Map of Lithuania
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AbstractThe classification of maps into types according to differences in map printing clichés is the most widespread in cartographic literature. This principle of classification is not sufficient when a map is printed for a number of times without any changes in the cliché. Pursuant to such a classification system, the map of Lithuania by Gerardus Mercator is considered to be a homotypic map, i.e. a map of one edition, although it was printed many times and included into atlases in various languages from 1595–1634. The author uses a classification system of maps, according to which a map is not only a graphical cartographic image, but an object combining a cartographic image, material, on which the image is printed, and all other elements characteristic to the given printed map. The main notions of such a classification are edition and issue. This publication is an effort to systemise and generalise the information accumulated when collecting issues of the first printed Lithuanian map called “Litvania” and produced by Gerardus Mercator. The total number of Gerardus Mercator’s map issues known to the present science of cartography reaches 20 maps, out of which 14 maps have differences in texts, pagination, font, signatures, whereas, the remaining 6 maps are identical to previous editions printed with the same graphical and textual clichés but on a different type of paper (watermarks). Any Gerardus Mercator’s map included into an atlas can be clearly identified and dated according to the identification information it contains or by visually comparing it with exemplars of the same edition in complex atlases.