La responsabilité sociale des entreprises, un projet européen en panne
KeywordsCorporate Social Responsibility
Fundamental Social Rights
Globalisation de l’économie
Droits sociaux fondamentaux
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AbstractL’Union européenne (UE) a développé une approche particulière de la responsabilité sociale en l’inscrivant dans les stratégies européennes de l’emploi et de la cohésion sociale, d’une part, et dans celles sur le développement durable, d’autre part. Ceci devait permettre de véhiculer le modèle social européen dans et hors UE. Le projet était d’explorer au travers d’un processus de dialogue inédit entre les institutions et la société civile les possibilités de dégager un consensus sur un cadrage de la responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise (RSE). L’objet de cette contribution est de montrer qu’il s’est produit un périlleux décrochage entre les institutions européennes, les entreprises et la société civile alors que la RSE pratiquée par les entreprises européennes allait se révéler un vecteur d’innovation sur le plan des relations professionnelles en devenant un objet de négociation collective transnationale et qu’elle allait être un puissant révélateur des limites de l’autorégulation de la question du travail sur le plan mondial.
The European Union (EU) has developed a special approach to corporate social responsibility by incorporating it into its strategies of employment and social cohesion and of sustainable development. This should make it possible to diffuse the European social model inside and outside the EU. Through an unprecedented dialog between institutions and “civil society”, the EU planned to explore the possibility of a consensus on a framework for corporate social responsibility. This article seeks to shed light on the perilous disconnection between European institutions, companies and society at a time when the corporate social responsibility practiced by European firms has turned into a vector of innovation in labor relations by becoming a subject of transnational negotiations. It has also become a litmus test of the limits of a self-regulation, worldwide, of labor questions.
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Social Protection in Low Income Countries and Fragile Situations : Challenges and Future DirectionsOvadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe; Das, Maitreyi; Andrews, Colin; Elder, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05-28)Demand for social protection is growing in low income countries and fragile situations. In recent years, the success of social protection (SP) interventions in middle income countries (MICs) like Brazil and Mexico, along with the series of food, fuel, and financial crises, has prompted policymakers in low income countries (LICs) and fragile situations (FSs) to examine the possibility of introducing such programs in their own countries. Flagship programs in countries as diverse as Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, and Rwanda have shown the adaptability of social protection interventions to the LIC context. Yet, despite growing levels of support for these initiatives, many challenges remain. In LICs and FSs, governments are confronted with a nexus of mutually reinforcing deficits that increase the need for SP programs and simultaneously reduce their ability to successfully respond. Governments face hard choices about the type, affordability, and sustainability of SP interventions. The paper reviews how these factors affect SP programs in these countries and identifies ways to address the deficits. It supports the establishment of resilient SP systems to address specific needs and vulnerabilities and to respond flexibly to both slow and sudden onset crises. To achieve this, both innovation and pragmatism are required in three strategic areas: (i) building the basic blocks of SP systems (e.g., targeting, payments, and monitoring and evaluation); (ii) ensuring financial sustainability; and (iii) promoting good governance and transparency. These issues suggest the possibility of a different trajectory in the development of social protection in LICs than in MICs. The implications for World Bank support include the need to focus on increasing knowledge and operational effectiveness of SP programs, fostering institutional links between multiple SP programs, and using community capacity and technological innovations to overcome bottlenecks in operations.
Managing Risk, Promoting GrowthWorld Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02-08)A growing body of evidence demonstrates
that individuals and households experience a range of
positive outcomes from social protection. Social protection
increases productivity and growth. Countries can realize
significant benefits by creating an integrated social
protection system. Social protection is affordable in
low-income countries despite tight budgets. While overall
spending on social protection in Africa remains low by
international standards, experience suggests that social
protection programs can achieve national coverage at the
cost of only 1 to 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
While this is only a portion of the financing required to
operate a social protection system, it draws attention to
what countries can achieve in the short-term. Indeed, one
way in which existing social protection spending can be made
significantly more efficient would be by reallocating
existing financing for inefficient subsidies and ad hoc
emergency food aid to predictable safety nets. At the same
time, pursuing reforms to social security systems will
ensure their fiscal sustainability, while expanding
coverage. Notably, the costs of not protecting poor families
are very high, are borne disproportionately by women and
children, and undermine the productivity of future
generations. The Strategy will be implemented by leveraging
partnerships, knowledge, and the World Bank's financing
instruments. The World Bank will continue to invest in
analytical work to fill knowledge gaps and promote an
evidence-based dialogue for social protection systems in
Africa and further innovation. It will work with governments
to build country-owned national social protection systems
with the aim of reducing fragmentation in the sector. The
Bank also will pay particular attention to institutional
development and capacity building by using its lending to
increase the coverage of successful social protection
interventions. Throughout this work, the Bank will work in
coordination with governments, development partners, the
private sector, academics, civil society, and beneficiaries.