COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION BENEFICIARY PARTICIPATION
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AbstractThe Northeast region of Brazil has long
been the single largest pocket of rural poverty in Latin
America. With a combined area of 1.6 million square
kilometers-16 percent of Brazil's total-the Northeast
is home to 45 million people, 28 percent of Brazil's
total population , of whom 5.4 million people live on about
$1 a day and a total of 10.7 million on $1.60 or less per
day. Nearly half of all rural communities are in the
interior, semi-arid zone characterized by poor soil and
severe, frequent drought. The rural poor are small farmers,
tenants, sharecroppers and landless laborers. They face an
uncertain climate and fluctuating markets. Their access to
land is skewed and there is almost no rural financial system
for their needs. They rely on subsistence cropping of basic
foods, smallscale animal husbandry, some cash crops (mainly
cotton and cashew), casual agricultural and non-agricultural
work, pensions, and remittances from family members living
in the cities.
TypePublications & Research
Copyright/LicenseCC BY 3.0 IGO
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Rural Transport : Improving its Contribution to Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan AfricaBanjo, George; Gordon, Henry; Riverson, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-04-15)Poverty reduction is a long-standing development objective of many developing countries and their aid donors, including the World Bank. To achieve this goal, these countries and organizations have sought to improve smallholder agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as part of a broader rural development agenda aimed at providing a minimal basket of goods and services in rural areas to satisfy basic human needs. These goods and services include not only food, health care, and education, but also infrastructure. As a result, rural transport remains a constraint to increasing agricultural productivity, achieving rural growth, and thus alleviating rural poverty. The first major finding of the review of rural transport theory and practice is that many of the approaches needed to improve the impact of rural transport interventions on poverty reduction are known, particularly from the work of the Rural Travel and Transport Program (RTTP) of Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP). Unfortunately, many of the recommended approaches remain untested within Sub-Saharan Africa beyond the pilot scale, notwithstanding their influence on rural transport policy and project design in other operational regions of the Bank. For SSA, these are missed opportunities. Even where SSA countries have applied these approaches, institutional and financial sustainability and scaling up local successes remain significant challenges for both their agriculture and transport sectors. The second key finding is that rural households are rarely the point of focus in the design of rural transport interventions in SSA, even though a methodology to allow this focus has been developed and successfully tested in several pilot projects since the 1980s, the result is that the transport needs of rural households continue to be analyzed and understood by means of an indirect assessment of those needs, which means that most projects have a less than desirable impact on improving the rural access and mobility situation of such households.
The Poverty Focus of Country ProgramsIndependent Evaluation Group (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-07)The World Bank Group in 2013 made the elimination of extreme poverty by 2030 a central institutional focus and purpose. This evaluation examines how, and how well, the Bank Group has focused its support on poverty reduction over the past decade, and what lessons to draw from this moving forward. The lessons aim to strengthen the Bank’s country diagnostics, improve the design of country strategies, and build greater learning opportunities from program experience. Using country case studies, surveys, focus group meetings, systematic reviews of Bank products, and other instruments, the evaluation examines the consistency of poverty focus in each of four links in a causal chain: data, diagnostics, strategy formulation, and strategy implementation through lending and nonlending instruments. It reviews the adequacy of the information base and usefulness of the analytical underpinnings that support country strategy formulation and implementation. It also evaluates the consistency of the poverty focus throughout the evaluation chain and the strength and weakness of feedback loops.
The Rural Investment Climate : Analysis and FindingsWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-03-11)Interest in investment climates has emerged relatively recently. In the 1960s and 1970s, governments in many countries believed they should play a direct role in rural credit, input supply, production, trade, transport, distribution, and even marketing. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, government-dominated systems fell into disgrace because of poor performance. For the rural sector, the primary focus had traditionally been on agriculture, particularly commercial agriculture and agribusiness, which were perceived to be the main drivers of rural growth. This study's essential findings and policy implications are organized into the following six chapters. Annexes provide supporting material. Chapter two presents an overview of related work and of the literature; it also describes the subsequent chapters' methodological framework, including new ways of addressing questions of endogeneity in these kinds of surveys while seeking to isolate cause and effect. Chapter three, by applying econometric analysis, measurably extends the examination of enterprise performance and investment climate constraints initiated in RIC1 (first rural investment climate). A rigorous examination of enterprise dynamics and entrepreneurial choice is developed in chapter four. Aiming to highlight the differing effects on Rural Nonfarm Enterprises (RNFEs), chapter five draws together the main implications RIC2 findings on the rural investment climate in the three country pilots. Community-level influences also matter, and chapter six examines how the local IC and other community characteristics shape the environment for economic activity. Conclusions and recommendations appear in chapter seven, including suggestions for using RIC results for policy reform and for targeting the rural public expenditures needed to foster improvements in the rural investment climate. The annexes describe the databases employed and the methodologies used in the study, as well providing detailed regression results.