Cyber: Prefix used to form many words relating to the use of the Internet. “Cyber ethics aims to provide orientation on what is right and wrong, good and bad, related to the cyber space” (Stückelberger, C. / Duggal, P. (Eds.), Cyber Ethics 4.0 : Serving Humanity with Values, Geneva: Globethics, 2018). The Globethics cyber ethics collection aims at gathering all most important sources on this matter. The content in the library is available in multiple languages and is mainly harvested from a wide variety of open access repositories. A limited set of manually submitted documents complete this collection, adding a plus value of carefully selected content.
The Potential Harms of Algorithmic-Based Management and Decision Making in the WorkplaceWith the rising digitization of workplaces for white-collar professionals in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, many wonder about the future of work, given the large shift to work-from-home options. How can employers maintain productivity levels for workers who are now amidst a home full of distractions, away from the dull cubicles of the office spaces in city centers. Algorithmic-based management is one solution that some are suggesting. I argue the ethical concerns for restricting people's freedom in the way they perform work. Ultimately, micromanagement by algorithms will result in a more stressful work environment and is an over-optimization to the point of failure to achieve the original goal of more productivity. The two main arguments I bring up will be regarding the value of self-advocacy and the need for a feedback loop when decisions affecting you are made, and the right to explanation, which is the right to have an explanation for the output of an algorithm. This second point also focuses on the lack of transparency and accountability of such algorithms, which are often created as black boxes.
Ensuring Privacy of Participants Recruited via Social Media: An Australian Retrospective Visualisation and RoadmapResearchers worldwide are increasingly looking to recruit research participants via social media (particularly @Facebook and @Twitter) because they appear to offer access to a wider range of research participants and afford inherently convenient tools for recruitment. In Australia, the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, together with the federal Privacy law and a number of state-based privacy statutes, provide support and guidance for this novel approach. This article offers a preliminary analysis and discussion of this trend from an Australian perspective, illustrated by an enquiry into the ethical challenges posed by social media-based recruitment, conducted in an Australian university in 2015. Leximancer™ was used as an analytical tool and the content from social media sites used for a small number of research studies conducted up to 2015, taken in conjunction with the various national human research ethics guidelines, offered a means of understanding how ethical challenges of privacy and anonymity can be addressed for responsible social media-based research.
Ensuring privacy of participants recruited via social media: an Australian retrospective visualisation and roadmapResearchers worldwide are increasingly looking to recruit research participants via social media (particularly @Facebook and @Twitter) because they appear to offer access to a wider range of research participants and afford inherently convenient tools for recruitment. In Australia, the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, together with the federal Privacy law and a number of state-based privacy statutes, provide support and guidance for this novel approach. This article offers a preliminary analysis and discussion of this trend from an Australian perspective, illustrated by an enquiry into the ethical challenges posed by social media-based recruitment, conducted in an Australian university in 2015. Leximancer™ was used as an analytical tool and the content from social media sites used for a small number of research studies conducted up to 2015, taken in conjunction with the various national human research ethics guidelines, offered a means of understanding how ethical challenges of privacy and anonymity can be addressed for responsible social media-based research.
Holding Large Language Models to AccountIf Large Language Models can make real scientific contributions, then they can genuinely use language, be systematically wrong, and be held responsible for their errors. AI models which can make scientific contributions thereby meet the criteria for scientific authorship.
Biometric Identification, Law and EthicsThis book undertakes a multifaceted and integrated examination of biometric identification, including the current state of the technology, how it is being used, the key ethical issues, and the implications for law and regulation. The five chapters examine the main forms of contemporary biometrics–fingerprint recognition, facial recognition and DNA identification– as well the integration of biometric data with other forms of personal data, analyses key ethical concepts in play, including privacy, individual autonomy, collective responsibility, and joint ownership rights, and proposes a raft of principles to guide the regulation of biometrics in liberal democracies. Biometric identification technology is developing rapidly and being implemented more widely, along with other forms of information technology. As products, services and communication moves online, digital identity and security is becoming more important. Biometric identification facilitates this transition. Citizens now use biometrics to access a smartphone or obtain a passport; law enforcement agencies use biometrics in association with CCTV to identify a terrorist in a crowd, or identify a suspect via their fingerprints or DNA; and companies use biometrics to identify their customers and employees. In some cases the use of biometrics is governed by law, in others the technology has developed and been implemented so quickly that, perhaps because it has been viewed as a valuable security enhancement, laws regulating its use have often not been updated to reflect new applications. However, the technology associated with biometrics raises significant ethical problems, including in relation to individual privacy, ownership of biometric data, dual use and, more generally, as is illustrated by the increasing use of biometrics in authoritarian states such as China, the potential for unregulated biometrics to undermine fundamental principles of liberal democracy. Resolving these ethical problems is a vital step towards more effective regulation.
Ensuring Privacy of Participants In Social Media Based Research: an Australian perspectiveBackground: Content analysis offers an effective approach to inquiring into ethical challenges in social media based research. Content from social media sites used for the small number of research studies conducted to date, taken in conjunction with the various national human research ethics guidelines, offer a means of understanding how ethical challenges of privacy and anonymity can be (and are being) addressed for responsible social media-based research. Objective: The paper explores the ways in which privacy/anonymity of participants can be ensured in social media-based research in the Australian context. Using the notion of trust and privacy within a set of selected social media channels through which participants are recruited for specific research studies, we initially identify what is being done and analyse the effectiveness of these approaches. Subsequently, we seek to identify emerging avenues of exploration and offer strategies for enhanced efficacy. Methods: Content analysis was used to examine a purposive sample of ethics applications where social media had been utilised for participant recruitment. Parameters for ensuring privacy and anonymity of participants were analysed and compared against the track record of specific social media platforms on ensuring privacy and anonymity to validate the claim. In addition, we analysed parameters instituted specifically by Australian universities as well as the national Privacy Law protection measures. Results: The content analysis uncovered challenges that need to be addressed in the Australian context, if social media-based research is to be used effectively for recruitment of research participants. This paper focuses on the Australian experience, but provides insights to the application of a similar approach in, for example, the USA. Canada or the European Union. Conclusions: Content analysis and information visualisation exploiting visual analytics techniques with a purposive sample, within a specific country (Australia) has provided insights that can help in understanding what is being done and what needs to be done to address the ethical challenges in social media research - initially, from an Australian perspective.
The seven troubles with norm-compliant robotsMany researchers from robotics, machine ethics, and adjacent fields seem to assume that norms represent good behavior that social robots should learn to benefit their users and society. We would like to complicate this view and present seven key troubles with norm-compliant robots: (1) norm biases, (2) paternalism (3) tyrannies of the majority, (4) pluralistic ignorance, (5) paths of least resistance, (6) outdated norms, and (7) technologically-induced norm change. Because discussions of why norm-compliant robots can be problematic are noticeably absent from the robot and machine ethics literature, this paper fills an important research gap. We argue that it is critical for researchers to take these issues into account if they wish to make norm-compliant robots.
Diskursarchitekturen deutscher NachrichtenseitenViele Redaktionen haben in den vergangenen Jahren Maßnahmen ergriffen, um ausfallenden Nutzerbeiträgen, Beleidigungen und Hassrede in den Kommentarspalten und Diskussionsforen ihrer Internetseiten zu begegnen. Neben der Formulierung von Community-Richtlinien, manueller Kommentarmoderation und dem Einsatz von Monitoringsoftware kommt dabei der "Diskursarchitektur", der technischen Ausgestaltung dieser Kommentarbereiche, eine große Bedeutung zu. Dazu zählen etwa verschiedene Formen der Registrierung, die Sortierung der Kommentarthreads oder verschiedene Grade der Anonymisierung. Die bisherige Forschung zu dem Thema hat solche Diskursarchitekturen zumeist in Fallstudien vergleichend untersucht, um möglichen Effekten der technischen Umgebung auf das Kommentarverhalten nachzuspüren. Die einzelnen Bestandteile von Diskursarchitekturen wurden dabei in der Regel analytisch nicht differenziert. Dieser Lücke widmet sich der vorliegende Beitrag und präsentiert eine Studie, in der alle von der IVW ausgewiesenen 361 redaktionell betreuten deutschen Nachrichtenseiten differenziert auf zehn verschiedene Merkmale hin analysiert wurden. Dabei zeigt sich, dass jene 173 Nachrichtenseiten, die überhaupt Kommentarspalten anbieten, ihre Möglichkeiten zur technischen Regulierung bei Weitem nicht ausschöpfen. Mit Hilfe einer hierarchischen Clusteranalyse wurden schließlich fünf distinkte Typen von Diskursarchitekturen in Kommentarspalten identifiziert, die in zukünftigen Studien zur Klassifizierung genutzt werden können.
Download culture and the dilemma of postmodern technologies: (il) legal digital music sharing and itss effects on South African artistesThesis(Ph.D. (Communication Studies)) -- University of Limpopo, 2022
New Media, Free Expression, and the Offences Against the State ActsNew media facilitates communication and creates a common, lived experience. It also carries the potential for great harm on an individual and societal scale. Posting integrates information and emotion, with study after study finding that fear and anger transfer most readily online. Isolation follows, with insular groups forming. The result is an increasing bifurcation of society. Scholars also write about rising levels of depression and suicide that stem from online dependence and replacing analogical experience with digital interaction, as well as escalating levels of anxiety that are rooted in the validation expectation of the ‘like’ function. These changes generate instability and contribute to a volatile social environment. Significant political risks also accompany this novel genre. Hostile actors can use social media platforms to deepen political schisms, to promote certain candidates, and, as demonstrated by the recent Cambridge Analytica debacle, to swing elections. Extremist groups and terrorist organisations can use online interactions to build sympathetic audiences and to recruit adherents. Since 1939, the Offences Against the State Act (OAS) has served as the primary vehicle for confronting political violence and challenges to state authority. How effective is it in light of new media? The challenges are legion. Terrorist recruitment is just the tip of the iceberg. Social networking sites allow for targeted and global fundraising, international direction and control, anonymous power structures, and access to expertise. These platforms create spaces within which extreme ideologies can prosper, targeting individuals likely to be sympathetic to the cause, 24 hours a day, seven days a week, ad infinitum. They offer an alternative reality, subject to factual manipulation and direction—a problem exacerbated by the risk of so-called deep fakes: autonomously-generated content that makes it appear that people acted, or that certain circumstances occurred, which never did. In November 2019 the Irish Government adopted a new regulation targeting social media. The measure focuses on political advertising and to ensure that voters have access to accurate information. It does not address the myriad further risks. This chapter, accordingly, focuses on ways in which the Offences Against the State Act (OAS) and related laws have historically treated free expression as a prelude to understanding how and whether the existing provisions are adequate for challenges from new media.
Zugänglichkeit von Internetseiten für Menschen mit Behinderung : Pflichten der Betreiberinnen - Rechte der BenutzerDie Schweizerische Bundesverfassung verbietet Diskriminierungen aufgrund einer körperlichen, geistigen oder psychischen Behinderung. Konkretisiert wird dieses Verbot insbesondere durch das Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz (BehiG, SR 151.3) sowie die dazugehörige Verordnung (BehiV, SR 151.31). Gemeinsam stellen sie den Rechtsrahmen dar, auch für die Gestaltung von Internetseiten im Hinblick auf die Bedürfnisse von Menschen mit Behinderung. Staatliche Institutionen und private Unternehmen werden jedoch unterschiedlich in die Pflicht genommen.
Prospects for the use of cryptocurrency in public monetary circulationThe modern world is changing rapidly. Digitalization is becoming more and more important and penetrates into all spheres of society. The digital transformation of financial and monetary processes and systems deserves special attention. It is important to determine the place and role of the state in the regulation of these processes. This paper examines the current state and prospects of using cryptocurrency as an element of monetary circulation. Analysis of the dynamics of the bitcoin rate showed that the use of cryptocurrencies is promising. However, it is necessary to improve the regulatory framework. The introduction and use of the national cryptocurrency in Russia will stabilize the state of the financial system in relation to the dollar, ensure the safety of economic development and reduce transaction costs.
Критический анализ значимости налогового стимулирования культурной индустрии в доцифровую эпоху и в условиях цифровизацииThe article is devoted to the assessment of historical experience, modern solutions and prospects for the use of tax instruments to influence the cultural industry as a creative component of national economic systems, as well as the world economy. The purpose of the article is to conduct a critical analysis of the significance of fiscal measures to promote the development of culture both at the pre-digital stage of the formation of the system of world economic relations, and in the modern digital world. The article verifies two hypotheses: (H1) the postulate about the need for tax support for culture in order to obtain noticeable material and intangible results of the cultural industry in the context of the transition to a digital economy; (H2) the assumption that tax incentives stimulate research and development activities in the cultural industry. The authors reveal the consistency and continuity of the use of appropriate methods throughout the history of the development of human civilization in civilizations and states of different degrees and levels of their economic and institutional development. It is concluded that from the time of the emergence of ancient classical states to the present, the tools of tax policy necessarily include mechanisms of tax benefits in the cultural industry. At the same time, the fiscal function of taxes in the sphere of culture is insignificant in terms of its economic consequences; the highest priority here is given to tax incentive measures, which include, first and foremost, corresponding tax benefits. The importance of tax incentives as leading instruments in this context is empirically substantiated by the example of China. In the modern digital world, the cultural industry is under the influence of regulatory tax measures that are transforming under new conditions, which include both innovative taxes (a tax on digital services) and new forms of fiscal interaction (interstate cooperation that has spread to the field of cultural interaction in the field of activities of transnational corporations in the digital sector).
Submission to Canadian Government Consultation on a Modern Copyright Framework for AI and the Internet of ThingsWe are grateful for the opportunity to participate in the Canadian Government’s consultation on a modern copyright framework for AI and the Internet of Things. Below, we present some of our research findings relating to the importance of flexibility in copyright law to permit text and data mining (“TDM”). As the consultation paper recognizes, TDM is a critical element of artificial intelligence. Our research supports the adoption of a specific exception for uses of works in TDM to supplement Canada’s existing general fair dealing exception.Empirical research shows that more publication of citable research takes place in countries with “open” research exceptions -- that is, research exceptions that are open to all uses (e.g. reproduction and communication), to all works, and to all users. Empirical research also shows that text and data mining research is promoted through exceptions that more specifically authorize text and data mining research. While these studies are preliminary and we are still improving on them, they provide evidence that supports the approach of combining a general research exception with a more specific data mining exception.
Influências tecnológicas relevantes para o Direito Societário e o mercado de capitaisO presente trabalho trata a respeito da inteligência artificial e suas consequências no Direito Comercial, principalmente no mercado de capitais. O intuito é identificar as principais influências da aplicação da inteligência artificial no Direito Comercial, quais os riscos envolvidos nessa operacionalização e quais têm sido as preocupações a respeito dessa nova tecnologia. Para atingir esse objetivo foi necessário o estudo de relevantes regulamentações e relatórios estrangeiros, como o White Paper e o Artificial Inteligence Act publicados pela Comissão Europeia, o relatório publicado pela IOSCO, a respeito da aplicação da inteligência artificial no mercado de capitais, bem como a análise da estrutura regulatória para inteligência artificial que está em construção no Brasil (Estratégia Brasileira de Inteligência Artificial e Projeto de Lei nº 21/2020). As atividades de High Frequency Trading são objeto de análise pormenorizada, por gerarem efeitos e refletirem as diversas preocupações referentes à atuação de algoritmos no mercado de capitais. Por fim, conclui-se a respeito da necessidade de regulamentação para as aplicações de inteligência artificial, sendo determinados parâmetros fundamentais (como centralização da tecnologia no ser humano, inibição de vieses, respeito aos direitos fundamentais, aos dados pessoais, à privacidade e a defesa da democracia) para que, mitigados os riscos inerentes à sua aplicação, a inteligência artificial tenha condições de ampliar a capacidade humana de conhecimento e desenvolvimento e seja utilizada sempre para o bem.
The “Digital Economy of the Russian Federation” national program as a support mechanism for the Russian information technology industryThe current pace of information technology development of the economy has a significant impact on the social life. This explains the necessity of using a scientific approach to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of the “Digital Economy of the Russian Federation” national program as a tool of government regulation of the economy and determines the high relevance of the topic of the study. The goal of the article is to identify significant areas of regulation of the Russian information technology industry on the basis of the assessment carried out. The objective of the study was to perform comprehensive analysis of the economic situation of the Russian Federation using the example of the information technology industry and to propose measures aimed at addressing imbalances in the industry’s advancement. The author of the article examined performance indicators of the industry and provided a description of the national program under study. The econometric model constructed revealed a high level of influence that program implementation measures have on the competitiveness of the industry.
Dynamic voltage optimization based on in-band sensors and machine learningA feedback-based architecture is presented for the distribution grid which enables the use of Machine Learning (ML) techniques for various applications, including Dynamic Voltage Optimization (DVO) and Demand Response (DR). In this architecture, sensor devices are resident on the distribution grid and therefore have a unique awareness of multiple system parameters. This enables the use of ongoing ML techniques for implementation of critical applications in the Smart Grid. Monitoring devices are placed at the endpoints and monitoring/control devices are placed along the power line on various types of grid-resident systems. Because the devices are grid-resident and interact directly with other devices on the same physical link, applications such as ML-assisted DVO can be targeted with very high confidence.
Mapping Digital Media: SerbiaOver the past five years, digitization has impacted significantly on the range and consumption of media content in Serbia. An increasing number of Serbians go online, and most media outlets invest in their online presence.
Serbia has a strategy for switching over from analog to digital broadcasting, prepared with broad public consultation. Th e basic legal framework is in place, but implementation is not yet underway. Moreover, if fair access to digital licenses is to be ensured, a new media law—harmonized with the EU’s Audiovisual Media Services Directive—is still needed.
For switchover has suff ered from a series of delays in the adoption of regulations necessary to advance the process, for updating switch-over timelines and implementing subsidy schemes for households to purchase
devices capable of digital television reception.
As a result, Serbian households are still unprepared for analog switch-off . Digitally equipped television sets and DVB-T2 MPEG4 decoders are still not available in retail outlets. Th e only digital television output to date is a test program about culture from RTS, the public broadcaster, available through cable operators as well as via terrestrial signal.
Broadband internet has had by far the most significant growth among the available distribution platforms over the past five years. More than 23 percent of Serbian households had an internet connection at the end of 2009—more than doubling the number of such connections just four years earlier. Of those connections, almost 82 percent were broadband in 2009, eight times more than in 2005. Mobile penetration has also spiked in the past five years. While only half of Serbians had a mobile subscription in 2005, the penetration reached 132 percent by 2010.
All that said, Serbia remains a television nation, with almost all households owning a TV set and three quarters of the population still using television as their main source of information. But the internet is catching up: 29 percent of persons between 12 and 29 years of age now use it for many of their information needs, though it must be added that there is a marked digital divide, with rural areas lagging behind cities when it comes to computer ownership and internet connections.
Television tastes have not changed significantly in the past five years. Th e public service broadcaster, RTS, continues to command the highest ratings in the television market, and in particular still leads in the newscast segment with its program Dnevnik 2.
The digital migration has negatively impacted the circulation of most print media in recent years. On the positive side, that migration has increased the readership for those print media that have expanded online.
Serbia’s best-selling daily, Blic, for example, lost some 50,000 sales over three years, so its paid circulation stands at 150,000; but its website now draws 1.5 million unique visitors per month.
Although search engines and social networks draw the highest visitorships on the Serbian internet, established news media Blic and the private TV station B92 have achieved high rankings as well.
RTS was given a leading role in promoting the digital transition. It hopes to reach a wider audience in the digital market by increasing the number of its specialized channels.Th e station has also been pro-active on the internet, developing a modern website where viewers can watch most of its programs on-demand. Despite this progress, almost half of the population remains reluctant to pay the license fee that supports RTS.
Serbia’s private media sector continues to be plagued by opaque ownership structures, with the owners of various media hiding behind off shore-registered businesses. Additionally, there is no publicly-available register of media owners. At the same time, a number of media outlets, some of them large and influential,
such as the Tanjug news agency and Politika newspaper continue to be heavily influenced by the state, because the privatization of publicly owned media, which should have been accomplished by 2007, remains uncompleted. Without mechanisms to render media ownership transparent, Serbia’s media sector will not achieve its potential for independence and diversity.
Th e internet as a platform for activism is rapidly expanding in Serbia, with the number of petitions, initiatives and debates online growing considerably. The internet has also led to more diversity and to a plurality of voices in political life.
Social media are popular and are being used increasingly by the media as dissemination and marketing vehicles. For journalists, however, digitization has necessitated more legwork, as media companies struggle financially and have had to make cuts in human resources. In parallel, media outlets have had to step up their content production to respond to the increasing demand for information.These pressures have led to what has become known as “Google journalism,” that is, the trend to quick-recycle internet content into media
Despite these digitization-related changes for journalists, newsroom convergence has been slow, with most media outlets still operating separate newsrooms for their online production. Digitization has also resulted in more violations of ethical norms by the media, as the internet remains largely unregulated.
On the other hand, digitization has had a positive impact on investigative reporting, as the internet has given journalists access to a huge range of information and sources. However, investigative journalism continues to encounter a number of barriers, including political control of the media and state ownership of numerous media outlets.
Telecoms operators have not attempted to purchase any traditional media outlets, but they do have a major, albeit indirect, presence in the media as the largest advertizing spenders in the market. To date they have not
attempted to exploit this presence by pressuring such media.
EU funding for media development in Serbia has helped to raise the standards of transparency in the allocation of state funds to the media. Th is marks a welcome break with past habits, which were criticized as non-transparent. Further improvement in this respect, by the Ministry of Culture, is still needed.
Th e government finally adopted the Media Strategy in September 2011. It introduces guidelines for the development of the media sector in Serbia until 2016. Th e most important part is an action plan that prescribes clear deadlines for the adoption and/or amendment of new media legislation, privatization of state owned media, new rules on state aid, and transparency of media ownership. However, a cause of concern remains the introduction of six new regional public services; the Strategy does not give the clear answers on how new outlets would be financed or managed, or on the criteria for defining areas of coverage. However, bearing in mind that this was the first media policy paper written in close cooperation with the European Commission, there is a good ground to hope that it will be effectively implemented.
Factores legales que impactan en el desarrollo del e-commerce en el mundoEl objetivo de este artículo es analizar el impacto de los factores legales en el desarrollo del e-commerce en los diferentes mercados en el mundo. El tema resulta relevante, pues son tiempos en los que las economías de los países experimentan crecimientos acelerados y el marco regulatorio del comercio electrónico no responde a la velocidad que las organizaciones requieren, lo que puede generar restricciones en el mercado global. En este estudio, la metodología empleada es cualitativa, orientada a la sistematización de fuentes de información relevantes que aportan al tema. Además, se ha aplicado un criterio de búsqueda definido, identificando las fuentes centrales y complementarias que conducen al objetivo de la investigación. Los resultados de la presente investigación han evidenciado las restricciones impuestas al e-commerce a partir de las normativas implementadas por los países, como resultado de las nuevas formas de hacer negocios. La presente investigación concluye que el comercio electrónico, a nivel global, presenta implicancias legales en diferentes aspectos, las cuales representan barreras en sus operaciones y resultados.