中國鄉鎮領導選舉制度變革：發展、模式與影響;The Reform Change on the Electoral System of Township Leaderships in China: Development, Models and Its Impacts
Keywords鄉鎮領導;直選;公推公選;公推直選;鄉鎮長直選;Township Leaderships; Direct Elections; Public Nomination and Direct Election; Public Nomination and Direct Election; Direct Election of Township Leadership
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Abstract[[abstract]]本文探討重點與目的，主要是分析中國鄉鎮領導選舉制度改革現狀、選舉類型創新與所造成衝擊影響。鄉鎮領導選舉制度之變革被認為有助於強化權力合法性基礎、減少貪腐行為及消除壓力型體制。相較於傳統鄉鎮領導選舉模式，中國分別在四川、山西、深圳特區、河南、江蘇、湖北、雲南等地進行鄉鎮領導選舉改革的制度探索，包括七種模式類型：代表直接提名制、公推公選制、公推直選制、兩票選任制、三輪兩票制、兩推一選制及直選制，其中鄉鎮長直選改革被視為利於擴大基層民主範圍最具創新意義。鄉鎮領導選舉特色為許多選舉試點在地域上迅速擴張，改革重點由鄉鎮長選舉轉為鄉鎮黨委選舉，間接選舉逐漸轉為直接選舉，大多引入競爭機制等等。本文所探討鄉鎮領導選舉模式仍存在普遍侷限性：包括選舉改革係由地方黨國體系所組織，其控制力仍強；選舉的競選性程度不足，並非真正意義的競選；改革動力主要源自政府主導而非來自民意，主要是為權威合法性來源尋找新的基礎；選舉程序設計存在缺陷；選民參與程度不足； 地方黨扮演運動員兼裁判雙重角色。 This paper explores the election reforms in Chinese township leaderships, election innovation and its impact. The reform on township leadership election is considered an endorsement to strengthen legitimacy, reduce corruption, and eliminate public pressure. Chinese government launches trial elections in township of the following provincial areas, Sichuan, Shangxi, Shengzhen special economic zone, Henan, Jiangxu, Hubai, Yunnan. There are seven types of elections, including direct monination by representatives, public nomination and public election, public nomination and direct election, two tickets delegation, three round two tickets, two nomination and one election, and direct election. Off all trial elections, the reform on direct election of township leadership is considered the most innovative reform which advancing the democracy at grassroot level. This election is significant because of the quick expansion in area, adding local party leadership election into existing village head election, turning indirect election into direct one, and widely introducing competition mechanism. This paper finds some weaknesses of reforms. For example, the reform is initiated by local party and administration, therefore the political control is strong as usual. Secondly, the real competitiveness is inefficient without genuine competition. Thirdly, local governments still dominate the reform dynamics for the sake of legitimizing its authority of ruling. Also there are deficiencies on electoral process, inefficient voters’ participation and controversial dual roles played by local party.