A coleção de vidros antigos, islâmicos e europeus no Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia da USP - Ancient, Islamic and European Glass in the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia – Universidade de São Paulo (MAE / USP)
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AbstractThis is the catalog of the hitherto unpublished glass collection housed in the Archaeological and Ethnographic Museum of the University of São Paulo (USP). This collection is made up of 171 different glass vessels and objects coming from different geographical areas and belonging to different historical periods and cultures. The aims of the catalog are three: 1) to recover the shapes, chronology and provenance of each piece; 2) to reconstruct the history of the collection, by gathering and studying archival sources about when and how each piece reached São Paulo in Brazil; 3) to provide the reader with basic guidelines for approaching ancient glass industries, through a synthesis of the development of the Hellenistic and Roman production techniques.
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Nihilism Through the Looking Glass: Nietzsche, Rosenzweig, and Scholem on the Condition of Modern Disenchantment [Niilismo Through the Looking Glass: Nietzsche, Rosenzweig, e Scholem sobre a Condição da Moderna desencanto]Bielik-Robson, Agata (Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciência e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, 2007)"O presente artigo aborda a questão do niilismo sob a ótica de Nietzsche, Rosenzweig e Scholem, procurando estabelecer a maneira como cada um se posiciona frente à condição do desencantamento moderno. A análise parte de uma comparação entre o diagnóstico nietzscheano de um mundo sem Deus, e sua posterior apreensão por Rosenzweig, que dará novo encaminhamento à questão. O tema do niilismo é examinado em suas diversas facetas e inter-relações e, culmina, com a análise feita por Gershom Scholem, acerca da conexão entre niilismo e messianismo". ["The following article analyses Nietzsche, Rosenzweig and Scholem’s view of the nihilism by attempting to establish each one’s opinion on the modern disenchantment condition. The analysis begins on the comparison between Nietzsche’s “Godless World” and its new approach done by Rosenzweig. The nihilism is examined based on its plural aspects and inter-relations and on the analysis made by Gershom Scholem concerning the connection between nihilism and messianism".]
Late Byzantine Mineral Soda High Alumina Glasses from Asia Minor: A New Primary Glass Production GroupSchibille, Nadine (Public Library of Science, 2011-04-19)The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey) that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.
Glass import and production in Hispania during the early medieval period: The glass from Ciudad de Vascos (Toledo)de Juan Ares, Jorge; Schibille, Nadine (Public Library of Science, 2017-07-26)One hundred and forty-one glass fragments from medieval Ciudad de Vascos (Toledo, Spain) were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The glasses fall into three types according to the fluxing agents used: mineral natron, soda-rich plant ash, and a combination of soda ash and lead. The natron glasses can be assigned to various established primary production groups of eastern Mediterranean provenance. Different types of plant ash glasses indicate differences in the silica source as well as the plant ash component, reflecting changing supply mechanisms. While the earlier plant ash groups can be related to Islamic glasses from the Near East, both in terms of typology and composition, the chemical signature of the later samples appear to be specific to glass from the Iberian Peninsula. This has important implications for our understanding of the emerging glass industry in Spain and the distribution patterns of glass groups and raw materials. The plant ash that was used for the Vascos glasses is rich in soda with low levels of potash, similar to ash produced in the eastern Mediterranean. It could therefore be possible that Levantine plant ash was imported and used in Islamic period glass workshops in Spain. Unlike central and northern Europe where an independent glass industry based on potassium-rich wood ash developed during the Carolingian period, the prevalence of soda ash and soda ash lead glass on the Iberian Peninsula indicates its commercial and technological interconnection with the Islamic east. Our study thus traces several stages leading to the development of a specifically Spanish primary glassmaking industry.