A systematic review of the role of implant design in the rehabilitation of the edentulous maxilla
Romanos, Georgios E.
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AbstractPurpose: To identify and critically appraise scientific publications evaluating the possible effect of implant design on treatment outcomes in the rehabilitation of patients with a fully edentulous maxilla. Materials and Methods: Scientific reports were sought in three electronic bibliographic databases, combined with searches for meeting abstracts, and in the grey literature. English, German, or Scandinavian scientific publications on prospective or retrospective longitudinal studies with effects of an implant design or feature on the treatment outcomes were eligible. Minimum requirement for inclusion was at least 10 study participants who were followed up for at least 2 years after implant loading. The PRISMA guidelines were followed for selecting data to extract from the individual studies. These were characteristics of the individual studies, risk of bias within individual studies, and the results of individual studies. Three editorial teams independently identified and extracted the data. Results: The search resulted in 998 primary studies, of which 525 met the inclusion criteria and were read in full text. Of these, 105 studies were included in qualitative syntheses. Seventeen studies were designed with an objective to assess effects of implant design or feature on outcomes, 23 studies described tilted implants to enable placement of longer implants, 30 studies reported effects of implants placed in zygomatic bone with or without additional alveolar implants, and 9 studies reported effects of implants placed in pterygoid bone or other bony buttresses with or without additional alveolar implants. Sixteen articles reported bone augmentation with simultaneous or delayed implant placement in patients with a predominantly Cawood-Howell bone class V and VI maxilla. Ten papers reported effects of implant design on outcomes, despite the lack of an a priori stated objective to assess a particular implant design or feature. There is a lack of compelling data to state that one particular implant system or design feature stands out amidst others, when applied to restoring the fully edentulous maxilla with implant-retained prostheses. Conclusion: This systematic review failed to identify compelling evidence to conclude that any particular implant or feature affects the treatment outcome in patients with a fully edentulous maxilla.
(Revista) ISSN 0882-2786