Cyber: Prefix used to form many words relating to the use of the Internet. “Cyber ethics aims to provide orientation on what is right and wrong, good and bad, related to the cyber space” (Stückelberger, C. / Duggal, P. (Eds.), Cyber Ethics 4.0 : Serving Humanity with Values, Geneva: Globethics, 2018). The Globethics cyber ethics collection aims at gathering all most important sources on this matter. The content in the library is available in multiple languages and is mainly harvested from a wide variety of open access repositories. A limited set of manually submitted documents complete this collection, adding a plus value of carefully selected content.

Recent Submissions

  • Anthropology Anonymous? Pseudonyms and Confidentiality as Challenges for Ethnography in the Twenty-first Century

    Vorhölter, Julia (DEU, 2024-03-26)
    This article reflects on the delicate issue of confidentiality and anonymity in contemporary anthropological research. It focuses on the challenges of assigning pseudonyms and disguising the identity of interlocutors and participants, especially in the contemporary context of the widespread use of social media and the internet. Drawing on the moral dilemmas, struggles, and failures that I experienced in relation to these issues in my own research, the article discusses the complexity of finding the right balance between respecting research participants' interests and well-being, on the one hand, and living up to both the high ethical standards of the discipline and the desire to provide a meaningful analysis of 'real' issues, people, and places, on the other.
  • Law Library Blog (February 2024): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive

    Roger Williams University School of Law (DOCS@RWU, 2024-02-01)
  • Identifying and Responding to Privacy Dark Patterns

    Kelly, Dominique; Burkell, Jacquelyn (Scholarship@Western, 2024-03-15)
    Privacy dark patterns are user interface design strategies intended to “nudge” users to reveal personal data, either directly or by enabling (or failing to disable) privacy-invasive platform/profile settings. Examples of privacy dark patterns on social media include defaults that enable the public display of posted content, warnings that follow attempts to reject personalized ads, and hidden “skip” buttons that make it more challenging to decline privacy-undermining requests such as to sync contacts. Our project aims to minimize the impact of privacy dark patterns on Canadian youth. Building on our prior research documenting the use of these strategies on five social networking sites (SNSs) popular among teens (Kelly & Burkell, Under Review, 2024a; Under Review, 2024b), we conducted four focus groups with 38 Canadian teens (aged 13-17) to examine their experience with, awareness of, and responses to privacy dark patterns on social media. Participants demonstrated a low level of awareness of how interface design could impact their privacy behaviour before participating in the research. When prompted to focus on privacy-undermining aspects of SNSs, however, teens are able to identify a wide range of privacy dark patterns and strategies for resistance. We also reviewed research assessing users’ perceptions of and responses to privacy dark patterns and examined approaches to privacy dark pattern regulation in Canada, the United States, and the European Union. This research will help to inform the development of effective regulatory frameworks and educational materials that will assist users to resist these tactics.
  • The Anti-Human Rights Machine: Digital Authoritarianism and the Global Assault on Human Rights

    Wilson, Richard; Bossio, Luis Enrique (Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Bogotá - Facultad de Ciencias Humanas - Departamento de Antropología, 2023-12-31)
    This article analyzes the effects of digital authoritarianism— online attacks by governments directed against human rights defenders— in Colombia and Guatemala. In so doing, it combines a political model and a minority model into a single theoretical approach that can comprehend the impacts of online anti-human rights discourse. Additionally, it documents the conditioning effects of attacks against activists on social media through interviews with the actors involved. It analyses the non-lethal effects of online hate speech and the adoption of protective measures by activists such as self-censorship, the abandonment of human rights work, and emigration. Finally, it advocates for a new United Nations-sponsored Digital Code of Conduct that would require states to adopt transparent digital policies, refrain from inciting attacks, and cease illegally surveilling human rights defenders.
  • Blockchain based general data protection regulation compliant data breach detection system

    Kainat Ansar; Mansoor Ahmed; Saif Ur Rehman Malik; Markus Helfert; Jungsuk Kim (PeerJ Inc., 2024-03-01)
    Context Data breaches caused by insiders are on the rise, both in terms of frequency and financial impact on organizations. Insider threat originates from within the targeted organization and users with authorized access to an organization’s network, applications, or databases commit insider attacks. Motivation Insider attacks are difficult to detect because an attacker with administrator capabilities can change logs and login records to destroy the evidence of the attack. Moreover, when such a harmful insider attack goes undetected for months, it can do a lot of damage. Such data breaches may significantly impact the affected data owner’s life. Developing a system for rapidly detecting data breaches is still critical and challenging. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has defined the procedures and policies to mitigate the problems of data protection. Therefore, under the GDPR implementation, the data controller must notify the data protection authority when a data breach has occurred. Problem Statement Existing data breach detection mechanisms rely on a reliable third party. Because of the presence of a third party, such systems are not trustworthy, transparent, secure, immutable, and GDPR-compliant. Contributions To overcome these issues, this study proposed a GDPR-compliant data breach detection system by leveraging the benefits of blockchain technology. Smart contracts are written in Solidity and deployed on a local Ethereum test network to implement the solution. The proposed system can generate alert notifications against every data breach. Results We tested and deployed our proposed system, and the findings indicate that it can accomplish the insider threat mitigation objective. Furthermore, the GDPR compliance analysis of our system was also evaluated to make sure that it complies with the GDPR principles (such as right to be forgotten, access control, conditions for consent, and breach notifications). The conducted analysis has confirmed that the proposed system offers capabilities to comply with the GDPR from an application standpoint.
  • Vulnerability of virtual assets to illicit financial flows

    V. Rysin; M. Rysin (Lviv Polytechnic National University, 2021-04-01)
    Over the last few years, virtual assets have become more widespread in the market, which has manifested itself both in the growth of transactions with them and in the rapid growth of the capitalization of the cryptocurrency market. The international community and individual governments have introduced regulations for the virtual asset market, but the degree of transparency remains low. This poses risks of using virtual assets as a tool for various schemes of money laundering or terrorist financing. The purpose of the article is to identify potential vulnerabilities of virtual currencies to the impact of shadow cash flows, as well as to assess existing approaches to regulating their circulation and prevent the use of these assets for money laundering purposes. The article highlights the standards developed in world practice for determining the legal status of virtual currencies and their state regulation, assesses the process of introducing regulation of the circulation of virtual assets in Ukraine. Imperfect regulation and insufficient experience in market monitoring lead to the vulnerability of virtual assets to their use in the movement of illicit cash flows, in particular in the schemes of money laundering. The authors identified some other vulnerabilities in virtual currencies, including the possibility of their use for financial fraud, tax evasion, instability of virtual currencies, limited control over their circulation, as well as the low level of protection of the rights of market participants. Overcoming these vulnerabilities requires a combination of public and private sector efforts, which should be aimed at creating safeguards for criminal capital to enter the virtual asset market, as well as to ensure market transparency and protect the interests of participants from potential losses and possible fraud. The virtual asset market is an innovative and promising segment of the financial market, so we consider the important task of its effective regulation to stimulate legal transactions and clearly separate them from illegal transactions
  • Amazon – An Infrastructure Service and Its Challenge to Current Antitrust Law

    Khan, Lina M. (Scholarship Archive, 2018-01-01)
    This chapter maps out facets of Amazon’s power. In particular, it traces the sources of Amazon’s growth and analyzes the potential effects of its dominance. Doing so enables us to make sense of the company’s business strategy and illuminates anticompetitive aspects of its structure and conduct. This analysis reveals that the current framework in antitrust — specifically its equating competition with “consumer welfare,” typically measured through short- term effects on price and output — fails to capture the architecture of market power in the 21st- century marketplace. In other words, the potential harms to competition posed by Amazon’s dominance are not cognizable if we assess competition primarily through price and output. Focusing on these metrics instead blinds us to the potential hazards. The chapter argues that gauging real competition in the 21st-century marketplace — especially in the case of online platforms — requires analyzing the underlying structure and dynamics of markets. Rather than pegging competition to a narrow set of outcomes, this approach would examine the competitive process itself. Animating this framework is the idea that a company’s power and the potential anticompetitive nature of that power cannot be fully understood without looking to the structure of a business and the structural role it plays in markets. Applying this idea involves, for example, assessing whether a company’s structure creates certain anticompetitive conflicts of interest; whether it can cross- leverage market advantages across distinct lines of business; and whether the structure of the market incentivizes and permits predatory conduct.
  • Real‐time prediction and ponding process early warning method at urban flood points based on different deep learning methods

    Yihong Zhou; Zening Wu; Mengmeng Jiang; Hongshi Xu; Denghua Yan; Huiliang Wang; Chentao He; Xiangyang Zhang (Wiley, 2024-03-01)
    Abstract Accurate prediction of urban floods is regarded as one of the critical means to prevent urban floods and reduce the losses caused by floods. In this study, a refined prediction and early warning method system for urban flood and waterlogging processes based on deep learning methods is proposed. The spatial autocorrelation of rain and ponding points is analyzed by Moran's I (a common used statistic for spatial autocorrelation). For each ponding point, the relationship model between the rainfall process and ponding process is constructed based on different deep learning methods, and the results are analyzed and verified by mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), Nash efficiency coefficient (NSE) and correlation coefficient (CC). The results show that the gradient boosting decision tree algorithm has the highest accuracy and efficiency (with a 0.001 m RMSE of the predicted and measured ponding depth) for ponding process prediction and is regarded as the most suitable method for ponding process prediction. Finally, the real‐time prediction and early warning of urban floods and waterlogging processes driven by rainfall forecast data are realized, and the results are verified by the measured data. The research results can provide theoretical support for urban flood prevention and control.
  • Approaches to Regulating Privacy Dark Patterns

    Gaulton, Matthew; Kelly, Dominique; Burkell, Jacquelyn (Scholarship@Western, 2024-03-15)
    In this paper, we will evaluate new bills slated to replace the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) and offer stronger privacy dark pattern protections to Canadians. Existing scholarship in the realm of privacy law, such as “Deceptive Design and Ongoing Consent in Privacy Law” by Jeremy Wiener and “Privacy Dark Patterns: A Case for Regulatory Reform in Canada” by Ademola Adeyoju, primarily focuses on creating frameworks for understanding privacy dark patterns in the law and explaining the pitfalls and legal inadequacies surrounding dark pattern legislation in Canada. However, the aim of this paper diverges significantly. While acknowledging the invaluable insights provided by these foundational works, the objective of this article is twofold: First, to offer a comprehensive review of multiple proposed legislative bills slated to replace PIPEDA in Canada; and second, to critically evaluate the effectiveness of these proposed changes, especially in comparison with more robust frameworks like California's Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) and the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which offer extensive protections against dark patterns. In doing so, this paper seeks to fill a gap in the existing literature by examining how proposed Canadian legislation measures up to international standards in protecting citizens from the pitfalls of dark patterns.
  • Post/pandemisches Leben: Eine neue Theorie der Fragilität

    Bayramoglu, Yener; Castro Varela, María do Mar (transcript VerlagDEUBielefeld, 2024-03-20)
    Die Corona-Pandemie und der damit einhergehende "Ausnahmezustand" bieten die Gelegenheit, Normativitäten infrage zu stellen, aber auch einen Blick in die Zukunft zu werfen. Mit ihrer neuen Theorie der Fragilität verdeutlichen Yener Bayramoglu und María do Mar Castro Varela, dass es im Sinne sozialer Gerechtigkeit weniger um eine Akzeptanz heterogener Lebensweisen gehen sollte als vielmehr um die Beachtung und Akzeptanz von Vulnerabilitäten, die strukturell befördert und stabilisiert werden. Ihr Ansatz bringt unterschiedliche Perspektiven aus Ethik, Politik und Kunst zusammen und bietet - u.a. im Kontext von Digitalität, Rassismus und Solidarität - die Möglichkeit, die Pandemie anders zu evaluieren.
  • Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Activities of Religious Associations and Control Over Them

    S. S. Popova (Kazan Innovative University named after V.G. Timiryasov, 2024-03-01)
    Objective: to identify gaps and formulate proposals on legal regulation of the use of artificial intelligence in the activities of religious associations and control (supervision) over them.Methods: the study is based on sectoral and risk-oriented approaches, formal-logical and comparative general scientific methods, as well as on the method of legal forecasting.Results: the author noted similarity of ethical principles formulated all over the world in the sphere of artificial intelligence development and application, as well as their general shortcomings, namely, the lacking consideration of the specificity in certain spheres of human life (religious sphere), cultural peculiarities, historical development of a country and people. The shortcomings of principles stipulated by the codes of ethics include their recommendatory nature, which creates a basis for abusing them in certain cases. The author proposes that if control and supervisory authorities caused harm while using artificial intelligence, the relevant public authority should be recognized as liable and obliged to compensate for the harm caused.Scientific novelty: the paper summarizes the practice of religious associations using AI, formulates current and prospective directions of the use of artificial intelligence by religious associations, and makes proposals for the AI use in controlling (supervising) religious associations’ activities.Practical significance: the main conclusions and proposals can be used for the improvement of legislation on religious associations’ activities and control (supervision) over them, as well as for developing legal regulation of the AI use in control and supervision activities. The author identified the possibilities for religious associations using AI to popularize religion, inform about their activities, manage property, analyze sacred texts to improve their understanding and interpretation, as well as for conducting scientific research, systematization and accumulation of information, preservation of cultural heritage, and educational activities. The use of artificial intelligence in controlling the religious associations’ activities can reduce the period of religious organizations’ registration and inspections and optimize the work of control bodies, including by monitoring the religious situation.
  • Public versus private aca-fan identities and platforms: An academic dialogue

    Gonzales, Yvonne; Oon, Celeste (Organization for Transformative Works, 2024-03-14)
    This conversation between Yvonne Gonzales and Celeste Oon examines the difference between two contrasting fan experiences and identities. Through an exploratory academic dialogue, the authors aim to start a discussion on the ways in which our online selves and our IRL selves interact to create unique identities as both fans and scholars across, between, and within social platforms.
  • The market, the regulator, and the government: Making a blockchain ecosystem in the Netherlands

    Inês Faria (Cambridge University Press, 2021-01-01)
    This article presents a socio-anthropological analysis of the formation of a business ecosystem around blockchain technology in the Netherlands, within the broader context of the European Union and the digital single market. I argue that while reproducing widespread global models of business group and network formation, the relations created by these networks also reveal particularities of local business and governance cultures. Such particularities emerge from the pragmatics of collaboration and competitive market relationships, as well as legal heterogeneity and plans for legal harmonisation in digital innovation and governance in Europe. They also emerge from the challenges and transformations that current experimentation cultures for digital innovation bring to the interactions between market players, regulators, and government. These challenges and transformations materialise in increasingly informal connections and strategies for experimental legitimisation, which occur in parallel to more formal and traditional forms of regulatory and governmental interaction. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Netherlands and in online terrains, including observation periods and 32 interviews with entrepreneurial project teams, as well as with individuals involved in financial incumbents’ innovation labs.
  • Three novel machine learning-based adaptive controllers for a photovoltaic shunt active power filter performance enhancement

    Asmae Azzam Jai; Mohammed Ouassaid (Elsevier, 2024-06-01)
    This study develops three new machine learning-based algorithms using the SVR prediction approach. The overall objective is to enhance the performance of the PV shunt active power filter (PV-SAPF) in order to successfully fulfil its multi-functionality in terms of PV power generation along with power quality upgrades. The first technique, named ''SVR-INC MPPT'', incorporates an ML-based duty cycle prediction function, which is intended to speed up the MPP finding process. The algorithm then switches to the INC approach, guaranteeing an accurate steady-state response. The second and third techniques are the ML-based Adaline for DC voltage regulation, and the ML-based Adaline SRF strategy for reference currents generation. The adopted approaches are based on the prediction of two weights performing the actions of the proportional and integral of DC voltage controller, and nine weights for the fundamental currant extraction. The advantage lies in overcoming the Adaline-based algorithm's limitations, requiring an on-line large number of iterations. Three simulation scenarios along with six controllers based on classical and intelligent techniques, are adopted to prove the effectiveness of the proposed ML-controllers. The results display (i) an accurate and immediate ML-based harmonics identification (minimizing the extraction error by up to 99% compared to the Adaline approach). (ii) a response time reduction range from 65% to 100%, of the ML-based DC voltage output controller compared to the PI-based one. (iii) a THD range from 2.41% to 4.45%. (iv) 20 ms and 0% of PV power response time and overshoot, respectively (v) DC voltage overshoot range from 0.04% to 1.1%. Consequently, these three ML-based controllers offer the best options for a powerful PV-SAPF system in terms of performance tracking and harmonic attenuation. Moreover, the obtained metrics comply with IEEE-519 standard.
  • REGULAMENTAÇÃO DO USO DE INTELIGÊNCIA ARTIFICIAL GENERATIVA: UM BREVE ESTUDO ACERCA DO CONTEXTO EDUCACIONAL

    Weider Silva Pinheiro (Zenodo, 2024-03-26)
    <p>O advento e a popularização das inteligências artificiais generativas, ocorridas a partir de 2022, trouxe à tona discussões acerca das possibilidades trazidas por essas tecnologias, e tendo em vista os diversos usos possíveis de ferramentas como o ChatGPT, principalmente no que tange o contexto educacional brasileiro e o impacto na educação de crianças e jovens, a regulamentação das IA’s se torna cada vez mais urgente. A aparente qualidade e confiabilidade dos textos gerados por IA’s generativas, a possibilidade de ofensa à direitos autorais, a baixa originalidade e autenticidade das produções, assim como sua capacidade de criar informações totalmente fabricadas de forma a cumprir a tarefa dada pelo usuário e seu o potencial de disseminação de desinformação alertam para a necessidade de regulamentação, podendo prejudicar estudantes em todos os estágios de sua vida escolar e acadêmica — desde o correto desenvolvimento de pensamento crítico à aspectos éticos. O projeto de lei n° 2.338/23 visa mitigar possíveis riscos e vieses do uso da IA, não deixando à cargo do usuário a verificação dos conteúdos produzidos e informações dadas por tais ferramentas, ou à cargo do professor a correta utilização da tecnologia. Porém é preciso ainda lançar atenção ao abismo social existente no Brasil, pois o cenário que se vislumbra é de aumento exponencial da precarização do ensino e a marginalização de grupos que sequer adentraram completamente ou suficientemente, no mundo digital.</p>
  • ChatGPT impacta en el mercado laboral. Aproximación a chatGPT y estudio sobre su impacto en los procesos de búsqueda de empleo y selección de personal.

    Bachs Ferrer, Jorge; Diouan Aarab, Wahiba (2024-03-20)
    Treballs Finals del Grau de d'Administració i Direcció d'Empreses, Facultat d'Economia i Empresa, Universitat de Barcelona, Curs: 2022-2023, Tutor: Jorge Bachs Ferrer
  • A Systematic Review of How Cloud Infrastructure and GDPR have affected Digital Investigations in a Multinational Business Context

    Fraser, Stuart; Portillo-Dominguez, A.Omar (Technological University Dublin, 2022-01-01)
    With cloud infrastructure becoming an ever more popular platform for business network implementations, and with ever-tightening data protection regulation, the ability to carry out digital investigations has become more difficult. This has led to areas of research that have looked to restore the balance to digital investigations in this environment. These areas include the use of blockchain, data tracing, and digital forensics as a service. With so many methods to consider, this article looks at how each method aims to return the balance and make it possible to carry out an investigation that complies with new privacy regulations (e.g., the General Data Protection Regulation -GDPR-) by performing a systematic literature review of those areas. During the study, it was noted that, although blockchain appears to be a popular choice for data collection and transfer, it is disputed as to its ability to be GDPR-compliant. Factors such as over-processing and the inability to have a defined data processor are just some of the factors that dispute blockchains compliance. Indeed, there is no real one-fits-all solution to the issues faced when carrying out digital investigations. Furthermore, any potential solution appears to have to be an amalgamation of several methods. Such a hybrid approach might allow for GDPR-compliant data collection with a secure and immutable chain of custody. Thus, rendering any evidence collected admissible in a court of law, while also maintaining regulatory requirements.
  • ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND CULTURAL HERITAGE: DESIGN AND ASSESSMENT OF AN ETHICAL FRAMEWORK

    Pansoni, S.; Tiribelli, S.; Paolanti, M.; Di Stefano, F.; Frontoni, E.; Malinverni, E. S.; Giovanola, B.; Pansoni, S.; Tiribelli, S.; Paolanti, M.; et al. (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensingcountry:DEUplace:Hannover, 2023)
    The pioneering use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in various fields and sectors, and the growing ethical debate about its application have led research centers, public and private institutions to establish ethical guidelines for a trustworthy implementation of these powerful algorithms. Despite the recognized definition of ethical principles for a responsible or trustworthy use of AI, there is a lack of a sector-specific perspective that highlights the ethical risks and opportunities for different areas of application, especially in the field of Cultural Heritage (CH). In fact, there is still a lack of formal frameworks that evaluate the algorithms' adherence to the ethical standards set by the European Union for the use of AI in protecting CH and its inherent value. Because of this, it is necessary to investigate a different sectoral viewpoint to supplement the widely used horizontal approach. This paper represents a first attempt to design an ethical framework to embody AI in CH conservation practises to assess various risks arising from the use of AI in the field of CH. The contribution presents a synthesis of the different AI applications to improve the preservation process of CH. It explores and analyses in depth the ethical challenges and opportunities presented by the use of AI to improve CH preservation. In addition, the study aims to design an ethical framework of principles to assess the application of this ground-breaking technology at CH.
  • All The News That’s Fit To Be Identified: Facilitating Access To High-Quality News Through Internet Platforms

    West, Sonja R; Peters, Jonathan; Anastasopolous, Lefteris Jason (Digital Commons @ University of Georgia School of Law, 2023-08-25)
    Roughly half of Americans get some of their news from social media, and nearly two-thirds get some of their news from search engines. As our modern information gatekeepers, these internet companies bear a special responsibility to consider the impact of their platform and site policies on users’ access to high-quality news sources. They should adopt policies that clear the digital pathway between the public and press by facilitating such access. To that end, the companies must first, address the threshold issue of how best to identify high-quality news sources. This article examines factors that would be useful, drawing from legal and scholarly sources (e.g., statutes and law review articles) that evaluate the characteristics of journalism and the people who produce it. We relate those sources to the current policies of major internet platforms and the public interest in timely and trustworthy news.
  • Vom »oikos« zum Cyberspace

    Mönig, Julia Maria (transcript Verlag, 2024-03-14)
    Warum sind unsere Daten und das Private schützenswert? Diese Frage stellt sich insbesondere in Zeiten der vierten Industriellen Revolution, des Internets der Dinge und des politischen Wandels. Julia Maria Mönig zeigt, dass Hannah Arendts Anliegen, das Private unbedingt zu bewahren, von ihrem Verständnis des antiken Haushalts bis hin zur Verletzung der informationellen Privatheit im Totalitarismus aufschlussreiche Einsichten in aktuelle Debatten - etwa über Cybermobbing - liefert. Das Buch richtet sich an Philosoph_innen ebenso wie an Datenschützer_innen und Privatheitsforscher_innen verschiedener Disziplinen sowie an alle, die sich über die Zukunft und Gegenwart der Demokratie Gedanken machen.

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