Now showing items 10710-10729 of 11024

    • Zagrożenie korupcją w świetle doświadczeń państwa rosyjskiego – rozważania kryminologiczne i prawne

      Laskowska, Katarzyna (Temida 2, 2014-12-22)
      Dr hab. Katarzyna Laskowska, prof. UwB, Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    • Zagrożenie korupcją w świetle doświadczeń państwa rosyjskiego – rozważania kryminologiczne i prawne

      Laskowska, Katarzyna (Temida 2, 2014-12-22)
      The paper entitled „The threat of corruption in the light of Russian experience
 – criminological and legal reflections” presents the sources and indications of corruption as well as legal reaction against that phenomenon. There is no criminological definition of corruption in Russian criminology, however there is legal one in the Anti–Corruption Act of 2008. The paper shows the scale and extend of that phenomenon among public officials of the legislative, executive and judicial branches, their connections with organized crime and the existence of peculiar price list of corrupted services. That phenomenon is depicted as something which wrecks both Russian country and society. There are presented some legal considerations regarding penal, civil law and administrative measures aimed at reducing the scale of the phenomenon.
 It is remarked pessimistically that although there is a broad definition of corruption in legal system, preventing and fighting the phenomenon is very difficult for the reason that there are many deficiencies in prosecuting it and it has been deep-rooted in society’s conscious.
    • Zakaz zatrudnienia radnego w jednostce samorządu terytorialnego, w której sprawuje on mandat

      Serwin, Krzysztof
      W pracy zostały przedstawione zagadnienia związane z zakazem zatrudnienia radnego w jednostce samorządu terytorialnego, w której sprawuje on mandat. W pierwszej części wyjaśniam najważniejsze pojęcia zawarte w pracy, przedstawiam genezę tego zakazu, oraz porównuje go z zakazem zatrudnienia w innych państwach. Kolejna część pracy dotyczy zakazu nawiązywania stosunków zatrudnienia z jednostką samorządu terytorialnego. Zostały przeanalizowany tutaj zakaz zatrudnienia w urzędzie, jednostce organizacyjnej oraz wyjątki od tych zakazów. Następna część dotyczy sytuacji szczególnej, w której radny wykonuje prace dla komisji w takiej jednostce. Została tutaj przeanalizowana także sytuację zakazu powierzenia radnemu pracy przez organy wykonawczy. Ostatni rozdział odpowiada na pytanie do kogo skierowany jest zakaz. Dokonana analiza ma pokazać niekonsekwencję i niejednoznaczność w przypadku stosowania tych przepisów. Na koniec zostały sformułowane wnioski wypływające z tej tematyki, oraz sposoby przeciwdziałania problemom z tymi uregulowaniami.
    • Zambia - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review : Country Financial Accountability Assessment, Annex, Volume 2

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2003-11)
      The challenges faced by Zambia in public
 expenditure management (PEM) have been longstanding, and
 will require targeted efforts, as well as a strong degree of
 political will to address. The recently launched
 constitutional review, which includes issues of public
 finance, the anti-corruption campaign of the new Government,
 and the renewed interest by Parliament in governance issues,
 and accountability have all been encouraging steps.
 Nevertheless, for Zambia to assure that public
 accountability is enduring, and not dependent upon the
 Government of the day, it must take steps to strengthen
 institutions of the State that can provide public oversight,
 and that promote basic checks and balances. This report
 provides a very detailed analysis of the country's PEM,
 and accountability processes. Yet, many of the
 recommendations are not new, but have been cited in previous
 reports of the Bank, and/or other donors. Effective
 implementation of public sector reforms will likely remain a
 challenge in Zambia. The limited capacity of Government
 suggests the need to target a few major aspects of public
 finance, and to address them persistently: improving
 compliance with existing regulations; strengthening the
 oversight institutions of the State; promoting public access
 to information; and, rebuilding information management, and
 reporting systems. The report also deals with the second
 objective of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP),
 i.e., with ways and methods by which the Government can
 ensure efficient, equitable, and transparent management of
 public resources. It also focuses on the dimension of
 governance, i.e., the effectiveness of government to be able
 to provide public services. The specific objectives of the
 report are to: (a) provide a comprehensive and integrated
 assessment of Zambia's overall fiduciary risk, i.e.,
 budget management, financial systems and auditing, and
 public procurement; (b) document PEM reforms progress
 to-date, and challenges facing Zambia; and, (c) develop a
 realistic action plan, outlining short and medium term
 remedial measures, which the Government should implement
 with donor support.
    • Zambia - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review : Country Procurement Assessment Review, Annex

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-07-31)
      The challenges faced by Zambia in public expenditure management (PEM) have been longstanding, and will require targeted efforts, as well as a strong degree of political will to address. The recently launched constitutional review, which includes issues of public finance, the anti-corruption campaign of the new Government, and the renewed interest by Parliament in governance issues, and accountability have all been encouraging steps. Nevertheless, for Zambia to assure that public accountability is enduring, and not dependent upon the Government of the day, it must take steps to strengthen institutions of the State that can provide public oversight, and that promote basic checks and balances. This report provides a very detailed analysis of the country's PEM, and accountability processes. Yet, many of the recommendations are not new, but have been cited in previous reports of the Bank, and/or other donors. Effective implementation of public sector reforms will likely remain a challenge in Zambia. The limited capacity of Government suggests the need to target a few major aspects of public finance, and to address them persistently: improving compliance with existing regulations; strengthening the oversight institutions of the State; promoting public access to information; and, rebuilding information management, and reporting systems. The report also deals with the second objective of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), i.e., with ways and methods by which the Government can ensure efficient, equitable, and transparent management of public resources. It also focuses on the dimension of governance, i.e., the effectiveness of government to be able to provide public services. The specific objectives of the report are to: (a) provide a comprehensive and integrated assessment of Zambia's overall fiduciary risk, i.e., budget management, financial systems and auditing, and public procurement; (b) document PEM reforms progress to-date, and challenges facing Zambia; and, (c) develop a realistic action plan, outlining short and medium term remedial measures, which the Government should implement with donor support.
    • Zambia - Public Expenditure Review : Public Expenditure, Growth and Poverty - A Synthesis

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-28)
      At the heart of the growth problem, the persistence of poverty, and issues of policy reform in Zambia is the public sector reform program. The best practice in public sector reform identifies three areas in which governments can improve their performance and their impact on the economy and poor: 1) macroeconomic discipline (the satabilization problem); 2) strategic priority setting (the allocation problem); and 3) efficient public-service delivery (the execution problem). Zambia's problem appears to be in all three areas. In particular, the aggregate performance, allocation, and execution of the budget are vital to the success of Zambia's public sector reform program. All three areas, particularly the allocation and execution issues, as they apply to public expenditure are the subject matter of the present public expenditure review (PER).
    • Zambia - What Would it Take for Zambia’s Copper Mining Industry to Achieve Its Potential?

      World Bank (World Bank, 2012-03-19)
      This report is part of a series produced by the World Bank's Africa Finance and Private Sector Development Unit (AFTFP). This report explores the potential contribution that the copper mining industry could make to jobs and prosperity in Zambia, and what it will take to achieve this potential. Copper has for many years played an important role in Zambia's economy, and the performance of the economy has followed the fortunes of copper mining closely. This report investigates the role copper mining could play in achieving the government's objectives of increasing economic growth and jobs in the future. Although 40 percent of the country has not been geologically surveyed, Zambia is recognized by the international mining industry as having good mineral potential. Zambia possesses 6 percent of known world copper reserves. According to the highly-respected Fraser Institute survey of mining and exploration companies, Zambia ranks 26th out of 79 jurisdictions worldwide for mineral potential. In Africa, only the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Burkina Faso have appreciably higher mineral potential scores.
    • Zambia : An Assessment of the Investment Climate

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-06-12)
      This Zambia Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) forms part of World Bank Group global initiative to systematically analyze conditions for private investment and enterprise growth. Improving the investment climate is recognized as a key pillar of developing countries' path to promote economic growth and reduce poverty. The I C A compliments and amplifies a series of diagnostic work on this issue being undertaken by the World Bank Group in collaboration with the Government of Zambia. Throughout this report, empirical results showing the relative position of Zambia versus potential competitors will be presented. To understand the quality of investment climate in Zambia from the perspective of the private sector, the report draws on the results of a firm survey conducted in 2003, covering a sample of more than 200 service and manufacturing firms, large and small, located in different parts of Zambia.' This Investment Climate Assessment has three key parts: Empirical analysis of productivity; examination of investment climate constraints; and strategy for improving the investment climate and productivity. The report contains ordered recommendations in five key areas: Macroeconomics and finance, public-private sector interactions, infrastructure, labor market issues, and rule of law.
    • Zambia : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 1. Main Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2002-10-28)
      The legal framework lacks robustness, and features structural and content inadequacies. Two current practices foster corruption and higher prices: using negotiations as an accepted procurement method, and, misusing the registration system for purchases from short-listed firms. Furthermore, procurement management is weak, showing incomplete procurement files, producing therefore avoidable losses for the government, while inadequacies in budget allocation, and in the funds release system reveal significant release delays, seriously affecting project implementation and contract management. Within this context, it is recommended to establish a procurement reform task force to initiate, and oversee the implementation set in the action plan developed by this CPAR. Moreover, the policy, and supervisory role of the Zambia National Tender Board (ZNTB) should be established, even prior to the new procurement legislation. The plan for a complete delegation of procurement authority should be finalized within a phased three-year period, and a professional procurement cadre should be established, defining its composition, with measures to support the management function. Other recommendations include the re-design of a registration list system, implementation of anti-corruption actions, and, introduction of appropriate procurement planning, and a new filing system.
    • Zambia : Country Procurement Assessment Report, 
 Volume 1. Main Report

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-21)
      The legal framework lacks robustness,
 and features structural and content inadequacies. Two
 current practices foster corruption and higher prices: using
 negotiations as an accepted procurement method, and,
 misusing the registration system for purchases from
 short-listed firms. Furthermore, procurement management is
 weak, showing incomplete procurement files, producing
 therefore avoidable losses for the government, while
 inadequacies in budget allocation, and in the funds release
 system reveal significant release delays, seriously
 affecting project implementation and contract management.
 Within this context, it is recommended to establish a
 procurement reform task force to initiate, and oversee the
 implementation set in the action plan developed by this
 CPAR. Moreover, the policy, and supervisory role of the
 Zambia National Tender Board (ZNTB) should be established,
 even prior to the new procurement legislation. The plan for
 a complete delegation of procurement authority should be
 finalized within a phased three-year period, and a
 professional procurement cadre should be established,
 defining its composition, with measures to support the
 management function. Other recommendations include the
 re-design of a registration list system, implementation of
 anti-corruption actions, and, introduction of appropriate
 procurement planning, and a new filing system.
    • Zambia : Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-08-06)
      Zambia's economy is not growing fast. Poverty is on the rise. The quality of economic governance is on the decline. And public resources are not well spent. The badly needed first steps to reverse all this are to start getting the budgetary allocations right and to make sure those allocations go where they re intended. That requires making the public aware of the government s budgetary decisions and holding the government accountable for better performance. Budgets, now not credible, have to become credible. Spending rules, where they exist, must be strengthened and enforced. Where rules are missing, they must be created and once again enforced to remove today s pernicious discretion. Addressing the longstanding challenges that Zambia faces in public expenditure management will require strong political will. For Zambia to assure that public accountability is enduring and not dependent on the government of the day, it must strengthen budget processes and institutions that can provide public oversight and promote basic checks and balances. This report provides an analysis of how Zambia can strengthen budgetary processes and institutions for accountability and effective service delivery to its citizens.
    • Zambia : Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-07-31)
      The challenges faced by Zambia in public expenditure management (PEM) have been longstanding, and will require targeted efforts, as well as a strong degree of political will to address. The recently launched constitutional review, which includes issues of public finance, the anti-corruption campaign of the new Government, and the renewed interest by Parliament in governance issues, and accountability have all been encouraging steps. Nevertheless, for Zambia to assure that public accountability is enduring, and not dependent upon the Government of the day, it must take steps to strengthen institutions of the State that can provide public oversight, and that promote basic checks and balances. This report provides a very detailed analysis of the country's PEM, and accountability processes. Yet, many of the recommendations are not new, but have been cited in previous reports of the Bank, and/or other donors. Effective implementation of public sector reforms will likely remain a challenge in Zambia. The limited capacity of Government suggests the need to target a few major aspects of public finance, and to address them persistently: improving compliance with existing regulations; strengthening the oversight institutions of the State; promoting public access to information; and, rebuilding information management, and reporting systems. The report also deals with the second objective of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), i.e., with ways and methods by which the Government can ensure efficient, equitable, and transparent management of public resources. It also focuses on the dimension of governance, i.e., the effectiveness of government to be able to provide public services. The specific objectives of the report are to: (a) provide a comprehensive and integrated assessment of Zambia's overall fiduciary risk, i.e., budget management, financial systems and auditing, and public procurement; (b) document PEM reforms progress to-date, and challenges facing Zambia; and, (c) develop a realistic action plan, outlining short and medium term remedial measures, which the Government should implement with donor support.
    • Zambia : Rebuilding a Broken Public Investment Management System

      Palale, Patricia; Raballand, Gael; Le, Tuan Minh (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014)
      The report follows the diagnostic methodology as outlined in Rajaram et al. The diagnostics is based on interviews, a survey questionnaire with government officials, central statistical office (CSOs), and private sector and desk review of related documents. The paper identifies the weaknesses in processes and institutions that contribute to poor outcomes of public spending. The government has been conducting a number of reforms in this field, such as overarching public financial management and procurement reforms. However, the public investment management (PIM) remains largely inefficient and certain key functions of project evaluation are missing or in rudimentary forms. To succeed, all the pieces of reforms have to be woven into a coherent framework targeting the weakest links in the PIM system. Multiple factors, including the absence of necessary institutions, unclear institutional mandates, weak capacity, lack of vertical and horizontal coordination, and misaligned incentives drive the inefficiency of PIM. This also implies that pure technical solutions do not guarantee success. As a result this paper suggests that strengthening of the challenge function of the ministry of finance in Zambia is critical for better PIM but a gradual, incentive compatible approach is probably necessary in the current context.
    • Zambia Country Opinion Survey Report (July 2012 - June 2013)

      World Bank Group (Washington, DC, 2014-07-30)
      The Country Opinion Survey for FY2012 in Zambia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Zambia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral
    • Zambia Country Program Evaluation FY04-13

      Independent Evaluation Group (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015)
      From 2004 to 2012, Zambia experienced a
 combination of good economic policies and high rates of
 growth not seen since the early years after its
 independence. While growth was mainly driven by rising
 copper prices, other factors contributed to Zambia’s ability
 to take advantage of this growth. The international debt
 relief programs in 2004-2005 almost eliminated public debt
 and provided the fiscal space for selective, high-priority
 investments and expanded social programs. The privatization
 of the copper mines brought new investment in rehabilitation
 and expansion of production. The period also saw a
 substantial expansion of primary education and progress in
 dealing with the most pervasive public health problems.
 These positive developments set the stage for Zambia to
 tackle its pervasive poverty. In practice, however,
 sustained growth over the period has led to little poverty
 reduction, especially in rural areas of the country. The
 Bank Group and other donors provided critical support at the
 beginning of the evaluation period, when Zambia’s debt level
 became unsustainable. The Bank provided substantial support
 for capacity development and better functioning
 institutions. The Bank’s efforts to strengthen public
 administration and improve governance met with some partial
 successes in enhanced audit and procurement capacity, and
 the achievement of Extractive Industries Transparency
 Initiative compliance. However, despite nearly a decade of
 implementation, the Integrated Financial Management
 Information Systems (IFMIS), is still only partially
 operational. Further, the Zambian government has not
 followed through on its positive discourse regarding
 decentralization of government authority.
    • Zambia Economic Brief, June 2014 : Promoting Trade and Competitiveness - What Can Zambia Do?

      World Bank Group (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-08-14)
      Zambia continues to experience strong growth, but challenges are building up. Copper prices are declining, and global financial conditions are tightening. At home, the fiscal deficit is becoming difficult to manage, and Zambia's currency has sharply depreciated. The government intends to reduce future budget deficits, but this would involve making difficult political choices. In the past few years inflation and interest rates have declined and the currency has been relatively stable, providing an environment for growth and reducing poverty. High inflation would hurt the poor most. The brief specifically focuses on the opportunity for Zambia to emerge as a major food exporter to Eastern and Southern Africa and the policy direction that would take it there; the need to reduce high costs of crossing borders that will facilitate regional trade in non-copper products; and a long-term approach to developing competitiveness of the local mining supply cluster.
    • Zambia Economic Brief, June 2016, Issue 7 : Beating the Slowdown--Making Every Kwacha Count

      World Bank Group (World Bank, Lusaka, 2016-07-12)
      The external environment confronting
 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is expected to remain difficult in
 the near term. Commodity prices are expected to remain low,
 and in 2016, growth in the region isforecast to drop to 2.5
 percent from 3.0 percent in 2015 (World Bank forecast).
 There is considerable variation in economic performance
 across countries, with the slowdown concentrated among the
 region's largest commodity exporters. Growing economic
 vulnerabilities, amid weakened policy buffers, continue to
 pose challenges for policy makers. The balance of risks to
 the outlook remains tilted to the downside. The global risks
 include: (i) a sharper than expected slowdown in China (as
 the country rebalances growth toward consumption and
 services), (ii) a further decline in commodity prices, and
 (iii) tighter global financing conditions that would result
 in higher borrowing costs and reduced sovereign bond access
 for emerging and frontier countries. On the domestic front,
 delays in adjustment to external shocks in affected
 countries would create policy uncertainties that could weigh
 on investor sentiment and weaken the recovery.
    • Zambia Economic Brief, October 2013 : Zambia's Jobs Challenge--Realities on the Ground

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2014-01-29)
      Zambia shares its robust economic growth and capital inflows in the past few years with other Sub-Saharan countries, growth supported by high commodity prices that while declining are still at historical high levels. High commodity prices have induced large foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, mainly in extractive industries but also in services sector, supporting growth. Zambia's mining sector has benefited from FDI, receiving almost 1 billion dollar in 2011 alone. A large gap has emerged between available resources and likely spending in 2013. The government is responding with a full range of adjustments, including cutting recurrent spending (such as on travel and motor vehicles), cutting capital projects, and stepping up revenue collection. The government has raised fuel prices and reduced maize and fertilizer subsidies, but the medium-term fiscal impact of these initiatives is uncertain. These reforms aimed to create space for expanding better targeted spending programs. Zambia's economy has seen far too many unexpected policy changes in recent years. Persistent and even escalating perceptions of an uncertain policy environment can weaken investment, thereby reducing gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Zambia's population and labor force is young and growing fast. The current structure of the economy and sources of growth are such that formal wage jobs are being created slowly. Creating formal jobs in the private sector is rightly accorded top priority in government policy and strategy documents. The government's general approach is to provide an enabling environment for the private sector and address constraints to growth. For wage employment, understanding the technical and vocational education sector is a priority for future skills development. There is a need to address the gaps in access to basic education and prevent dropouts through targeted programs for children at risk of not starting or finishing school. This report is divided in two sections: section one gives recent economic developments and section two presents jobs challenge: realities on the ground.
    • Zambia Education PER and PETS-QSDS at a Glance

      World Bank Group (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-03-09)
      Public Expenditure Review (PER) in Zambia
 addresses the efficiency and equity of the macrolevel
 policy framework, budget allocations, and budget execution
 for primary education; secondary education;
 technical education and vocational and entrepreneurship
 training (TEVET); and higher education. The Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS)
 traces fund flows from the central government to
 schools in order to identify leakages and assess
 efficiency
 and effectiveness in the use of public
 funding. The Quantitative Service Delivery Survey
 (QSDS) examines the efficacy of spending, incentives
 oversight, and the relationship between those
 who contract for a service (for example, parents)
 and those who deliver it (schools and teachers).
    • Zambia Growth, Infrastructure, and Investments : Role for Public Private Partnership

      World Bank (Washington, DC, 2008-06-26)
      The main purpose of this paper is to
 document and discuss infrastructure gaps, investment needs,
 and policy challenges in improving infrastructure services,
 with an emphasis on the role of Public Private Partnerships
 to access needed resources for investments in the various
 sub-sectors for accelerated growth and poverty reduction in
 Zambia. Zambia has made substantial progress in extending
 some infrastructure services, including telecom and roads,
 to its citizens. However, service delivery in other areas,
 such as water and sanitation, and electricity has been poor.
 With Zambia's annual growth increasing and demand for
 infrastructure services escalating, infrastructure
 bottlenecks are becoming more acute. This paper is targeted
 at two main audiences: the first is the broader universe of
 policymakers, planners, regulators, and technical
 specialists directly concerned with the delivery of
 infrastructure services. For these readers, the note
 provides an overview of the physical, financial, social, and
 institutional conditions of the country that cut across
 subsectors. It compares Zambia's infrastructure
 performance in terms of access rates, affordability,
 quality, and financial viability of its services to those
 observed in comparable countries. The second and related
 audience is the authorities. The note provides them with a
 sense of the foregone growth opportunities stemming from
 policy imperfections, an assessment of investment needs for
 accelerated growth, and how public private partnership can
 play a role in resource mobilization for the investment
 needs. The paper takes stock of the most relevant
 infrastructure issues in the key sectors: energy, water and
 sanitation and telecommunications.