Neuropsychological dysfunction following repeat concussions in jockeys.
complications: Athletic Injuries
complications: Brain Concussion
diagnosis: Cognition Disorders
Severity of Illness Index
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AbstractBACKGROUND: Single and repeat concussions have a high prevalence in sport. However, there is limited research into longterm risks associated with single and repeat concussions. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of single and repeat historical concussions on the neuropsychological functioning and neurological reports of licensed jockeys. METHODS: Six hundred and ninety eight licensed jockeys in the UK were assessed for neurological and neuropsychological symptoms of concussion at least three months after potential episodes. RESULTS: Jockeys reporting multiple historical injuries versus a single injury showed reliable decrements on a measure of response inhibition and, to a less robust degree, on divided attention. Younger adults showed greater vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated concussion is associated with reliable decrements in cognitive performance--even after a three month window for recent recovery.