non-formal learning;informal learning;adult education;adult education policy
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Abstract[[abstract]]摘要 本研究以美國、瑞典、歐盟、韓國等推展非正規學習具績效國家的文獻或文件為參考，探討我國成人非正規學習的相關政策、成效及需求。以次級資料分析方法，轉化「2008年臺閩地區成人教育調查報告」所得調查資料，以瞭解成人非正規學習的參與現況、參與成效與未來需求。主要分析資料為「2008年臺閩地區成人教育調查報告」的個人層面資料，有效樣本為10,000位臺閩地區25縣市16歲以上成人。該資料經加權轉換後，進行描述統計、差異性考驗、交互影響考驗、關聯考驗等分析。研究主要發現如下： 一、台灣成人非正規學習參與現況： (一)女性、25~54歲、大專以上學歷、服務業、專業人員等成年人有明顯較高比率參與學習活動。 (二)成人非正規學習參與動機情形整體以職業進展動機的比率最高。 (三)成人非正規學習參與屬性以為專業工作發展的比率最高。 (四)成人非正規學習參與活動類別商業管理類和健康休閒類最多。 (五)女性、25~54歲、大專以上學歷、工業與服務業、技術員及助理專業人員與民代、主管及經理人員等成年人有明顯較高比率參與民間組織辦理的非正規學習活動。 (六)女性、16~24歲、國小以下學歷、服務業與服務工作及售貨人員等成年人明顯較多活動經費是自己或家人提供，女性、逾65歲、國小以下學歷、農林漁牧業工作人員以免費比率明顯較高。 二、台灣成人非正規學習參與成效： (一)成人非正規學習參與滿意度高，滿意與非常滿意比率達8成。 (二)女性、16~24歲和65歲以上、農林漁牧工作人員的成年人明顯較高比率認為有參與效益。 (三)女性、65歲以上、國中以下、生產、機械操作及體力工等成年人有充實層面參與效益者比率明顯較高。 三、台灣成人非正規學習未來參與需求： (一)成人非正規學習未來參與有意願者佔七成以上。 (二)成人非正規學習的滿意程度較高，也會相對感受到有參與效益。 (三)對成人非正規學習的滿意程度較高，其未來有意願參與相對也較高。 (四)未來參與需求活動以健康休閒類、語言系列類、資訊科技類等類別需求最多。 (五)參與現況活動與未來活動需求有關，人員對辦理環境生態活動以外活動的再次參與意願相對很高。 (六)語言系列與藝術文學類的成人非正規學習參與效益、參與層面效益和未來活動需求相關最高。 本研究提出一些建議如下： 一、改善台灣成人非正規學習現況之建議 (一)鼓勵男性、低學歷、年長且勞動力者多參與成人非正規學習活動。 (二)鼓勵高學歷者多參與社會服務，激發其成人非正規學習參與動機。 (三)證照課程應列為成人非正規學習參與重點學習項目。 (四)加強推廣資訊科技類成人非正規學習活動。 (五)政府公部門訓練單位多辦理成人非正規學習活動。 (六)政府多編列經費補助成人非正規學習活動。 二、促進成人未來參與非正規學習之建議 (一)鼓勵低學歷、年長者與農林漁牧工作人員參與非正規學習活動。 (二)加強健康休閒、語言系列與資訊科技類等學習活動的質與量，因應未來需求。
[[abstract]]Abstract This study reviewed the developed experiences of United States, Sweden, the European Union, South Korea through their documents to address adult non-formal learning of relevant policies. The research data were collected from the &quot;2008 Taiwan Area Adult Education Survey Report” to understand the adults non-formal learning in the current situation,their effectiveness,and their future needs.The valided sample of 10,000 Taiwan Area adults over 25 counties and cities. The data were weighted conversion, for descriptive statistics, differences test, their interaction, and relevance analysis. The major findings are as fellows： First, the status of adult participate in non-formal learning in Taiwan: (a) Of the women, 25 to 54 years old, college education, services, professionals, significantly higher proportion of adults participate in learning activities. (b) Of the adult non-formal learning in motivation, the overall motivation for the highest percentage of career progression. (c) Adult non-formal learning in the development of property that the highest proportion of professional work. (d) Non-formal adult learning classes in business management types of activities and healthy lifestyle the most. (e) Female, 25 to 54 years old, college education, industry and services, technicians and associate professionals and elected representatives, executives and managers and other adults involved in a significantly higher proportion of non-governmental organizations for non-formal learning activities. (f) Female, 16 to 24 years old, elementary school education, services and service workers and sales personnel, activities of adults were significantly more likely to provide funding for their own or their family members, women, more than 65 years, elementary school education, agriculture, forestry And fishery workers was significantly higher for free education. Second, Taiwan, the effectiveness of adult non-formal learning in: (a) Of the adult non-formal learning in higher satisfaction, satisfied and very satisfied with the ratio of 8 percent. (b) Female, 16 to 24 years and 65 years, forestry, fishery, animal husbandry staff, significantly higher proportion of adults that have participated in benefits. (c) Female, 65 years, in the following countries, production, machine operators and laborers and other benefits for adults who participate in enrichment level was significantly high. Third, The needs of adults future participation in non-formal learning: (a) Of the future participation of adult non-formal learning are accounted willing. (b) Of the adult non-formal learning higher level of satisfaction, the relative experience will take part in efficiency. (c) Of the adult non-formal learning higher level of satisfaction, willingness to participate in its future is also relatively high. (d) Demand for future participation in healthy leisure activities, language, family type, category and other categories of information technology needs of most. (e) Participation in activities of the current situation and future needs of activities related to environmental and ecological activities of personnel for activities other than relatively high willingness to participate again. (f) Language Arts Literature Series and adult non-formal learning in efficiency, effectiveness and participation levels of demand for future activities related to the highest. The study also put forward some suggestions as follows: First, to improve Taiwan's current status of adult non-formal learning of the proposed (a) To encourage men, less educated, older workers and those who participate more in adult non-formal learning activities. (b) To encourage high levels of education more participate in social services, to stimulate the motivation of adult to engage non-formal learning. (c) To certification programs should be classified as adult non-formal learning in key learning projects. (d) To strengthen the promotion of IT in adult non-formal learning activities. (e) To enhance the public training units to provide more ectivities for adult non-formal learning. (f) To provide government subsides to adult non-formal learning activities. Second, the suggestions to promote adults participation in non-formal learning as fellows: (a) To encourage less educated, older people and staff involved in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries to participate in non-formal learning activities. (b) To strengthen health and recreation, language and information technology classes and other family learning activities, the quality and quantity, in response to their future needs.