Global heating, wildlife extinction and pollution are among the most important ecological matter, they call for our urgent attention and deserve prominent documentation. The Globethics.net environmental ethics collection aims at gathering all most important sources on this matter. The content in the library is available in multiple languages and is mainly harvested from a wide variety of open access repositories. A limited set of manually submitted documents complete this collection, f.ex. documents published by the Earth Charter Initiative and Green Cross International.

Recent Submissions

  • Kerjasama penduduk, PBT realisasi pertanian bandar

    Mohd. Hussain, Mohd. Ramzi (New Straits Times Press (M) Bhd., 2022-06-27)
  • Fashion Justice

    Alice Payne; Rowena Maguire; Amanda Kennedy (Queensland University of Technology, 2022-06-01)
    This special issue brings together scholars who have identified justice issues throughout the fashion system, encompassing how fashion is produced, consumed and discarded. While fashion systems have long been the focus of deep and varied perspectives on sustainability, from the environmental to social and cultural, we argue that characterising fashion justice as an environmental justice issue can usefully account for the multiple and intersecting ways in which fashion systems impact both human and more-than-human capabilities (Bick et al. 2018). Against the backdrop of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and SDG 12 in particular, which calls for sustainable consumption and production patterns, it is timely and appropriate to consider fashion systems as a broader global environmental justice concern.
  • IN MEMORY OF TUTAWA

    Kamutaja Silva Ãwa (Associação Direitos Humanos em Rede, 2021-12-01)
    This essay is the product of the experiences of the Ãwa people, to which I belong, following
 contact with non-indigenous people in the 1970s. As the teller of the stories of my people, I
 would like to emphasize that during my childhood I had painful, sad and stressful experiences,
 due to the continuous intense conflicts of the struggle, efforts to demarcate our territory and
 our longing for well-being. The methodology is underpinned by bibliographic sources, the
 identification report of the Taego Ãwa Indigenous Land and in the memories and oral tradition
 of my people. In recognition of the importance of this story, this essay is a compilation of
 records of the Ãwa people´s fight for rights, including the impact of the pandemic. It brings the
 indigenous point of view to the issue of human rights.
  • L’identité professionnelle de pêcheurs à l’épreuve de la protection de la biodiversité. Exemple des pêcheurs de Martinique

    Myriam Thirot; Justin Daniel; Pierre Failler (Université des Antilles, 2022-05-01)
    This article highlights the challenge of environmental public policies in French West Indies islands and more particularly in Martinique. It provides answers to the question: What is the effect of the implementation of a Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the professional identity of traditional fishermen? The study, conducted with fishermen at Le Prêcheur in Martinique, brings, in an original way, some key answers on the thoughts of fishermen about biodiversity protection mechanism such as MPA. Overall, fishermen are concerned by the professional transition that the MPA creation will cause as they understand the challenge that ties-up with their identity. Thus, the stake of biodiversity protection faces the one of the preservation of fishermen identity.
  • On the rules of life and Kleiber's law: the macroscopic relationship between materials and energy

    Benjamin Leiva; John R. Schramski (Elsevier, 2022-06-01)
    Efforts to accommodate the growth in global energy consumption within a fragile biosphere are primarily focused on managing the transition towards a low-carbon energy mix. We show evidence that a more fundamental problem exists through a scaling relation, akin to Kleiber's Law, between society's energy consumption and material stocks. Humanity's energy consumption scales at 0.78 of its material stocks, which implies predictable environmental pressure regardless of the energy mix. If true, future global energy scenarios imply vast amounts of materials and corresponding environmental degradation, which have not been adequately acknowledged. Thus, limits to energy consumption are needed regardless of the energy mix to stabilize human intervention in the biosphere.
  • [Letter from James E. Freeman to Truett Latimer, April 9, 1959]

    Latimer, Truett; Freeman, James E. (1959-04-09)
    Letter from James E. Freeman to Truett Latimer discussing Marion R. Thomas' application to purchase land through the Veterans Land Board.
  • Re-Storying Grant Creek: A Case Study of Relational Dynamics on a Degraded Montana Stream

    Land, Seamus Rucci (University of Montana, 2022-01-01)
    The UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration began in 2021, and after a history of contentious ethical debates, ecological restoration is increasingly portrayed as a viable framework for combating environmental degradation and supporting more healthy and stable social-ecological systems. The proposed ecological restoration of Grant Creek, a degraded stream near Missoula, Montana, offers an opportunity to connect a restoration site to the broader, rapidly growing field of restoration practice. It also allows the opportunity to forward the ‘relational turn’ proposed by many in the sustainability sciences as an ontological and methodological means to move beyond positivist portrayals of social-ecological systems, which can reify the very categories they attempt to connect and transform. To gain a more holistic, dynamic understanding of the nature-human connectedness in the watershed, between the Summer of 2021 and the Spring of 2022 I conducted a biophysical NRCS Riparian Assessment on 11 miles of Grant Creek and combined this data with 20 in-depth interviews with landowners and land managers adjacent to the stream. I conducted a mixed methods analysis of these data, and along with archival and historical materials, I advanced my discussion through a political ecology lens that incorporates colonial, discursive, and political critiques. Out of this relational analysis I address the existing restoration opportunities in Grant Creek, and I advance a series of general recommendations for the restoration process. This study highlights the need to contextualize restoration in a relational approach in order to more appropriately confront historical social-ecological injustices, address the root causes of degradation, and create space for more inclusive, grounded, and durable restoration projects.
  • Including the animal standpoint in critical public relations research

    Almiron, Núria, 1967-; Fernández, Laura (SAGE Publications, 2021)
    In this paper we argue that adopting critical animal studies perspectives in critical public relations can not only be very fruitful, but that it is also a necessity if the aims of the latter are to be achieved. To this end, this text introduces the challenges and opportunities that the field of critical animal studies brings to critical public relations studies. First, a short explanation of what critical animal studies is and why it can contribute to critical public relations studies is provided. Then the main fields of research where this contribution can be most relevant are discussed, including ethics, discourse studies and political economy. The final aim of this theoretical paper is to expand research within the field of critical public relations by including a critical animal studies approach. Eventually, the authors suggest that embracing the animal standpoint in critical public relations is an essential step to furthering the study of power, hegemony, ideology, propaganda or social change and to accomplishing the emancipatory role of research.
  • Perspectives for Buck Kids in Dairy Goat Farming

    AISS Animal Welfare; Behaviour & Welfare; AISS Animal Behaviour; dASS BW-2; Meijer, Ellen; Goerlich, Vivian C; van den Brom, René; Giersberg, Mona F; Arndt, Saskia S; Rodenburg, T Bas (2021-10-15)
    To start milk production, dairy goats need to give birth at least once. While most female kids are reared to become the next generation of dairy goats, only a small proportion of male kids (buck kids) are reared with reproduction aims. The market for buck kid meat, especially within Northern European countries, is currently relatively small compared to the number of bucks born. Therefore, the purposes for buck kids are limited and a substantial proportion of buck kid meat is used for pet food. Due to the limited economic value of buck kids, farmers are faced with a dilemma. Although raising bucks costs more money than it yields, the birth of kids is a prerequisite for production of milk and should be seen as an investment for business-wise healthy dairy goat farming. In that perspective, dairy goat farmers have an ethical responsibility toward buck kids, as well. In this paper, we compare various scenarios of dealing with the issue of surplus male animals. We provide recommendations for the rearing of buck kids based on the sector's experience and current practice in the Netherlands. Reducing the number of surplus (male) offspring, e.g., by an optimized prolonged lactation management and/or by artificial insemination with sex-sorted semen, could alleviate the issue of low value buck kids. Killing surplus animals before or directly after birth, on the other hand, is met with increasing societal scrutiny. Initiatives to propagate a market for buck kid meat for human consumption are important to enable a suitable and sustainable production system. To maintain the health and welfare of goat kids, amongst other factors, sufficient and good quality colostrum, milk, and an appropriate diet as they grow older, needs to be provided. One option to assure the safeguarding of health and welfare of all goat kids are quality assurance schemes for milk production. These schemes make dairy farmers accountable for the health and welfare of all kids in the rearing period, including the provision of colostrum and adequate care for newborn buck kids. We conclude that the combination of reducing the number of surplus kids, increasing the demand for goat products, and quality assurance schemes that may help to safeguard the welfare of buck kids.
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio) meets bioethics: the 10Rs ethical principles in research

    Aryelle Canedo (12817493); Patrícia Saiki (12817496); Andressa Liberal Santos (12817499); Karla da Silva Carneiro (12817502); Andreza Martins de Souza (12817505); Gabriel Qualhato (12817508); Rafaella da Silva Brito (12817511); Francyelli Mello-Andrade (9183112); Thiago Lopes Rocha (10482432) (2022-06-01)
    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a tropical fish species widely used in research, worldwide. The development of genetically modified animals and the increasing number of zebrafish breeding facilities due to their emerging use in several research fields, opened room for new ethical challenges for research carried out with this species. It is necessary to raise the scientific community’s awareness of the ethical standards and laws in force, on animal research. Thus, the aim of the current study is to describe 10 Rs ethical principles by using zebrafish as model system in research. The classical 3 Rs concerning animal welfare, namely replacement, reduction and refinement; and the added 7 Rs related to scientific (registration, reporting, robustness, reproducibility and relevance) and conduct principles (responsibility, and respect) in zebrafish research are herein presented and critically discussed. The use of these 10 Rs by researchers, institutions and the Animal Ethics Committee is recommended to support regulations, decision-making about and the promotion of zebrafish health and welfare in research.
  • Wax precipitation and deposition risk: Issues on ethics and professionalism

    Makwashi, Nura; Ahmed, Tariq; Akubo, Stephen Arome (Faculty of Engineering & Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, 2022-06-06)
    The deposition of wax on pipelines causes problems that affect oil production rate and the facilities. Several preventive and control measures were employed to manage this problem. However, there is no single technique that is hundred per cent effective for different fields. Therefore, this article provides new interpretation of the associated risk of the problem – such as the impact of ethical and professionalism on wax deposition. It sheds more light on the need for the implementation of sound engineering practices during pipeline design, construction, and operations to reduce wax deposition risks and the associated remediation costs. The laboratory case study revealed that crude oil properties (such as wax appearance temperature (WAT), pour point (PP), and density), standard operating conditions and procedures must be accurate and continuously updated throughout the production life cycle. The results showed that maintaining crude oil temperature above wax appearance temperature (30°C) and at a relatively high flow rate particularly within the turbulent flow region (7, 9 and 11 l/min) provides a safe and uninterrupted production of waxy crude oil (δwax ≈ 0 mm).
  • S1 File -

    Brendan Bo O’Connor (12867397); Karen Lee (7826348); Dylan Campbell (10664465); Liane Young (399528) (2022-06-13)
    (DOCX)
  • A novel argument for vegetarianism? Zoopolitics and respect for animal corpses

    Josh Milburn (12048914) (2020-12-16)
    This paper offers a novel argument against the eating of meat: the zoopolitical case for vegetarianism. The argument is, in brief, that eating meat involves the disrespect of an animal’s corpse, and this is respect that the animal is owed because they are a member of our political community. At least three features of this case are worthy of note. First, it draws upon political philosophy, rather than moral philosophy. Second, it is a case for vegetarianism, and not a case for veganism. Third, while it is animal-focussed, it does not rely upon a claim about the wrong of inflicting death and suffering upon animals. The paper sets out the argument, responds to two challenges (that the argument is merely academic, and that the argument does not go far enough), and concludes by comparing the case to Cora Diamond’s classic argument for vegetarianism.
  • Animals in Transition: On ethics and livestock farming

    AISS Sustainable Animal Stewardship; LS Wijsgerige Ethiek; OFR - Ethics Institute; dASS BW-2; Meijboom, Franck; Yalim, Neyyire Yasemin; Evren, Mustafa (2021-12)
    Livestock farming is part of the dynamic discussion about the future of food. This paper argues that attention to the role and position of animals is essential in the discussion on sustainable development in the agricultural and food sector. Analyzing transitions in the agri-food sector from the perspective of animals contributes to finding different perspectives on the transition: e.g., on what the nature of the problem is, what values underlie the transition or how a problem can be best approached. Furthermore, it prevents that animals are overlooked in current food transitions, which is highly problematic given the strong arguments for acknowledging animals as having moral status whose role in transitions should be taken seriously for their own sake. Using an example about the transition towards circular agriculture this claim is further elaborated. Next, the paper shows the important but unclear role animal welfare plays in the discussions on the role and position of animals in transitions in the agri-food sector. I show why animal welfare can only function as a key concept in the discussion if one is aware of its limits. Based on the analysis, the paper concludes with a five step argument to broaden the scope of the ethics of livestock farming and to use a more integrated approach that starts in a moral vocabulary that is broader that animal welfare, that include more than the participation of experts and builds on interdisciplinary work from animal science, veterinary science, social science and ethics.
  • Using images of farmed animals in environmental advocacy: an antispeciesist, strategic visual communication proposal

    Fernández, Laura (SAGE Publications, 2019)
    This article discusses two main issues: the historical invisibility of the role of animal agriculture in climate change and whether it is useful to include explicit violent images or “moral shock” of farmed animals1 in environmental advocacy campaigns to fight against climate change and environmental devastation. The claim will be explored at two levels: ethical and strategic. According to the current literature available, it will be argued that we have sound arguments to believe that using images of farmed animal suffering (including explicit violent images and moral shocks) is both an ethical and effective approach to reach the end of speciesist oppression and to mitigate climate change.
  • The Emotional politics of images: moral shock, explicit violence and strategic visual communication in the animal liberation movement

    Fernández, Laura (Journal for Critical Animal Studies (JCAS), 2020)
    Animal liberation activists regularly use visual communication to get their message across to the public. Explicit violent images are considered a potential tool to bridge the moral gap between activists and audiences. However, there is a strong debate regarding the effectiveness of different visuals. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion by examining to what extent these images may be effective means of raising awareness of speciesist beliefs and attitudes, as well as promoting changes in them. To this end, this paper reviews the most outstanding research on anti-speciesist visual communication strategies from an interdisciplinary approach, focusing on the concept of moral shock. According to the review, it seems reasonable to conclude that animal liberation activists can benefit from the strategic use of moral shock, but given the difficulty of drawing clear conclusions on the topic, more research on the issue is needed to obtain more accurate results.
  • Lobbying against compassion: speciesist discourse in the vivisection industrial complex

    Almiron, Núria, 1967-; Khazaal, Natalie (SAGE Publications, 2016)
    The entire span of animal research from captivity to death causes immense suffering for hundreds of millions of nonhuman animals every year. Their suffering also disturbs the public, which is increasingly aware—due to animal advocacy, scientists’ testaments, and growing direct evidence—that animals’ use in biomedical research is more a matter of tradition than any proven superiority of vivisection over other modes of experimentation. Yet in response, the vivisection industrial complex
 lobbies against animal welfare regulation and animal rights activism. This article discusses how the political economy of the vivisection industry supports the speciesist business of animal testing by mimicking the language of animal welfare to increasingly obstruct the public’s compassion.
  • Ethical Treatment of Invasive and Native Fauna in Australia: Perspectives through the One Welfare Lens

    Brooke P. A. Kennedy; Nick Boyle; Peter J. S. Fleming; Andrea M. Harvey; Bidda Jones; Daniel Ramp; Roselyn Dixon; Paul D. McGreevy (MDPI AG, 2022-05-01)
    The One Welfare concept is proposed to guide humans in the ethical treatment of non-human animals, each other and the environment. One Welfare was conceptualized for veterinarians but could be a foundational concept through which to promote the ethical treatment of animals that are outside of direct human care and responsibility. However, wild-living animals raise additional ethical conundrums because of their multifarious values and roles, and relationships that humans have with them. At an open facilitated forum, the 2018 Robert Dixon Memorial Animal Welfare Symposium, a panel of five experts from different fields shared their perspectives on “loving and hating animals in the wild” and responded to unscripted questions from the audience. The Symposium’s objectives were to elucidate views on the ethical treatment of the native and invasive animals of Australia and to identify some of the resultant dilemmas facing conservationists, educators, veterinarians and society. Here, we document the presented views and case studies and synthesize common themes in a One Welfare framework. Additionally, we identified points of contention that can guide further discourse. With this guide in place, the identification and discussion of those disparate views was a first step toward practical resolutions on how to manage wild-living Australian fauna ethically. We concluded that there was great utility in the One Welfare approach for any discourse about wild animal welfare. It requires attention to each element of the triple bottom line and ensures that advocacy for one party does not vanquish the voices from other sectors. We argue that, by facilitating a focus on the ecology in the context of wild animal issues, One Welfare is more useful in this context than the veterinary context for which it was originally developed.
  • Dilemmas in the management of liminal rodents— attitudes of Dutch pest controllers

    AISS Sustainable Animal Stewardship; dASS BW-2; AISS LAS/3'R Centre ULS; LS Wijsgerige Ethiek; OFR - Ethics Institute; van Gerwen, Maite A.A.M.; Nieuwland, Joachim; van Lith, Hein A.; Meijboom, Franck L.B. (2020-09-01)
    When non‐human animals are labeled as ‘pests’, their moral status and welfare seem relatively unimportant. In a multi‐stakeholder project, we develop an assessment frame for a more responsible rodent management that includes animal welfare. An online survey among 129 Dutch pest controllers was carried out in order to find out more about pest controllers’ attitudes about animal welfare. Respondents indicate to consider animal welfare in their job. They see differences in the welfare impact of different rodent control methods. A dilemma may occur when methods with a high impact, such as rodenticides, are ofttimes used in practice. Respondents also indicate that in different real‐life scenarios (the hospital kitchen vs. the private backyard), a different weight may be attributed to the importance of animal welfare. Almost half of the respondents encounter difficulties when weighing animals against human interests. The problems are mainly related to clients who are not willing to invest sufficient money in preventive methods, where respondents do believe in. Some differences were found between respondents depending on membership of a professional association for pest controllers. The results of this study are relevant input for focus groups with pest controllers and their clients and for the development of the aforementioned assessment frame.
  • The Washington Blade, August 17, 1984

    Washington Blade, Inc.et al (null, 2016-07)
    An independent newspaper serving the LGBTQIA+ community. This edition features articles on presidential candidate Mondale's gay liaison Sandra Gillis, an appeal from Georgetown University for a religious freedom exemption to DC's Human Rights Law, a difficult GAA-sponsored forum for openly gay Republican city council candidate Bob Roehr, the murder of lesbian Young Dillingers women's leader Yvette Terry in NW, a Gay Alcoholics Anonymous conference in DC, concerns over jury bias after a throat slashing case with a gay victim was downgraded from attempted murder to attempted robbery, a look at DC's gay PETA group, and ads for gay-friendly businesses, events, and groups.

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