Cyber: Prefix used to form many words relating to the use of the Internet. “Cyber ethics aims to provide orientation on what is right and wrong, good and bad, related to the cyber space” (Stückelberger, C. / Duggal, P. (Eds.), Cyber Ethics 4.0: Serving Humanity with Values, Geneva: Globethics.net, 2018, cover text). The Globethics.net cyber ethics collection aims at gathering all most important sources on this matter. The content in the library is available in multiple languages and is mainly harvested from a wide variety of open access repositories. A limited set of manually submitted documents complete this collection, adding a plus value of carefully selected content.

Recent Submissions

  • Personal Data Security in South Africa’s Financial Services Market: The Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 and the European Union General Data Protection Regulation Compared

    Warikandwa, Tapiwa V (Faculty of Law, North-West University, South Africa, 2021-05-21)
    The contemporary global financial services market has witnessed a substantial increase in cybercrime which places consumers’ personal data at risk. Rapid increases in cybercrime linked to the financial services market have driven financial market regulators to pass novel laws and regulations aimed at curbing the rate of occurrence of cybercrimes connected to personal data sharing. To that end, banks and/or financial services companies in Europe have swiftly moved to comply with the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation. Whilst personal data protection regulation is not a new concept in Europe, most African countries (with exception of South Africa) do not have laws and regulations on personal data protection. With the financial services market being extremely vulnerable to cyber risks owing to the digitisation of the financial services sector, it is important to assess the suitability of South Africa’s current regulatory framework concerning the protection of personal data. This article thus examines South Africa’s Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 with a view to ascertaining its suitability and/or adequacy in protecting personal data in the country’s financial services market. With the global Covid-19 pandemic bringing about concerns related to rapid increases in cyber-attacks in the financial services market owing to the increased sharing of the sensitive personal data of consumers, there is also need to test the POPIA’s conformity with the strict European Union GDPR personal data protection guidelines.  
  • Mutual Recognition in Human-Robot Interaction : A Deflationary Account

    Brinck, Ingar; Balkenius, Christian (Springer, 2020-03)
    Mutually adaptive interaction involves the robot as a partner as opposed to a tool, and requires that the robot is susceptible to similar environmental cues and behavior patterns as humans are. Recognition, or the acknowledgement of the other as person, is fundamental to mutually adaptive interaction between humans. We discuss what embodied recognition involves and its behavioral manifestations, and describe the benefits of implementing it in HRI.
  • Contracting for Algorithmic Accountability

    Coglianese, Cary; Lampmann, Erik (Penn Law: Legal Scholarship Repository, 2021-01-01)
    As local, state, and federal governments increase their reliance on artificial intelligence (AI) decision-making tools designed and operated by private contractors, so too do public concerns increase over the accountability and transparency of such AI tools. But current calls to respond to these concerns by banning governments from using AI will only deny society the benefits that prudent use of such technology can provide. In this Article, we argue that government agencies should pursue a more nuanced and effective approach to governing the governmental use of AI by structuring their procurement contracts for AI tools and services in ways that promote responsible use of algorithms. By contracting for algorithmic accountability, government agencies can act immediately, without any need for new legislation, to reassure the public that governmental use of machine-learning algorithms will be deployed responsibly. Furthermore, unlike with the adoption of legislation, a contracting approach to AI governance can be tailored to meet the needs of specific agencies and particular uses. Contracting can also provide a means for government to foster improved deployment of AI in the private sector, as vendors that serve government agencies may shift their practices more generally to foster responsible AI practices with their private sector clients. As a result, we argue that government procurement officers and agency officials should consider several key governance issues in their contract negotiations with AI vendors. Perhaps the most fundamental issue relates to vendors’ claims to trade secret protection—an issue that we show can be readily addressed during the procurement process. Government contracts can be designed to balance legitimate protection of proprietary information with the vital public need for transparency about the design and operation of algorithmic systems used by government agencies. We further urge consideration in government contracting of other key governance issues, including data privacy and security, the use of algorithmic impact statements or audits, and the role for public participation in the development of AI systems. In an era of increasing governmental reliance on artificial intelligence, public contracting can serve as an important and tractable governance strategy to promote the responsible use of algorithmic tools.
  • An ontic–ontological theory for ethics of designing social robots : a case of Black African women and humanoids

    Lamola, M.J. (John) (Springer, 2021-05-24)
    Given the affective psychological and cognitive dynamics prevalent during human–robot-interlocution, the vulnerability to cultural-political influences of the design aesthetics of a social humanoid robot has far-reaching ramifications. Building upon this hypothesis, I explicate the relationship between the structures of the constitution social ontology and computational semiotics, and ventures a theoretical framework which I proposes as a thesis that impels a moral responsibility on engineers of social humanoids. In distilling this thesis, the implications of the intersection between the socio-aesthetics of racialised and genderised humanoids and the phenomenology of human–robot-interaction are illuminated by the figuration of the experience of a typical black rural African woman as the user, that is, an interlocutor with an industry-standard socially-situated humanlike robot. The representation of the gravity of the psycho-existential and socio-political ramifications of such woman’s life with humanoids is abstracted and posited as grounds that illustrate the imperative for roboticists to take socio-ethical considerations seriously in their designs of humanoids.
  • Explainable Reinforcement Learning for Risk Mitigation in Human-Robot Collaboration Scenarios

    Iucci, Alessandro (KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), 2021)
    Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms are highly popular in the robotics field to solve complex problems, learn from dynamic environments and generate optimal outcomes. However, one of the main limitations of RL is the lack of model transparency. This includes the inability to provide explanations of why the output was generated. The explainability becomes even more crucial when RL outputs influence human decisions, such as in Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) scenarios, where safety requirements should be met. This work focuses on the application of two explainability techniques, “Reward Decomposition” and “Autonomous Policy Explanation”, on a RL algorithm which is the core of a risk mitigation module for robots’ operation in a collaborative automated warehouse scenario. The “Reward Decomposition” gives an insight into the factors that impacted the robot’s choice by decomposing the reward function into sub-functions. It also allows creating Minimal Sufficient Explanation (MSX), sets of relevant reasons for each decision taken during the robot’s operation. The second applied technique, “Autonomous Policy Explanation”, provides a global overview of the robot’s behavior by answering queries asked by human users. It also provides insights into the decision guidelines embedded in the robot’s policy. Since the synthesis of the policy descriptions and the queries’ answers are in natural language, this tool facilitates algorithm diagnosis even by non-expert users. The results proved that there is an improvement in the RL algorithm which now chooses more evenly distributed actions and a full policy to the robot’s decisions is produced which is for the most part aligned with the expectations. The work provides an analysis of the results of the application of both techniques which both led to increased transparency of the robot’s decision process. These explainability methods not only built trust in the robot’s choices, which proved to be among the optimal ones in most of the cases but also made it possible to find weaknesses in the robot’s policy, making them a tool helpful for debugging purposes. 
  • Security and privacy solutions for smart healthcare systems

    Lu, Yang; SINNOTT, RICHARD (Academic Press, 2020-11-15)
    Smart healthcare can benefit patients and care providers. However, several challenges exist related to security and privacy. Security solutions have been developed to protect e-health users and medical databases; however, systematic guidelines and implementation are not rolled out in smart healthcare systems. Smart healthcare systems have specific demands when addressing security and privacy issues. From the conceptual perspective, we explored research activities related to authentication, access control, and deidentification and focus especially on key functions and features identified in electronic healthcare systems.
  • Blockchain and public procurement

    Carvalho, Raquel (2021-05-24)
    Public procurement relies in an apparent irreconcilability between competition, which implies some confidentiality, and transparency. The latest Public Procurement Directives have made e-procurement a mandatory feature. Since blockchain technology has been developed and designed to accomplish integrity, transparency, efficiency and data accuracy, goals which are very much appreciated in public procurement, an interesting question then arises: is there room to apply this technology within public procurement procedures? Will smart contracts be an interesting tool within public procurement? Considering public duties such as data protection, which must be complied with by contracting authorities, and some blockchain features such as non-withdrawable information and the likely broad access to the information there enclosed, one can be drawn to conclude that there is no possible conciliation between these two procedures. The mandatory e-procurement implies some neighbouring problems with this technology. Yet, are there any technological solutions for some of the drawbacks?
  • Who to kill? The dilemma of driverless cars - Expert reaction

    Mason CE; Mason, Carolyn (Science Media Centre, Royal Society of New Zealand, 2021-05-26)
  • Expanding the toolbox:Assessing methods for local outdoor recreation planning

    Komossa, Franziska; Wartmann, Flurina M.; Verburg, Peter H. (2021-08)
    <
  • Expanding the toolbox:Assessing methods for local outdoor recreation planning

    Komossa, Franziska; Wartmann, Flurina M.; Verburg, Peter H. (2021-08)
    <
  • Effects of amusing memes on concern for unappealing species

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Pjoter; Mazur, Błażej; Sutherland, William; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Moroń, Dawid; Meijaard, Erik; Possingham, Hugh P.; Wilson, Kerrie A. (Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2020-10-01)
    There is limited knowledge of the mechanisms that can inspire people's concern and engagement in the protection of unpopular and unappealing species. We analyzed Polish people's interest in themed internet memes featuring the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) and the consequences of this interest for conservation marketing. We examined Google Trends data, used Google Search, and searched popular media materials to estimate interest in the proboscis monkey in Poland. Photos of the proboscis monkey when presented with humor in internet memes attracted as much interest as usually more popular species (e.g., koala, panda, and orangutan) used in marketing by nongovernmental organizations. Amusing internet memes spread by social media positively correlated with increasing interest in the unappealing species, such as proboscis monkey. Interest in amusing internet memes positively correlated with individuals’ decisions to donate to 6 crowdfunding actions. Thus, conservation marketing that includes amusing memes and social media may provide a worthwhile complement to traditional campaigns and are likely to influence individuals who are unaffected by the usual means.
  • A regulação tributária da economia digital uma análise à luz do caso da tributação do serviço de transporte por aplicativo

    Salinas, Natasha Schmitt Caccia; Fossati, Gustavo Schneider; Escolas::DIREITO RIO; Jordão, Eduardo; Paula, Daniel Giotti de; McClaskey, Layla Salles (2021-05-26)
    Com o advento de uma série de mudanças relacionadas à informação nas relações socioeconômicas, tais como aquelas atreladas ao surgimento de arquétipos tecnológicos e de plataformas digitais, foi possível vislumbrar a conformação de cenário econômico digital marcado por modelos e estratégias de negócios capazes de colocar os diversos sistemas jurídicos de frente com novos paradigmas. Quanto à tributação, como também no que concerne aos diversos espectros de normatização pelos Estados, paira no ar a sensação de que uma aparente dificuldade de subsunção dos novos fatos econômicos e bases mercadológicas digitais aos regramentos jurídicos do contexto de uma economia industrial tem sido capaz de provocar perda de receita fiscal e rearranjo de direitos tributários pelo mundo, de forma a promover debates por organizações como a Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE) e o Grupo dos Vinte (G20). Em relação ao Brasil, a situação parece não ser diferente, o que justifica a análise da produção normativa realizada no país com relação às atividades econômicas da era digital, a exemplo dos serviços protagonistas do contexto digital, como o serviço de transporte por aplicativo. Assim, tendo-se em mente a histórica complexidade do sistema tributário brasileiro e a urgência por mudanças imposta pelo contexto digital, é levada a cabo a proposta de cotejo das normas tributárias editadas para os serviços de transporte por aplicativo, e disponibilizadas pela União, Estados, Distrito Federal e Municípios brasileiros, com os parâmetros definidos pela literatura econômica para uma tributação ótima. Para tanto, partindo-se de conceito inédito de regulação tributária, o presente trabalho tem como intuito averiguar se o atual ordenamento jurídico-tributário brasileiro oferece respostas regulatórias alinhadas com os objetivos constitucionais de incentivo das atividades econômicas, propondo-se, com isso, medidas de unificação das espécies tributárias, de alargamento de bases tributárias e de ajustes no processo de produção de normas para um melhor controle dos efeitos da tributação sobre a economia digital.
  • Blockchain for Digital Health: Prospects and Challenges

    Evangelatos, N.; Ozdemir, V.; Brand, A. (2020-05-01)
  • The Democratization of Artificial Intelligence: Net Politics in the Era of Learning Algorithms

    Sudmann, Andreas (transcript VerlagDEUBielefeld, 2021-05-27)
    After a long time of neglect, Artificial Intelligence is once again at the center of most of our political, economic, and socio-cultural debates. Recent advances in the field of Artifical Neural Networks have led to a renaissance of dystopian and utopian speculations on an AI-rendered future. Algorithmic technologies are deployed for identifying potential terrorists through vast surveillance networks, for producing sentencing guidelines and recidivism risk profiles in criminal justice systems, for demographic and psychographic targeting of bodies for advertising or propaganda, and more generally for automating the analysis of language, text, and images. Against this background, the aim of this book is to discuss the heterogenous conditions, implications, and effects of modern AI and Internet technologies in terms of their political dimension: What does it mean to critically investigate efforts of net politics in the age of machine learning algorithms?
  • Secret Surveillance Scores: Pay No Attention to What’s Behind the Curtain

    College of Law; Piper Geber, Allison (Northern Illinois University Law Review, 2021-05-25)
    This Comment discusses the potential and actual misuse of consumers’ secret surveillance scores in e-commerce, employment, and housing situations, as evidenced in a 2019 FTC complaint. The calculation and use of these secret surveillance scores are currently unregulated. The Comment presents two main arguments: First, secret surveillance scores are equivalent to credit scores used in the financial credit reporting industry and should thus undergo similar regulation. Second, the collection of consumer data points to calculate secret surveillance scores highlights the need for broad, nationwide consumer digital data privacy legislation. The collection and use of secret surveillance scores are akin to the collection and use of credit scores in the financial credit reporting industry. Therefore, the secret surveillance scores should be regulated in a similar fashion by the same regulating bodies. Regulatory oversight will ensure protections for consumers from the consideration of sensitive demographic characteristics in score calculations. There also exist model digital data privacy laws that empower consumers to control the data points collected about them online. The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation and the California Consumer Privacy Act both serve as solid foundations for broader nation-wide legislation to protect consumer digital data information. The ideal solution would realize and implement both arguments to protect consumers in an emerging digital commercial industry.
  • Rechtliche Vorgaben für die Gestaltung von Software öffentlich-rechtlicher Medienplattformen: gesetzliche und verfassungsrechtliche Programmaufträge und deren Abbildbarkeit in Strukturen, Verfahren und Code

    Leibniz-Institut für Medienforschung | Hans-Bredow-Institut (HBI); Rhein, Valerie; Dreyer, Stephan; Schulz, Wolfgang (DEUHamburg, 2021-05-27)
    Das interdisziplinäre Projekt "Coding Public Value" untersucht die Möglichkeit, Medienpolitik mithilfe der Entwicklung von Software zu gestalten. Im Kern geht es darum, Ansätze und Methoden der Softwareentwicklung für öffentlich-rechtliche Medienplattformen zu untersuchen, die nicht nur Geschäftsmodellen dienen, sondern sich am Gemeinwohl orientieren und medienrechtliche Regulierungen berücksichtigen. Das vom bidt geförderte Projekt bindet dazu in einem interdisziplinären Verbund Science &amp; Technology Studies, Kommunikationswissenschaft, Rechtswissenschaft und Software Engineering zusammen. Mehr unter: https://leibniz-hbi.de/de/projekte/coding-public-value.
  • The Ethical Gravity Thesis: Marrian Levels and the Persistence of Bias in Automated Decision-making Systems

    Kasirzadeh, Atoosa; Klein, Colin (ACM, 2021)
    Computers are used to make decisions in an increasing number of domains. There is widespread agreement that some of these uses are ethically problematic. Far less clear is where ethical problems arise, and what might be done about them. This paper expands and defends the Ethical Gravity Thesis: ethical problems that arise at higher levels of analysis of an automated decision-making system are inherited by lower levels of analysis. Particular instantiations of systems can add new problems, but not ameliorate more general ones. We defend this thesis by adapting Marr's famous 1982 framework for understanding information-processing systems. We show how this framework allows one to situate ethical problems at the appropriate level of abstraction, which in turn can be used to target appropriate interventions.
  • Catalyzing Privacy Law

    Chander, Anupam; Kaminski, Margot E.; McGeveran, William (Colorado Law Scholarly Commons, 2021-01-01)
    The United States famously lacks a comprehensive federal data privacy law. In the past year, however, over half the states have proposed broad privacy bills or have established task forces to propose possible privacy legislation. Meanwhile, congressional committees are holding hearings on multiple privacy bills. What is catalyzing this legislative momentum? Some believe that Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which came into force in 2018, is the driving factor. But with the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) which took effect in January 2020, California has emerged as an alternate contender in the race to set the new standard for privacy. Our close comparison of the GDPR and California’s privacy law reveals that the California law is not GDPR-lite: it retains a fundamentally American approach to information privacy. Reviewing the literature on regulatory competition, we argue that California, not Brussels, is catalyzing privacy law across the United States. And what is happening is not a simple story of powerful state actors. It is more accurately characterized as the result of individual networked norm entrepreneurs, influenced and even empowered by data globalization. Our study helps explain the puzzle of why Europe’s data privacy approach failed to spur US legislation for over two decades. Finally, our study answers critical questions of practical interest to individuals—who will protect my privacy?—and to businesses—whose rules should I follow?
  • Estratégias e política de comunicação em universidades federais brasileiras: uma análise do uso do Facebook

    Grützmann, André; Freire, André Pimenta; Silva, Sivaldo Pereira da; Caetano, Camila de Souza (Universidade Federal de LavrasPrograma de Pós-Graduação em Administração PúblicaUFLAbrasilDepartamento de Administração e Economia, 2021-05-24)
    Communication Policy is an essential instrument of dialogue and relationship. It allows the&#xd; organization to direct all its work in the area of communication in a participatory manner. This&#xd; study aimed to understand how Brazilian federal universities have built their communication&#xd; policies. In this process, the institutions have been taken social media into account, especially&#xd; Facebook. This study has seven stages: identification of universities with Communication&#xd; Policy; identification of universities' online performance; participation of universities on&#xd; Facebook; analysis of Communication Policies; interview with key university people;&#xd; interpretation of data and confrontation with theory and elaboration of a technical manual. The&#xd; different angles of analysis collaborated in solving the problem of this research. Despite the&#xd; relevance of a Strategic Communication Policy, even as a guide in managers' decision-making&#xd; process, this study found that less than a quarter of federal universities had such a formalized&#xd; document, reinforcing this research's importance. Regarding the Strategic Communication&#xd; Policies analyzed in this research, innovation, technology, social networks, and social media&#xd; are still few addressed. It is worth noting that the universities that more explored social media&#xd; content are the ones that presented the best results in public communication and public&#xd; participation indexes on Facebook after implementing the Strategic Communication Policy.&#xd; This research also provides a manual with guidelines for those institutions willing to implement&#xd; a strategic instrument. Such practice could strengthen the organization's image and improve&#xd; visibility, credibility, and confidence before its stakeholders. Also, in institutionalizing a&#xd; Strategic Communication Policy, it is possible to evaluate the different subjects that relate to&#xd; the organization and obtain a greater rapprochement with these actors.

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