Make, Buy, Organize: The Interplay between Research, External Knowledge, and Firm Structure
mergers and acquisitions
Business Administration, Management, and Operations
Business and Corporate Communications
Business Law, Public Responsibility, and Ethics
Management Information Systems
Management Sciences and Quantitative Methods
Operations and Supply Chain Management
Organizational Behavior and Theory
Strategic Management Policy
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AbstractWe bridge current streams of innovation research to explore the interplay between R&D, external knowledge, and organizational structure–three elements of a firm's innovation strategy which we argue should logically be studied together. Using within-firm patent assignment patterns, we develop a novel measure of structure for a large sample of American firms. We find that centralized firms invest more in research and patent more per R&D dollar than decentralized firms. Both types access technology via mergers and acquisitions, but their acquisitions differ in terms of frequency, size, and integration. Consistent with our framework, their sources of value creation differ: while centralized firms derive more value from internal R&D, decentralized firms rely more on external knowledge. We discuss how these findings should stimulate more integrative work on theories of innovation.
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Grow in Concert with Nature : Sustaining East Asia's Water Resources through Green Water DefenseTurner, Graeme; Li, Xiaokai; Jiang, Liping (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012-07-02)As countries develop, the demand for water increases while water supply becomes less certain and is often not enough to meet demand. In general, pressures from both environment and human activities can increase the likelihood of water scarcity. Such pressures include increased socio-economic development and population growth, change in people's diets, competition for available water among different user sectors and growing climate variability. Climate change is likely to exacerbate the existing demand and supply stresses, particularly when more frequent and extreme droughts and floods, as well as rising sea level are becoming more evident. In temperate, sub-temperate regions, less rainfall and longer dry seasons are expected. In tropical areas, rainfall is predicted to be similar or greater in terms of annual average volumes, more intense and severe storms and seasonal droughts (IPCC, 2007). These pressures will test the effectiveness of water resource management systems in providing a consistent and secure water supply for all users, with minimum externalities. This study will assess advances in management practices, institutional and technological innovations for managing water scarcity sustainably under a changing climate. This study of 'sustaining East Asia's water resources through Green Water Defense (GWD) is a sub-study of the 'towards GWD in East Asia' study and is complemented by another sub-study 'green water defense for flood risk management in East Asia' that focuses on flood management in delta regions.
VIDEO: Opening Remarks and Session 1: The Challenge of Water Scarcity in Basins Around the World: An IntroductionBrandes, Oliver M.; Cosens, Barbara; MacDonnell, Larry; McCoy, Amy; Oglesby, Adrian; McLeod, Tony; Estrela, Teodoro; Empinotti, Vanessa; Muller, Mike; Chokkakula, Srinivas (Colorado Law Scholarly Commons, 2016-06-09)VIDEO: 8:00 a.m. - 8:10 a.m. Welcoming Remarks Speakers: Charles Wilkinson, Moses Lasky Professor of Law, University of Colorado School of Law Doug Kenney, Getches-Wilkinson Center SESSION ONE: The Challenge of Water Scarcity in Basins Around the World: An Introduction Moderator: Doug Kenney, Getches-Wilkinson Center Cases from North America 8:10 a.m. - 8:30 a.m. British Columbia (Canada): Oliver M. Brandes, University of Victoria 8:30 a.m. - 8:50 a.m. Columbia River Basin (Canada and US): Barbara Cosens, University of Idaho 8:50 a.m. - 9:10 a.m. Colorado River Basin (US and Mexico): Larry MacDonnell, University of Colorado 9:10 a.m. - 9:30 a.m. Arizona (US): Amy McCoy, University of Arizona 9:30 a.m. - 9:50 a.m. Rio Grande (US and Mexico): Adrian Oglesby, University of New Mexico Some Other Cases From Around the World 10:20 a.m. - 10:40 a.m. Murray-Darling River Basin (Australia): Tony McLeod, MDBA, Murray-Darling Basin Authority 10:40 a.m. - 11:00 a.m. Spain: Teodoro Estrela, Júcar River Basin Authority 11:00 a.m. - 11:20 a.m. São Francisco River Basin (Brazil): Vanessa Empinotti, Federal University of ABC 11:20 a.m. - 11:40 a.m. South Africa: Mike Muller, University of Witwatersrand 11:40 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. India: Srinivas Chokkakula, Centre for Policy Research
VIDEO: Session 4: Modern Challenges and Modern Solutions, and Session 5: The Future of our Public LandsTheobald, Dave; Culver, Nada; Birdsong, Brett; Leshy, John D.; Lance, Linda; Dombeck, Mike (Colorado Law Scholarly Commons, 2016-10-21)VIDEO: 2:50 p.m. - 4:10 p.m. SESSION 4: Modern Challenges and Modern Solutions Moderator and Commentator: Mark Squillace, University of Colorado School of Law Panelists: Dave Theobald, Conservation Science Partners Nada Culver, The Wilderness Society Bret Birdsong, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, School of Law 4:10 p.m. - 5:10 p.m. SESSION 5: The Future of our Public Lands Panelists: John D. Leshy, University of California, Hastings College of the Law Linda Lance, Bureau of Land Management (Invited) Mike Dombeck, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point