Elections and Ethics
This thematic collection of Globethics.net is offering a rich ethical overview on legal, political, social, financial and ethical aspects related to elections, its preparation, conflict resolutions and post-election processes. It has an initial focus on francophone Africa. Since 2018, it has been further enlarged to become a comprehensive collection on elections and ethics worldwide.
Ética e exercício de cidadania : o papel da administração públicaComunicação apresentada no 8º Congresso Nacional de Administração Pública – Desafios e Soluções, em Carcavelos de 21 a 22 de Novembro de 2011.
Education on democracyMeetings, dialogues and understandings between education and democracy are analyzed, highlighting conceptions and contributions that educational processes make to the democratic project, understood as a socio-political commitment that requires cementing the formation of conscious, critical, ethical and participatory citizens in the recognition of values of coexistence, respect and permanent search for balance and social development, on the basis of which it is necessary to dimension education from gambling and narratives theoretically and operatively sustained in the principles of integral formation, which rescue complex dimensions of the human person, this implies a permanent review of the organizational models that structure educational institutions.
The history of the social democracy in the South Barmbeck, Uhlenhorst and Hohenfelde (from 1867 to the First World War) with special consideration to the elections to the 'Reichstag' A contribution to the history of the social democracy in HamburgThema der Untersuchung ist die Entwicklung der Sozialdemokratie in den drei Hamburger Stadtteilen Uhlenhorst, Hohenfelde und Barmbek-Sued von den Anfaengen bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg. Die Studie stuetzt sich auf Quellenmaterial aus dem Bestand des Staatsarchivs Hamburg. Sie bietet im wesentlichen eine Analyse der Wahlen zum Reichstag, des Wahlkampfes und der organisatorischen Entwicklung der Sozialdemokratie. Honold kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Entwicklung der Sozialdemokratie in den genannten Stadtteilen nur in Zusammenhang mit der Parteientwicklung im III. Hamburger Wahlkreis zu betrachten ist. Fuer die organisatorische Entwicklung war die Reorganisation der Partei unter dem Sozialistengestz mit der Einteilung in Distrikte und Bezirke von entscheidender Bedeutung. Bei der Arbeit handelt es sich um eine Examensarbeit. Sie basiert zum Teil auf Akten der Politischen Polizei und des Senats. (WJ)
State-Building Challenges in a Post-Revolution LibyaLibya's National Transitional Council (NTC) inherited a difficult and volatile domestic situation following the overthrow of Muammar Qadhafi. The new leadership faces serious and simultaneous challenges in all areas of statehood. Libya's key geostrategic position, and its role in hydrocarbon production and exportation, means that the course of internal developments there is crucial not only to the Libyan people, but also to neighboring countries both in North Africa and across the Mediterranean in southern Europe. The mitigation or prevention of conditions that could lead to Libya becoming a failing or failed state is of vital importance. In this monograph, United Kingdom-based academic Dr. Mohammed El-Katiri reviews the major challenges to the new Libyan regime, including the continuing role of tribalism and the difficulty posed by the NTC's lack of a monopoly on ensuring security in Tripoli and beyond. Key issues of concern to foreign partners when engaging with the new Libyan leadership are highlighted, and a number of policy recommendations are made. Libya's immediate future is of critical importance, and it will determine whether the country faces state consolidation or state failure.
A study on democratic transition in south Africa : democratic through compromise and institutional choiceThe focus of this study is on South Africa's transition to democracy. It is argued in this
thesis, that an analysis of the transition to democracy in South Africa and the transformation
of the con
ict that prevailed in this divided society could generate new avenues for theorising
about transitions to democracy in divided societies amidst con
ict. The aim with this thesis
is to contribute towards a more comprehensive understanding of the complex nature of
the process of transition to democracy, and the relevant theory involved, particularly with
regard to transitions in divided societies. One consequence of the deep divisions within
South African society has been the increase in violence, which followed liberalisation. The
transition to democracy in South Africa, as a result, was characterised by continuing and
escalating violence. In South Africa, the authoritarian regime deteriorated mainly because
of internal factors, but external factors also played an important role.
The analysis of the transition has been guided by the hypothesis that the democratisation
of South Africa was accomplished through a compromise that was negotiated between the
major political actors and which re
ected the intra-, as well as the inter-dynamics in the
domains of, state - political society - civil society.
Thus, the main theme of this thesis is, that in the analysis of the dynamics of the tran-
sition to democracy in South Africa, a basic framework in which the domains of, state -
political society - civil society, are the domains where structural variables (such as culture,
economic development, class structures, increased education and the international environ-
ment) and behavioural variables (such as major political actors, elite factions, organisations
from civil society) interact. Thus, in the diachronic analysis of South Africa's transition, an
interactive approach, that seeks to relate structural constraints to the shaping of contingent
choice, is followed. At the same time, the institutional substitution of a new democratic
political dispensation is examined.
In conclusion, democracies are complex phenomena, and they are caused by many di er-
ent forces and synthesizing the relevant theoretical approaches to political change provides
a more cogent and comprehensive explanation of democratic transition in South Africa.
4. Le concept de congolité dans la vie politique de la Troisième République Démocratique du Congo2006 restera indubitablement une année cruciale dans l’histoire de la République Démocratique du Congo puisque c’est en 2006 que les Congolais, pour la première fois depuis 1960, ont été appelés aux urnes pour élire librement et démocratiquement leur président et leurs 500 représentants à l’Assemblée nationale. Avec le référendum tenu en décembre 2005 pour adopter la nouvelle constitution, ces élections devaient permettre au plus grand pays d’Afrique centrale d’achever la transition politique...
Democrazia e Nuova CittadinanzaCon allarmante preoccupazione assistiamo, oggi, ad una deresponsabilizzazione della classe politica e al declino della cittadinanza partecipata. Fenomeni che travolgono i sistemi democratici attuali precipitandoli in una profonda crisi. La ricerca pedagogica e l’istituzione scuola sono chiamate a stabilire un rinnovato rapporto attivo e sinergico con la politica, nel comune intento di contribuire, ciascuno per il proprio ambito di intervento, alla formazione di un uomo che sappia vivere la propria soggettività in rapporto con l’alterità per contribuire in modo attivo, critico e costruttivo al bene collettivo. Il fine primario della formazione si estrinseca solo nel momento in cui partecipa alla costruzione di “volontà” libere, capaci di incidere nel mondo con pensiero critico e azione consapevole, di promuovere responsabilmente processi concreti di cambiamento attraverso un processo attivo di decodificazione e riedificazione della cultura. La responsabilità civica, fondamento di un’attiva partecipazione sociale, costituisce la base su cui si reggono i sistemi democratici. La scuola, luogo privilegiato della formazione, ha l’onere di realizzare interventi mirati di educazione alla e per la democrazia, mediante la costruzione di relazioni solide fondate su un’ampia e condivisa visione etica che alimentano la partecipazione attiva, condizione indispensabile per un reale esercizio della cittadinanza. With alarming concern, we are witnessing today a de-responsibility of the political class and the decline of participatory citizenship. Events that upset current democratic systems, absorbing them into a profound crisis. Pedagogy and school, each for their own area of intervention, interacting synergistically with politics, have the duty to contribute with responsibility and competence to the training of a man who knows how to live his own subjectivity in relationship with others by actively participating in training of a fair society oriented towards the collective good. The primary purpose of training is expressed only when it participates in the formation of free 'wills', capable of impacting the world with critical thinking and conscious action, of responsibly promoting concrete processes of change through an active process of decoding and rebuilding culture. Civic responsibility, the foundation of active social participation, is the pillar on which democratic systems are based. The school, a privileged place for training, has the honor of carrying out targeted interventions of education for democracy, through the construction of solid relationships based on the broad and shared ethical vision that nourish active participation, an indispensable condition for a real exercise of citizenship.
Cyber crime: a comparative law analysisThe Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, 25 of 2002, eradicated various lacunae that previously existed in respect of cyber crimes. Cyber crimes such as inter alia hacking, rogue code, unauthorised modification of data and denial of service attacks have now been criminalised. Specific criminal provisions in relation to spamming, computer-related fraud and extortion have also been included in the Act. It is argued that theft of incorporeal items such as information has already been recognised in our law, but has not been taken to its logical conclusion in our case law. However, there are instances where neither the common law nor our statutory provisions are applicable and where there is still a need for legislative intervention. The Act sufficiently deals with jurisdiction, the admissibility of data messages, the admissibility of electronic signatures and the regulation of cryptography. Cyber inspectors are a new addition to law enforcement.
Educación en y para la democraciaMeetings, dialogues and understandings between education and democracy are analyzed, highlighting conceptions and contributions that educational processes make to the democratic project, understood as a socio-political commitment that requires cementing the formation of conscious, critical, ethical and participatory citizens in the recognition of values of coexistence, respect and permanent search for balance and social development, on the basis of which it is necessary to dimension education from gambling and narratives theoretically and operatively sustained in the principles of integral formation, which rescue complex dimensions of the human person, this implies a permanent review of the organizational models that structure educational institutions.
The Texas Historian, Volume 71, 2010-2011Journal published by the Texas State Historical Association containing articles written by members of the Junior Historians about various aspects of Texas history.
The Texas Historian, Volume 57, Number 1, September 1996Journal published by the Texas State Historical Association containing articles written by members of the Junior Historians about various aspects of Texas history.
The effectiveness of State of the Province Adress (SOPA) as a public communication campaign in Limpopo Province, South AfricaThe dawn of democracy in South Africa ushered an increasing need for government to interact
with the citizens. This study assesses the use of the state of the province address (SOPA) as a
communication platform to keep the citizens abreast of the government programmes and
deliverables in Limpopo province, South Africa. SOPA is broadcasted mainly from the legislature
whilst the communities can view the proceedings in identified public viewing areas. Since SOPA’s
inception, there is limited academic studies conducted on the effectiveness of SOPA in general
and public viewing areas in particular. To fill this paucity of research, this study reviewed the
government communication strategy with specific reference to government communication and
information systems (GCIS) which emphasises on the need for government to interact with
stakeholders at all levels. Using communication effectiveness and stakeholder theories (also
called Izimbizo), this study evaluated the planning process of SOPA and citizens’ views on the
effectiveness of the public viewing areas.
In-depth interviews and survey were conducted with campaign planners and Mokwakwaila
citizens respectively. Data was analysed using thematic analysis for interviews and descriptive
statistics for survey. This study found that the internal planning process of the campaign (SOPA)
is accordingly linked to the strategic objectives of the province, but inadequate funding hinders
the longevity of the campaign. It is also this study’s finding that whilst citizens found SOPA to be
effective they however feel that government does not do enough to source feedback after the
campaign. This study recommends that there could be an exploration of the new media utility to
produce more awareness about the campaign in order to accommodate audience that do not use
radio and newspapers. The implications on campaign planners is that they should conduct
feedback to improve public participation in future government programmes
Die politische Ordnung des Flüchtlingslagers: Akteure - Macht - Organisation; Eine Ethnographie im Südlichen AfrikaWeltweit werden Flüchtlinge langfristig in Flüchtlingslagern untergebracht. Heterogene Akteure - UNO, NGOs, Regierungsvertreter, aber auch die Flüchtlinge selbst - bringen ihre Perspektiven, Interessen, Ressourcen und Außenbeziehungen in die Flüchtlingslager ein. Deren politische Ordnung konstituiert sich zwischen interner Machtdynamik und institutioneller Einbettung in das internationale Flüchtlingsregime. Ausgehend von Neo-Institutionalismus und Theorien der Kasernierung rekonstruiert die Autorin diese Ordnung am Fall zweier Lager in Sambia. Ein innovativer, empirisch fundierter Beitrag zur politischen Soziologie des Flüchtlingslagers.
Marginalization of Ethnic Communities and the Rise in RadicalizationRenewed marginalization, coupled with ethnic nationalism, could severely hamper peace, stability, governance, and the delivery of essential service to the people. Therefore, disharmony resulting from marginalization and regional discontent is no more dismissible issues. Muslim communities in Africa, South Asia, and some parts of the Middle East are considered to be highly underprivileged in terms of representation, economic prospects, and education. This exclusion has made young Muslims particularly vulnerable to recruitment by terrorist insurgents who appear to sympathize with their plight. The terrorists usually offer them possible alternatives to earn income and to express their grievances. Since the stability of any society largely depends on political, security, and economic freedom, communities that do not attain it, are likely to be vulnerable to recruitment by insurgent groups that meet their needs. This study examined how Somali Muslims' perceptions of marginalization influenced their radicalization in Kenya. A total of 400 respondents were sampled from a target population of 623,060. Sixty respondents were Muslim religious leaders in Garissa county, 40 respondents were law enforcement personnel working in Garissa County, 100 respondents were government officials in administrative offices within the County, and 200 respondents were local Somali youths aged between 17–35 years. Data was collected from the respondents through the administration of the questionnaires in hard copy form. The split-half method was employed to guarantee reliability of the survey, while validity was addressed by phrasing all survey and FGD questions appropriately in line with the research objectives. The collected data was then examined using quantitative and qualitative analysis methods. The quantitative analysis focused on numerical data, while qualitative analysis was used to analyze non-numerical information provided by respondents. In analyzing Somali Muslim views on marginalization and its effect on radicalization, this study employed correlation research design and Samuel Stouffer's relative deprivation theory of social behaviour. The findings of this study indicate that the perceptions of marginalization by Somali Muslims are related to an upsurge in radicalization.
The Washington Blade, September 15, 1995An independent newspaper serving the gay community. This edition features articles on the Christian Coalition 'Road to Victory '95' Conference; A pending amendment to a piece of D.C. legislation that would ban gay adoptions; a story on Black lesbian feminist activist Barbara Smith; A federal appeals court hearing in the case Thomasson vs. U.S. on the military ban on gay personnel; A settlement in the sexual orientation discrimination case of a U.S. Social Security Administration; Whitman-Walker Clinic's sparse budget for Fiscal Year 1996; An investigation into the Prince George's County murder, which confirmed that the victim was gay; the endorsements of Virginia Arlington County Board seat candidates Ben Winslow and and Henriette Warfield by the Log Cabin Club; the ratings of Arlington, Virginia election candidates released by the Arlington Gay and Lesbian Alliance; the appointment of gay civic activists John Fanning and Christopher Long as ward coordinators by Mayor Marion Barry; The Second International Conference of Gay and Lesbian Criminal Justice Professionals hosted in Los Angeles, California and co-hosted by the Los Angeles Police Department for the first time; New protections from employment discrimination and sexual harassment based on sexual orientation in Virginia Beach, Virginia; Restrictions on D.C. domestic partner benefits funding removed by the Senate Appropriations committee; A meeting between U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno and a group of gay leaders; An AIDS funding bill passed by the Senate Labor, HHS and Education subcommittee on appropriations; The involvement of the Iowa Christian Coalition in the defeat of gay Des Moines, Iowa School Board member Jonathan Wilson for reelection; An address by Human RIghts Campaign Fund executive director Elizabeth Birch at the annual convention of the Christian Coalition; the story about the Mautner Project's work to support lesbians with cancer; Cartoonist Howard Cruise's new book 'Stuck Rubber Baby'; The Publishing company AandM books, started by partners Anyda Marchant aka Sarah Aldridge and Muriel Crawford; and Black gay playwright Michael Winn and a production of his play 'Metamorphosis'; and advertisements for nightclubs, services, and events.
The Washington Blade, September 8, 1995An independent newspaper serving the gay community. This edition features articles on the lesbian presence at the Non-Governmental Organizations Forum in Huairou in China; U.S. Representative Barney Frank's threat to out gay republican members of congress should congress attempt to overturn an executive order that bans the discrimination of gay people seeking security clearances; Data from the 1990 census and what it tells us about Black same-sex households; Questions from U.S. Representative Steve Gunderson regarding presidential candidate Bob Dole's refusal of donations from a gay republican group; The cancellation of sentencing of Frank Mabry in the strangulation death of hotel clerk Alan K. Haskell; Whitman-Walker Clinic's establishment of a foundation to rethink the distribution of AIDSWALK proceeds; A vigil for Tyrone 'Tyra' Hunter, who reportedly died after being refused care by a D.C. Fire Department rescue worker after a car accident; Dispute among Dupont Circle community members over gay bar JR's request to operate an outdoor bar; Protests by activists, many transgender, outside the Washington Post regarding the publication's history of anti-Transgender reporting; A 'Back to School' campaign created by the Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Teachers network to combat the abuse of gay students; an upcoming decision by the American Baptist Churches of the West regarding whether or not to oust congregations that accept gay members; the postponement of a House subcommittee hearing regarding the allegation that homosexuality is being promoted in schools; The denouncement of the National Republican Congressional Committee by right-wing groups for accepting donations from the Human Rights Campaign Fund; A D.C. federal court ruling that a viatical company must comply with federal securities laws; A lesbian woman's story of attending a heterosexual wedding; A conversation about love during a trip to the Philippines; Jonathan Wilson's school board election campaign; articles on the new film 'To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything! Julie Newmar'; Life for gay people in Tel Aviv, Israel; Dignity/Washington choir's participation in the National Association of Pastoral Musicians' competition--the first time a gay choir has ever done so; A review of E. Lynn Harris' new book 'Just As I Am'; A review of Jim Grimsley's book 'Dream Boy'; and advertisements for nightclubs, events, and services.
Brüchige Allianzen: LSBTIQ Aktivismen im Kontext der intersektionalen und dekolonialen Praxis der südafrikanischen StudierendenbewegungAm 9.3.2015 bewarf Chumani Maxwele die Statue von Cecil Rhodes am Universitätsgelände der University of Cape Town mit Fäkalien. Aus dem Unmut gegen die Präsenz des Kolonialisten Rhodes an der Universität und damit aus der Kritik an dieser diskriminierenden Erinnerungskultur entwickelte sich eine der größten sozialen Bewegungen Südafrikas seit der Überwindung der Apartheid. Die Studierenden forderten mit dem Rhodes Must Fall und später mit Fees Must Fall den freien Zugang zur tertiären Bildung und einen universitären Raum jenseits von Diskriminierung und Rassismus. Dekolonisierung und Intersektionalität waren dabei zwei zentrale Schlagworte für das Verständnis der Unrechtserfahrungen der Studierenden und zugleich fassten sie die multiplen Forderungen der Studierenden zusammen. Die vielfache Zuschreibung dessen was Dekolonisierung und Intersektionalität bedeuten, ermöglichte es, Allianzen zwischen unterschiedlichsten Studierenden zu bilden und auch jene Studierenden, wie die LSBTIQs zu integrieren, welche aufgrund ihrer mehrfachen Diskriminierung häufig ausgeschlossen bleiben. Im Protestverlauf erlebten jedoch LSBTIQs Studierende vermehrt Diskriminierung und Ausschluss. Geschlechterpositionen wurden zum Streitpunkt und stellten die Allianzen infrage. Was mit einer geteilten Forderung von Dekolonisierung und Intersektionalität begann und damit mit dem Streben nach einem herrschaftsfreien Raum, der Diskriminierung und Rassismus überwindet, endete in der Reproduktion von Ungleichheit und der Herausbildung von Machtpositionen. Allianzen brachen auf, trugen zur Zersplitterung der Studierendenbewegung bei und ließen Gegenproteste entstehen, welche die herrschaftskritischen Proteste in ihrer Reproduktion von Ungleichheit hinterfragten. Vor dem Hintergrund der Studierendenbewegung wird die Brüchigkeit von Allianzen deutlich ebenso wie Notwendigkeit, analytisch den Protestverlauf zu analysieren, denn erst dieser zeigt das Entstehen von Allianzen einerseits sowie von Macht- und Exklusionsdynamiken andererseits.
Covid-19 in the Horn of Africa: gaining trust in a crisisOn reaching the Horn of Africa, the corona virus will have encountered countries already facing a multitude of challenges. Prolonged armed conflict, drought and insecurity have turned more than eight million people into refugees in their own countries, and a further 3.5 million have fled to neighbouring countries where they live in overcrowded refugee camps. All the countries in this region are in a fragile state of political transformation or have been severely weakened by war and government failures. They possess neither the capacity to contain the Covid pandemic nor to mitigate the resulting unemployment, poverty and hunger. In order to guard against jeopardising the process of democratisation in Sudan and Ethiopia, special emphasis should be placed on social security systems and gaining the trust of the population. This requires an emergency aid package from abroad that will ensure the economic survival of all countries in the region. However, long-term support should be conditional on guaranteeing that most of the investment goes into developing state capacities for critical infrastructure and social security. (Autorenreferat)