to address. The recently launched constitutional review, which includes issues of public finance, the anti-corruption campaign of the new Government, and the renewed interest by Parliament in governance issues, and accountability have all been encouraging steps. Nevertheless, for Zambia to assure that public accountability is enduring, and not dependent upon the Government of the day, it must take steps to strengthen institutions of the State that can provide public oversight, and that promote basic checks and balances. This report provides a very detailed analysis of the country's PEM, and accountability processes. Yet, many of the recommendations are not new, but have been cited in previous reports of the Bank, and/or other donors. Effective implementation of public sector reforms will likely remain a challenge in Zambia. The limited capacity of Government suggests the need to target a few major aspects of public finance, and to address them persistently: improving compliance with existing regulations; strengthening the oversight institutions of the State; promoting public access to information; and, rebuilding information management, and reporting systems. The report also deals with the second objective of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), i.e., with ways and methods by which the Government can ensure efficient, equitable, and transparent management of public resources. It also focuses on the dimension of governance, i.e., the effectiveness of government to be able to provide public services. The specific objectives of the report are to: (a) provide a comprehensive and integrated assessment of Zambia's overall fiduciary risk, i.e., budget management, financial systems and auditing, and public procurement; (b) document PEM reforms progress to-date, and challenges facing Zambia; and, (c) develop a realistic action plan, outlining short and medium term remedial measures, which the Government should implement with donor support.
    • Zambia - Public Expenditure Review : Public Expenditure, Growth and Poverty - A Synthesis

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-28)
      At the heart of the growth problem, the persistence of poverty, and issues of policy reform in Zambia is the public sector reform program. The best practice in public sector reform identifies three areas in which governments can improve their performance and their impact on the economy and poor: 1) macroeconomic discipline (the satabilization problem); 2) strategic priority setting (the allocation problem); and 3) efficient public-service delivery (the execution problem). Zambia's problem appears to be in all three areas. In particular, the aggregate performance, allocation, and execution of the budget are vital to the success of Zambia's public sector reform program. All three areas, particularly the allocation and execution issues, as they apply to public expenditure are the subject matter of the present public expenditure review (PER).
    • Zambia - What Would it Take for Zambia’s Copper Mining Industry to Achieve Its Potential?

      World Bank (World Bank, 2012-03-19)
      This report is part of a series produced by the World Bank's Africa Finance and Private Sector Development Unit (AFTFP). This report explores the potential contribution that the copper mining industry could make to jobs and prosperity in Zambia, and what it will take to achieve this potential. Copper has for many years played an important role in Zambia's economy, and the performance of the economy has followed the fortunes of copper mining closely. This report investigates the role copper mining could play in achieving the government's objectives of increasing economic growth and jobs in the future. Although 40 percent of the country has not been geologically surveyed, Zambia is recognized by the international mining industry as having good mineral potential. Zambia possesses 6 percent of known world copper reserves. According to the highly-respected Fraser Institute survey of mining and exploration companies, Zambia ranks 26th out of 79 jurisdictions worldwide for mineral potential. In Africa, only the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Burkina Faso have appreciably higher mineral potential scores.
    • Zambia : An Assessment of the Investment Climate

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-06-12)
      This Zambia Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) forms part of World Bank Group global initiative to systematically analyze conditions for private investment and enterprise growth. Improving the investment climate is recognized as a key pillar of developing countries' path to promote economic growth and reduce poverty. The I C A compliments and amplifies a series of diagnostic work on this issue being undertaken by the World Bank Group in collaboration with the Government of Zambia. Throughout this report, empirical results showing the relative position of Zambia versus potential competitors will be presented. To understand the quality of investment climate in Zambia from the perspective of the private sector, the report draws on the results of a firm survey conducted in 2003, covering a sample of more than 200 service and manufacturing firms, large and small, located in different parts of Zambia.' This Investment Climate Assessment has three key parts: Empirical analysis of productivity; examination of investment climate constraints; and strategy for improving the investment climate and productivity. The report contains ordered recommendations in five key areas: Macroeconomics and finance, public-private sector interactions, infrastructure, labor market issues, and rule of law.
    • Zambia : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 1. Main Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2002-10-28)
      The legal framework lacks robustness, and features structural and content inadequacies. Two current practices foster corruption and higher prices: using negotiations as an accepted procurement method, and, misusing the registration system for purchases from short-listed firms. Furthermore, procurement management is weak, showing incomplete procurement files, producing therefore avoidable losses for the government, while inadequacies in budget allocation, and in the funds release system reveal significant release delays, seriously affecting project implementation and contract management. Within this context, it is recommended to establish a procurement reform task force to initiate, and oversee the implementation set in the action plan developed by this CPAR. Moreover, the policy, and supervisory role of the Zambia National Tender Board (ZNTB) should be established, even prior to the new procurement legislation. The plan for a complete delegation of procurement authority should be finalized within a phased three-year period, and a professional procurement cadre should be established, defining its composition, with measures to support the management function. Other recommendations include the re-design of a registration list system, implementation of anti-corruption actions, and, introduction of appropriate procurement planning, and a new filing system.
    • Zambia : Country Procurement Assessment Report, 
 Volume 1. Main Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-21)
      The legal framework lacks robustness,
 and features structural and content inadequacies. Two
 current practices foster corruption and higher prices: using
 negotiations as an accepted procurement method, and,
 misusing the registration system for purchases from
 short-listed firms. Furthermore, procurement management is
 weak, showing incomplete procurement files, producing
 therefore avoidable losses for the government, while
 inadequacies in budget allocation, and in the funds release
 system reveal significant release delays, seriously
 affecting project implementation and contract management.
 Within this context, it is recommended to establish a
 procurement reform task force to initiate, and oversee the
 implementation set in the action plan developed by this
 CPAR. Moreover, the policy, and supervisory role of the
 Zambia National Tender Board (ZNTB) should be established,
 even prior to the new procurement legislation. The plan for
 a complete delegation of procurement authority should be
 finalized within a phased three-year period, and a
 professional procurement cadre should be established,
 defining its composition, with measures to support the
 management function. Other recommendations include the
 re-design of a registration list system, implementation of
 anti-corruption actions, and, introduction of appropriate
 procurement planning, and a new filing system.