Cyber: Prefix used to form many words relating to the use of the Internet. “Cyber ethics aims to provide orientation on what is right and wrong, good and bad, related to the cyber space” (Stückelberger, C. / Duggal, P. (Eds.), Cyber Ethics 4.0: Serving Humanity with Values, Geneva:, 2018, cover text). The cyber ethics collection aims at gathering all most important sources on this matter. The content in the library is available in multiple languages and is mainly harvested from a wide variety of open access repositories. A limited set of manually submitted documents complete this collection, adding a plus value of carefully selected content.

Recent Submissions

  • Digital Peripheries

    Szczepanik, Petr; Zahrádka, Pavel; Macek, Jakub; Stepan, Paul (Springer Nature, 2020)
    This is an open access book. Media industry research and EU policymaking are predominantly tailored to large (and, in the latter case, Western) European markets. This open access book addresses the specific qualities of smaller media markets, highlighting their vulnerability to global digital competition and outlining survival strategies for them. New online distribution models and new trends in the consumption of audiovisual content are limited by, and pose new challenges for, existing audiovisual business models and their legal framework in the EU. The European Commission’s Digital Single Market (DSM) strategy, which was intended e.g. to remove obstacles to the cross-border distribution of audiovisual content, has triggered a heated debate on the transformation of the existing ecosystem for European screen industries. While most current discussions focus on the United States, Western Europe, and the multinational giants, this book approaches these industry trends and policy questions from the perspective of relatively small and peripheral (in terms of their population, language, cross-border cultural flows, and financial and/or symbolic capital) media markets.
  • Oslo Manual on Select Topics of the Law of Armed Conflict

    Dinstein, Yoram; Dahl, Arne Willy (Springer Nature, 2020)
    This new open access book provides a valuable restatement of the current law of armed conflict regarding hostilities in a diverse range of contexts: outer space, cyber operations, remote and autonomous weapons, undersea systems and devices, submarine cables, civilians participating in unmanned operations, military objectives by nature, civilian airliners, destruction of property, surrender, search and rescue, humanitarian assistance, cultural property, the natural environment, and more. The book was prepared by a group of experts after consultation with a number of key governments. It is intended to offer guidance for practitioners (mainly commanding officers); facilitate training at military colleges; and inform both instructors and graduate students of international law on the current state of the law.
  • On the path to AI

    Grant, Thomas D.; Wischik, Damon J. (Springer Nature, 2020)
    This open access book explores machine learning and its impact on how we make sense of the world. It does so by bringing together two ‘revolutions’ in a surprising analogy: the revolution of machine learning, which has placed computing on the path to artificial intelligence, and the revolution in thinking about the law that was spurred by Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr in the last two decades of the 19th century. Holmes reconceived law as prophecy based on experience, prefiguring the buzzwords of the machine learning age—prediction based on datasets. On the path to AI introduces readers to the key concepts of machine learning, discusses the potential applications and limitations of predictions generated by machines using data, and informs current debates amongst scholars, lawyers and policy makers on how it should be used and regulated wisely. Technologists will also find useful lessons learned from the last 120 years of legal grappling with accountability, explainability, and biased data.
  • Digital Word-of-Mouth and the Gender Implications

    Lester, Deborah H; Forman, Andrew M; Loyd, Dolly D; Burton, Tyra A (Digital Commons@Georgia Southern, 2013-01-01)
    Consumers can now easily access data and exchange sentiments regarding products and services on an unprecedented scale, and often in real time, through digital connections. The Internet and mobile technologies have made sharing of information and opinions among consumers easier than ever. The capacity of online participants to inspire and transform perspectives has been touted to surpass the radical potency of television when it entered the consumer’s province during the 50’s. Men and women use social media sites to learn about new products, to become smarter shoppers and to feel good about a purchase they might have already made. College students are so driven to continuously connect that they chain themselves to the technology 24/7. As digital natives, they are so thoroughly immersed in the process that they possess an indigenous aptitude to operate and fully function within the techno world. Marketers have long recognized the prominent role that word-of-mouth communication (WOM) played in the consumer decision-making process. However, in recent years, interest has grown with the expansion in the number and types of communication channels offered by new technologies. Online WOM has established itself as a central element in the lives of consumers. In the view of many, the power of social media and online digital WOM communications outstrips the ability of companies to shape their own messages through either traditional communication means or by way of their own social media initiatives. Common wisdom now holds that companies that ignore consumer-to-consumer information posted about their business and products do so at their own peril. This study explored the implication of gender on the use of digital WOM along with specific online behavior characteristics and purchase variances of male and female digital activities. Research findings suggest the identification of primary digital WOM leaders as revealed through purchase behavior, shopping experience, purchase confidence and innovative online conduct. The concept that “tie-strength” is an indicator of the importance of a moderator’s impact on consumer purchase decisions (Brown & Reingen 1987) may be shifting in regard to online digital WOM. This study indicates that respondents were neutral in regard to the usefulness of online digital WOM compared to friends and family. While online was not deemed as more useful, the neutrality indicates that more research needs to be done on the concept of tie-strength as well as outside indicators of online digital WOM credibility.

    Tamer BAYRAK (Istanbul Aydın University, 2017-03-01)
    Konvansiyonel medya sonrası ortaya çıkan Yeni Medya teknolojileri, insanların iletişim ihtiyacına yönelik geliştirilmiştir. Dijital ortamlar oluşturan Yeni Medya, insanlara birer kullanıcı bireyler olarak iletişim sürecine doğrudan katılma olanağı sunmaktadır. Böylelikle hem kaynak hem de hedef konumuna geçen bireyler, gündem olan olayları birer uzmanmış gibi yorumlayabilmekte, bilginin oluşum sürecine etki edebilmekte ve hatta diğer bireyleri yönlendirmektedir. İnsanların toplum olmak adına ortaya koydukları etik kavramı ise dijital ortamda tamamen dönüşerek kodlanmakta; dijital etik adını alarak sosyal medyada açığa çıkmaktadır. Bu bağlamda sosyal medyada yayılan tüm bilgiler dijital etik ile harmanlanarak hedefe ulaşmaktadır. Böylelikle etik açıdan incelenme fırsatı sunan pek çok ileti sürekli olarak sosyal medya ortamlarında dolanmaktadır. Bu çalışmada dijital etik kavramına giriş yapılarak gerçekleşen bir metrobüs kazası sonrası sosyal medyada yorum yapan on sekiz adet kullanıcı iletileri incelenmektedir. Bu sayede sosyal medyada toplum açısından tamamen dışlanmış etiksel yaklaşım tanımlanmaya çalışılmaktadır
  • IoT security, privacy, safety and ethics

    University of Southampton; Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt; Atlam, Hany F.; Wills, Gary B. (Springer International Publishing, 2020-06-19)
    The Internet of Things (IoT) represents a revolution of the Internet which can connect nearly all environment devices over the Internet to share their data to create novel services and applications for improving our quality of life. Using cheap sensors, the IoT enables various devices and objects around us to be addressable, recognizable and locatable. Although the IoT brought infinite benefits, it creates several challenges, especially in security and privacy. Handling these issues and ensuring security and privacy for IoT products and services must be a fundamental priority. Users need to trust IoT devices and related services are secure. Moreover, the IoT safety must be considered to prevent the IoT system and its components from causing an unacceptable risk of injury or physical damage and at the same time considering social behaviour and ethical use of IoT technologies to enable effective security and safety. This chapter provides a discussion of IoT security, privacy, safety and ethics. It starts by providing an overview of the IoT system, its architecture and essential characteristics. This is followed by discussing IoT security challenges, requirements and best practices to protect IoT devices. The IoT privacy is also discussed by highlighting various IoT privacy threats and solutions to preserve the privacy of IoT devices. The IoT safety, ethics, the need for the ethical design and challenges encountered are also discussed. In the end, smart cities are introduced as a case study to investigate various security threats and suggested solutions to maintain a good security level in a smart city.
  • Bezpečnostní cvičení pro etický hacking

    Martinásek, Zdeněk; Lieskovan, Tomáš; Paučo, Daniel (Vysoké učení technické v Brně. Fakulta elektrotechniky a komunikačních technologií, 2020)
    Predložená diplomová práca sa zaoberá penetračným testovaním a etickým hackovaním. Podľa zadania bolo vytvorené vhodné prostredie pre prevedenie cvičenia Red/Blue tím, kde Red tím sa ocitá v roli útočníka a Blue tým v roli obrancu sieťovej infraštruktúry. Celá infraštruktúra je pripravená v cloudovom virtualizovanom prostredí VMware vSp- here. Druhú časť praktickej časti práce tvorí príprava a vytvorenie cvičenia na testovanie bezpečnosti webových aplikácií. Tretia časť sa venuje automatizácii červeného tímu pre bezpečnostné cvičenie. Hlavným cieľom tejto diplomovej práce je ukážka rôznych typov útokov na sieťovú infraštruktúru a webové aplikácie, a použitie obranných mechanizmov k zamedzeniu týchto útokov.
  • Workshop report: Creating a citizens’ information pack on ethical and legal issues around ICTs: what should be included?

    Asine, Janice; Baibarac-Duignan, Corelia; Broglio, Elisabetta; Castańeda, Alexandra; Feord, Helen; Freyburg, Linda; Leppée, Marcel; Matheus, Andreas; Camara Oliveira, Marta; Pavlakis, Christoforos (European Citizen Science Association; Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, 2020-06-16)
    The aim of this workshop was to ask potential end-users of the citizens’ information pack on legal and ethical issues around ICTs (i.e. citizens and citizens’ groups) the following questions: What is your knowledge of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and what actions have you taken in response to these regulations? What challenges are you experiencing in ensuring the protection and security of your project data, and compliance with the GDPR, within existing data management processes/systems? What information/tools/resources do you need to overcome these challenges? What are the best formats/channels for receiving, sharing and acting upon this information? What is the most appropriate structure/format(s) for the citizens’ information pack?
  • #Mäklare : Ett ramverk för mäklares fortsatta användning av sociala medier

    Lantz, Dennis (KTH, Fastigheter och byggande, 2020)
    Syftet med denna uppsats är att skapa ett ramverk för mäklares fortsatta användning av sociala medier med utgångspunkt i digital marknadsföring och relationsbyggande. Sociala medier är fronten mot den digitala omvärlden där kommunikation sker och det finns därför ett stort värde för mäklare att veta hur man borde hantera sin digitala närvaro på ett långsiktigt hållbart sätt för att inte försvinna i bruset av all tillgänglig information. Värdeskapande åt andra och etik är därför två fundamentala byggstenar som undersökningen placerats ovanpå. Arbetet har kartlagt vad mäklare kan göra på sociala medier genom att observera vad de gör just nu, men framförallt har fokus legat på vad mäklare bör göra framöver genom att kombinera teorier om digital marknadsföring med resultat från enkäter och intervjuer.
  • “We Traded Our Privacy for Comfortability” : A Study About How Big Data is Used and Abused by Major International Companies

    Hansson, Madelene; Manfredsson, Adam (Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF)Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF), 2020)
    Due to digitalization, e-commerce and online presence is something most of us take for granted. Companies are moving more towards an internet-based arena of sales, rather than traditional commerce in physical stores. This development has led to that firms’ choses to market themselves through various online channels such as social media. Big data is our digital DNA that we leave behind on every part of the internet that we utilize. Big data has become an international commodity that can be sold, stored and used. The authors of this thesis have investigated the way international firms extract and use big data to construct customized marketing for their customers. This thesis has also examined the ethical perspective of how this commodity is handled and used, and people’s perception regarding the matter. This is interesting to investigate since very few researches has been previously conducted combining big data usage with ethics. To accomplish the aim of this thesis, significant theory has been reviewed and accounted for. Also, a qualitative research has been conducted, where two large companies that are working closely with big data has been investigated through a case-study. The authors have also conducted six semi-structured interviews with people between the age of 20-30 years old. The outcome of this thesis shows the importance of implementing ethics within the concept and usage of big data and provide insight into the mind of the consumer that has been lacking in previous research of this subject. 
  • “The Origin of the New World”. On Elena Dorfman’s Deus (S)ex-Machina

    Gerner, Alexander Matthias (Springer Nature, 2020-06-22)
    Mechane in Aristotle designates the theater machine, which provided for illusion and the effects and dramaturgies of overpowering as in the aleatory principle of Deus ex machina.The creation of an absolute experience machine—as an AI sex robot that as well is a companion and even is wished for as a lifetime partner as imagined by David Levy (2007) or recently described in a retro-fiction novel entitled “Machines like me” by the author Ewan McEvan 20192 lies at the core of contemporary uncanny human artistic endeavors reflected as well in techno-scientific praxis. Kathleen Richardson—the initiator of the manifesto and sex robots ban campaign—as a scholar reread the cyborg (as ‘appropriated’ by Donna Haraway in the 90’s) as a “polemical tool to critique social relations, and in this sense, it is similar to the robot” (Richardson 2017: 8). Thus, it seems that the transgressive 90’s with its drive for critical post-humanism 20 to 30 years later has to rethink the topic of human’s real limits of transgression with machinic agential entities that are build under the pretense of gaining or at least simulating full agency, when thinking on how hacking human social relations with artificial agential technical objects might even install our need to renegotiate practical and ontological boundaries especially between technical objects and human beings that many technological post-human- ist and ideologists of transhumanism had hoped for. This is one of the reasons that philosophy of technology today is facing entirely new tasks and questions that bounce our questions back to the foundation of techno-anthropology: it has to describe a world full of human, technical transformations induced by new technical objects and systems, including contemporary techno-visions of a human future and sex robotics and its alterity evasion by use and interaction with ICT technologies.
  • Artificial Neural Networks in Public Policy: Towards an Analytical Framework

    Schintler, Laurie; Lee, Joshua A; Lee, Joshua A (2020-05-04)
    This dissertation assesses how artificial neural networks (ANNs) and other machine learning systems should be devised, built, and implemented in US governmental organizations (i.e. public agencies). While it primarily focuses on ANNs given their current prevalence and accuracy, many of its conclusions are broadly applicable to other kinds of machine learning as well.
 It develops an analytical framework, drawn from diverse fields including law, behavioral psychology, public policy, and computer science, that public agency managers and analysts can utilize. The framework yields a series of principles based on my research methodology that I argue are the most relevant to public agencies. The qualitative methodology consists of an iterative approach based on archival research, peer review, expert interviews, and comparative analysis.
 Critically, this dissertation’s intent is not to provide the specific answers to all questions related to machine learning in public agencies. Given the speed at which this field changes, attempting to provide universally applicable answers would be difficult and short term at best. Rather, this framework focuses on principles which can help guide the user to the proper questions they need to ask for their particular use case. In that same vein, the normative principles it provides are procedurally focused in scope rather than focused on policy outcomes. In other words, this framework is meant to be equally applicable regardless of what one’s specific policy goals are.
  • E-Profesyonelizm Kavramı ve Sağlık Alanına Yansımaları

    ÖKE, Pınar; ; KIRIKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ; YILMAZ, Necla; ; SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ (Hayat Sağlık ve Sosyal Hizmetler VakfıHayat Sağlık ve Sosyal Hizmetler Vakfı, 2020-06-13)
    Mesleki bağlamda etik kurallara uymak ve profesyonel davranmak her meslek grubu için önemli bir konudur. Bu sebeple her mesleğin kendine özgü etik kodları ve profesyonel davranış kalıpları bulunmaktadır. Bu davranış kalıpları sayesinde kişilerin mesleki sınırlarını daha iyi bildiği ve oluşturulan standartlar sayesinde bu sınırlara uyum sağlama konusunda zorlanmadığı söylenebilir. Dijital çağ olarak nitelendirilen içinde yaşadığımız dönem ise yeni etik sorunlar meydana getirmiştir. Birçok alan gibi, sağlık alanı da bu etik sorunların en çok karşılaşıldığı ve yaşandığı alanlardan birisi olmuştur. Bu çalışmanın amacı; profesyonelleşme perspektifinden e-profesyonelizm kavramının detaylarını ortaya çıkarmaktır. Çalışma ile ayrıca, çevrimiçi internet ortamına yansıyan sağlık sektörüne ilişkin haberlerin e-profesyonelizm konusunu ilgilendiren yönlerinin ele alınması hedeflenmektedir. Bu doğrultuda konu ile ilgili literatür taranmıştır. Daha sonra e-profesyonellik kapsamında yer alabilecek etik ihlallere yönelik haberler derlenmiş ve e-profesyonellik bağlamında yorumlanmıştır. Bu çalışma ile hedeflenen; e-profesyonelizm kavramının sağlık alanına yönelik önemine vurgu yapmak ve konuyla ilgili çalışmaların sayısının artırılması adına mütevazi bir katkı sağlamaktır.
  • Big Data for Business Model Renovation, Current Machine Learning Regression Model and Ethical Issue in the Big Data Industry

    Wong, Chen Chien (Iowa State University Digital Repository, 2020-01-01)
    Please see the introduction for the summary
  • The Legal and Ethical Considerations of Using Social Media in the Recruiting and Hiring Stages of Employment

    Haller, Bruce; Ball, Daniel R (DigitalCommons@Molloy, 2020-06-03)
    The use of social media in the recruiting and hiring process raises both legal and ethical considerations for employers. According to a 2018 survey, 70% of employers use social media to screen candidates during the employment process and 48% use social media to check on current employees (CareerBuilder, 2018). The obvious potential for abuse has generated legislative action, ethical debate, and an extensive search for best practices. This paper will examine the current legal parameters of the use of social media at the recruitment and selection process stages of employment. The ethics and appropriate ethical considerations of social media as a component of the hiring process will be examined using a new model that evaluates the Total Utilitarian Ethical Analysis Impact Value. Finally, recommendations for best practices will be analyzed and suggested for the use of social media at the recruiting and selection stages of employment.
  • Systèmes d’intelligence artificielle et santé : les enjeux d’une innovation responsable.

    Godard, Béatrice; Cleret de Langavant, Ghislaine; Voarino, Nathalie (2020-06-16)
    L’avènement de l’utilisation de systèmes d’intelligence artificielle (IA) en santé s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une nouvelle médecine « haute définition » qui se veut prédictive, préventive et personnalisée en tirant partie d’une quantité inédite de données aujourd’hui disponibles. Au cœur de l’innovation numérique en santé, le développement de systèmes d’IA est à la base d’un système de santé interconnecté et auto-apprenant qui permettrait, entre autres, de redéfinir la classification des maladies, de générer de nouvelles connaissances médicales, ou de prédire les trajectoires de santé des individus en vue d’une meilleure prévention. Différentes applications en santé de la recherche en IA sont envisagées, allant de l’aide à la décision médicale par des systèmes experts à la médecine de précision (ex. ciblage pharmacologique), en passant par la prévention individualisée grâce à des trajectoires de santé élaborées sur la base de marqueurs biologiques. 
 Des préoccupations éthiques pressantes relatives à l’impact de l’IA sur nos sociétés émergent avec le recours grandissant aux algorithmes pour analyser un nombre croissant de données relatives à la santé (souvent personnelles, sinon sensibles) ainsi que la réduction de la supervision humaine de nombreux processus automatisés. Les limites de l’analyse des données massives, la nécessité de partage et l’opacité des décisions algorithmiques sont à la source de différentes préoccupations éthiques relatives à la protection de la vie privée et de l’intimité, au consentement libre et éclairé, à la justice sociale, à la déshumanisation des soins et du patient, ou encore à la sécurité. Pour répondre à ces enjeux, de nombreuses initiatives se sont penchées sur la définition et l’application de principes directeurs en vue d’une gouvernance éthique de l’IA. L’opérationnalisation de ces principes s’accompagne cependant de différentes difficultés de l’éthique appliquée, tant relatives à la portée (universelle ou plurielle) desdits principes qu’à la façon de les mettre en pratique (des méthodes inductives ou déductives). 
 S’il semble que ces difficultés trouvent des réponses dans la démarche éthique (soit une approche sensible aux contextes d’application), cette manière de faire se heurte à différents défis. L’analyse des craintes et des attentes citoyennes qui émanent des discussions ayant eu lieu lors de la coconstruction de la Déclaration de Montréal relativement au développement responsable de l’IA permet d’en dessiner les contours. Cette analyse a permis de mettre en évidence trois principaux défis relatifs à l’exercice de la responsabilité qui pourrait nuire à la mise en place d’une gouvernance éthique de l’IA en santé : l’incapacitation des professionnels de santé et des patients, le problème des mains multiples et l’agentivité artificielle. Ces défis demandent de se pencher sur la création de systèmes d’IA capacitants et de préserver l’agentivité humaine afin de favoriser le développement d’une responsabilité (pragmatique) partagée entre les différentes parties prenantes du développement des systèmes d’IA en santé. Répondre à ces différents défis est essentiel afin d’adapter les mécanismes de gouvernance existants et de permettre le développement d’une innovation numérique en santé responsable, qui doit garder l’humain au centre de ses développements.
  • Ethical and legal aspects of the use of artificial intelligence in Russia, EU, and the USA: comparative legal analysis

    Vasiliev, Anton; Zemlyukov, Sergey; Ibragimov, Zhamaladen; Kulikov, Egor; Mankovsky, Ivan (CICSH-AL. RELIGACIÓN. CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES EN CIENCIAS SOCIALES Y HUMANIDADES DESDE AMÉRICA LATINA, 2019-09-30)
    The article is devoted to the comparative legal analysis of ethic-legal questions of use of artificial intelligence in Russia, the European Union and the USA. The paper notes a deep and ambiguous discussion among scientists regarding the understanding and use of artificial intelligence as equal to a person. Thus, the EU adheres to a cautious approach to the legal regulation of robotics taking into account all risks and placing full responsibility for the compensation of damage caused by artificial intelligence on the person who created (programmed) and controlled the robot. In the Russian Federation, in the absence of a basic law, a draft Grishin law was proposed, which could have been the most courageous in the world practice. There is also no unified legal regulation of artificial intelligence in the United States, although some states regulate the use of robots, including unmanned vehicles in road traffic.
  • Building plurality and unity for various religions in the digital era: Establishing Islamic values for Indonesian students

    Syarif Syarif (Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 2020-06-01)
    With the all-encompassing pace of development in communication and information technology, the planet is constantly changing over time, yet the gap between the rich and the poor is widening. This study employs a quasi-experimental research design to assess the effectiveness of transmitting Islamic values through an e-learning platform. Teaching moral values is believed to be an important part of education in Islam. The components of the syllabic formal education slowly impart information for the development of character. With the busy schedules of the individuals involved, the roles of family and the community in molding personalities is declining. The remaining hope for this country rests with teaching through an e-learning platform, but optimism is low due to the physical absence of a teacher. In contrast, this short report shows that using an e-learning platform with the integration of Islamic values can be effective for enhancing students’ attitudes toward Islamic values. It also suggests an ICT-based model could help to define the development of Muslim students through an e-learning environment.
  • Do Cute Nursing Robots Get a Free Pass? Exploring How a Robot’s Appearance Influences Human Judgments on Forced Medication Decision

    Helsingin yliopisto, Humanistinen tiedekunta, Nykykielten laitos 2010-2017; University of Helsinki, Faculty of Arts, Department of Modern Languages 2010-2017; Helsingfors universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för moderna språk 2010-2017; Lukin, Nina (Helsingin yliopistoUniversity of HelsinkiHelsingfors universitet, 2020)
    Tavoitteet. Sosiaalisten robottien ulkonäön vaikutuksia ihmisiin ei ole juuri tutkittu, vaikka sosiaaliset robotit yleistyvät jatkuvasti ammatillisessa, etenkin terveydenhuollon, kontekstissa. Tutkielman tavoitteena on tutkia ensin eroja ihmis- ja robottisairaanhoitajan suorittaman pakkolääkinnän moraalisessa tuomitsemisessa. Tämän jälkeen tarkastelen jatkotutkimuksella, onko sairaanhoitorobotin ulkonäöllä ja söpöydellä vaikutusta pakkolääkinnän moraaliseen tuomitsemiseen. Sairaanhoitorobotteja tarkastellaan söpöysskaalalla—söpöys valikoitui mielekkääksi muuttujaksi, koska suuri osa eri aloilla käytettävistä sosiaalisista roboteista on korostetun söpöjä. Aiempien tutkimusten perusteella viehättävä ulkonäkö ja söpöys vaikuttavat havaitsijan tekemään arviointiin ja päätöksentekoon. Tarkastelen tutkielmassa söpöyden ja ulkonäön vaikutuksia sosiaalisten robottien kontekstissa.
 Menetelmät. Tutkielmaan kerättiin kaksi kokeellista aineistoa, toinen pääkaupunkiseudulta ja toinen Internet-tutkimuksena. Kokeissa oli 135 ja 214 osallistujaa. Tutkimuksissa koehenkilöt lukivat tarinanpätkän, joka päättyi sairaanhoitajan suorittamaan pakkolääkintään tai potilaan tahdon noudattamiseen. Tarinan toimijan (ihmissairaanhoitaja tai robotti) päätöstä arvioitiin kysymysten avulla (kuinka loukkaava tai epäinhimillinen päätös oli, oliko päätös oikea tai tarpeellinen). Koehenkilöt arvioivat kysymyksiä porrastetulla Likert-asteikolla (“Täysin eri mieltä” – “Täysin samaa mieltä”). Ensimmäisessä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin ihmis- ja robottisairaanhoitajan pakkolääkintäpäätöstä neljällä satunnaistetulla koeasetelmalla. Toisessa tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin vain sairaanhoitorobottia ja tarinanpätkään oli liitetty robotin kasvokuva, joka vaihteli skaalalla “ei söpö, keskivertosöpö, söpö”. Tarinanpätkistä ja robottien variaatioista muodostui kuusi koeasetelmaa, jotka oli satunnaistettu järjestyksen ja koehenkilöiden sijoittamisen osalta.
 Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Ensimmäisen tutkimuksen perusteella havaittiin, että robotti- ja ihmissairaanhoitajiin kohdistuvat moraaliset arviot eroavat toisistaan paitsi silloin, kun sairaanhoitorobotti noudattaa potilaan omaa tahtoa. Toisen tutkimuksen perusteella suoraa ulkonäkövaikutusta moraalisiin arvioihin ei havaittu, joskin osa tuloksista oli lupaavia ja kiinnostavia lisätutkimusten kannalta.

    KAAN, Enver Osman; ; MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ (Diyanet İşleri BaşkanlığıDiyanet İşleri Başkanlığı, 2020-06-15)
    İletişim çağında yaşıyoruz. Bu çağ, haberin ve bilginin modern iletişim araçları sayesinde anında bir yerden diğer yere iletildiği dijital bilgi çağıdır. İçinde bulunduğumuz bu çağda, bilginin hızlı iletilmesi, gerekli kontrol süreçlerinden geçmesini de zorlaştırmaktadır. Bu durum, bilginin kirlenmesi, dolayısıyla bilginin muhatabı olan insanın kirlenmesi sonucunu doğurmaktadır. Bir de buna iletişim araçlarını silah gibi kullanmak isteyenler eklenince toplumlar, özellikle internet ve sosyal medya gibi iletişim araçları karşısında çaresiz ve savunmasız kalabilmektedirler. Toplumların hukuki ve sosyal dokuları için tehdit oluşturduğu gibi bireylerin ahlaki ve kültür kodlarını tahrip edici bir sorun olarak da karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu sorun, hızlı iletişim araçları internet ve sosyal medyayı yasaklayarak veya engelleyerek çözülebilecek bir sorun da değildir. Ama bu soruna karşı tedbir almak her zaman mümkündür. Bu makale, yukarıda betimlenen tehdit ve sorun ile baş etmede, tedbir mahiyetinde, ahlaki kurallar dikkate alınarak fıkhî bir bakış açısıyla iletişim ilkelerini tespit etmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Amaca hizmet eder düşüncesiyle makaleye kadim zamanlarda kullanılan iletişim araçlarının tarihçesi ve yaygın ahlak ilkeleri araştırılarak başlanmıştır. 

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